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From the Earliest Period to the Present Time, Divided into General, 

Special, Township and Borough Histories, with a 

Biographical Department 




Entered aecordinc to Act ol Congress in the year 1886, by 

F, A. Eattky and F. W. Teeple, 

In the oflBce of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C. 





The Early Settlers i; 

Settlements, First 1^ 

Settlement of Newberry and Ad- 
joining Townships li 

The Aborigines 2C 

Conestogoe Indians 26 

Indian Title 33 

( ompletion of Title Si 

Maryland Intrusions 3c 

European Title 41 

Border Troubles 47 

Arrest of Cressap 66 

Chester County Plot, The 64 

Invasion of the Three Hundred 59 

Mission of Messrs. Hamilton and 

Georges 54 

Mission of Messrs. Jennings and 

Dulaney 67 

Mission of Messrs Preston and Kin- 

sey 72 

Revolt of the Germans 58 

The Boundary Line 73 

Digges' Choice 78 

Final Agreement of 1760 82 

Mason & Dixon's Line 83 

Nicholas Perie, The case of. 82 

Royal Order, The 73 

Temporary Line, The 75 

Springetsbury Manor 8S 

Blunstone's Licenses 93 

Jlanorof M a°^» go 

French and Indian War 99 

Billeling of Soldiers 106 

Conestogoe Massacre Ill 

Indian Abductions 109 

Pontiac's War Ill 

Return of Officers 1758 108 

The Revolution 112 

Aid to Baltimore from York 128 

Articles of Association 126 

Associations for Defense 123-132 

Associators of Pennsylvania, Ad- 
dress to the 121 

Committees of Correspondence....ll5-127 
Constitution of Pennsylvania, First 121 

Council of Safety 123 

Independent Government, Proceed- 

ingsto form an...: 120 

Inhabitants of York County to 
Committee of Salety, 1776, Let- 
ter of. 107 

Organization of the Militia of the 

County 124 

Resolutions of Committee of York 

County, 1776 ]97 

York County Militia 128 

Y'ork County Militia Battalions 132 

York County Militia Companies 130 

Continental Congress 135 

Baron Steuben 140 

British Account of Hancock's Speech 137 
Correspondence of John Adams 

from York 136 

Gen. Gates and the Cabal 137 

Monument to Philip Livingston 142 

Occurrences and Proceedings at 

„ .York 135, 142 

Resigniition of President Hancock... 137 

Resolutions of Congress, 1777-78 142 

Session at Y'ork 135 

Town Major 144 

Wilkinson's Memoirs, Geo 139 

Continental Troops 144 

Additional Regiment 152 

Armand's Legion 153 

Artillery 153 

British Prisoners 166 

Continental Line Pennsylvania 

Regiments 147, 151 

David Grier's (Capt.) Company 150 

Hartley, Col 151-1.52 

Moses McCIean's (Capt.) Company... 160 

New Eleventh 153 

Orders of Gen. St. Clair 155 

Pensioners, Revolutionary 159 

Pulaski's Legion 153 

Pennsylvania Battalion 149 

Pennsylvania Rifle Regiment, The... 147 
Revolt of the Pennsylvania Line.... 154 

Riflemen 144 

Subsequent Military History, 

The ]62 

Frontier Defense 162 

Mexican War 166 

Volunteers at Baltimore 164 

War of 1812-14 163 

Whisky Insurrection 162 

War for the Union 166 

Emergency Troop of 1863 202 

Independent Battery 203 

Independent Companies 200 

Other Officers from York County.... 202 

Regiment, Second 167, 179 

Regiment, Sixteenth 168, 179 

Regiment, Thirtieth 168, 181 

Regiment, Forty-First 181 

Regiment, Forty-Third 168, 181 

Regiment, .Seventy-sixth 169, 183 

Regiment, Eighlj-Seventh 169, 184 

Regiment, Ninety-Second (See Ad- 
denda) 189 

Regiment, One Hundred and Third 

178, 189 

Regiment, One Hundred and 

Seventh 170, 190 

Regiment, One Hundred and 

Eighth 176, 190 

Regiment, One Hundred and Thir- 
tieth 171, 191 

Regiment, Une Hundred and Sixty- 

■«<-*>• .172, 193 

.176, 196 

Regiment, One Hundred 


Regiment, One Hundred 

Eighty-Seventh 176, 197 

Regiment, Two Hundredth 177, 197 

Regiment, Two Hundred and 

Seventh 177, 199 

Regiment, Two Hundred and Ninth 

177, 199 

Volunteers from York County 179 

HilSliHAL-WORK.....^., 203 

GenTstwSt'sD^oue Through 

York County 212 

Arrival of the Sixth Corps 215 

Battle of Gettysburg 217 

C'areer and Fate of some of the 

Officers 215 

Engagement at Hanover 212 

Hanover Hospital and its Incidents, 

Incident of the Invasion at Jefferson 21 7 
Incidents of Stuart's Raid at Dover.. 218 

List of Killed 215 

List of Wounded 215 

The Pennsylvania Germans 219 

Assemblvmen 241 

Berks County 

Borough Officers . 
City of Reading.. 

Clerks of Courts 


County Commissioners 

County Officers 

County Treasurers 

Dauphin County 

Dialect, The 

Dialogue in The I'ul.iiu 

Drovers and Mechanics National 

Bank of York 2.59 

Farmers', National Bank of York 258 

First National Bank of York 258 

Franklin County 254 

Futirmari s Lied, Dm 238 

Harbaugh, Leonard 230 

Herbach,Yost 228 

Judges and Associate Judges 242 

Justices of the Peaop 243 

Kreuzkrik WcBlliun S'/^m ,,.■/„, ;.■,;.,, 
imalte Weiwtr-,^iu,: n' , ,:,u 

" Lancaster County .:'^l 

Lawyers -i'i 

Lebanon County J.".4 

Lehigh Countv 254 

Lenhart, William 231 

Medical Doctors 245 

Militia 248 

Miller, Lewis 203 

Nachtfof Chrischdaag, Die 264 

National Legislators 240 

Newspaper Extracts 277 

Overseers of the Poor 242 

■Percentage of Population 2.39 

Postmasters 240 

Prothonotaries 242 

Registers of Wills 242 

State Legislators 241 

State Officers 241 

State Senators '241 

Teachers 247 

United Slates Senators 240 

War for the Union 249 

Western National Bank of Y'ork 258 

Y'ork County National Bank 257 

Friends or Quakers 278 

Emigration to America 278 

Emigration to York County 279 

Fawn Meeting 286 

First Monthly Meeting in York 

County 279 

Marriages .• 285,286 

Plans of Organiz 
Warrington Meeting... 

Y'ork Meeting 

The Scotch-Irish 


Preliminary History 

Appearance of the County 

Chief Ranger 

Clerks to the Cou nty Comn 

Clerks of Orphans' Courts, and 

Court of Quarter Sessions 304 

Commissioners 307 

Coroners 312 

Court House, First 303 

Court House, Present 303 





County Almshouse 


Clover Seed 


Teachers' Journal, The 

.... 381 

County Auditors 

Distilling as an Industry among 

True Democrat, The 

.... 380 

County Jail, First 


^ Farmers 


Unions Freund, Der 

.... 379 

County Jail, Present 

Domestic -inimals 


Village Museum, The 

.... 379 

County Limits 


Farming, Early Modes of 


Volks Verichter, Der 

.... 378 

County Offices 



Wahre Republicaner, Der 

.... 378 

County Surveyors 

Forests, The 


Weekly Dispatch, The 

York Advocate, The 

.... 381 

Erection of County 

Fruit Trees, Cultivation of 


.... 380 

First Chapter of Chronicles 


Grasses, Introduction of. 

Y'oik County Farmer, The 

.... 380 

Great Election Contest 



York Daily, The 

Jury Commissioners 

Hanover Agricultural Society 

History of Agriculture in York 


York Gazette, The 

.... .379 

Limits Contracted 


York Gazette, Die 

.... 378 

Maintenance of the Poor 



York Pennsylvania, The 

Y'ork Recorder, The 

Mercantile Appraisers _ 




.'.'.'.'. 378 

People, The 


How our Ancestors Came and Wha 

York Republican, The 

.... 378 



They Brought With Them 


York Weekly, The 

.... 381 



Incidents of Pioneer Life 


Hanover Journalism 

.... .382 



Indian Farming 


Citizen, The 

Biotat Election of 1750 


Marshes .^ 


Citizen and Democrat, The 

'.'.'.'. 383 



Old Time Harvests 


Democrat, The 

.... 383 



Pleasure Carriages 


English Citizen, The 

.... 383 



Price of Lands and Laying out of 

Guardian, The 

.... 382 

Towns and Townships 




Hanoverikn, The 

.... 382 

Civil List 


Second House, The 


Hanover Gazette 

.... 382 

Gubernatorial Elections 


Selections of Lands by First Settlers 347 

Herald, The 

Justices of the Peace under Consti 



Intelligeneblatt, The 

Monthly Friend, The 

'.'.'.'. 383 

tution of 1790 


Thrashing Machines, Reapers, etc. 


.... 383 

List during the Revolution 


Tobacco Culture 


Pennsylvanische Wochinsehrift, 

List of Later Date 


■ A New Era : 



.... 382 

Members of the Assembly 




Planet and Weekly News, The 

Members of the State Senate 


Cutting the Crop 


Regulator, The 

National Representatives 


Does it Impoverish the Soil ? 


Spectator. The 

'.'.'.'.' 3-3 

Public Intkenal Improvements... 


New Tobacco, The 

Religious Denominations 

.... 384 

Bachman Valley Railroad 




Baptists, The 


Baltimore & Hanover Railroad 




Church of God, The 

Berlin Branch Railroad 


Preparation of Ground for 


Evangelical Association York County, 

Berlin & Hanover Turnpike Co... 


Product, The 

Origin of 

German Baptists 

Methodism, Introduction of. 



Topping and Suckering 

Varletils Cultivated in York 


Codorus Navigation 


Conewago Canal, The 



United Brethren inChrist 

'.'.'.'. 386, 

Early River Navigation 



Y'ork County Agricultural Society.. 


Historical Biographies 

.... 391 

Gov. Mitflin Present at the Open 

Bacon, Rev. Samuel 

.... 408 


Educational..... :... 


Barnitz, Hon. Charles A 

.... 415 

Interesting Events at the Opening 332 

Act of 1834 


Barnitz, En,5ign Jacob 

.... 401 

Navigation to Columbia, and Tide 

Books Used and Modes of Teaching 


Barton, Rev. Thomas 

.... 405 

Water Opened 

Plans to Extend Navigation anc 


Borough Institute f. 


Brackenridge, Hon. HughH 


Borough Superintendency 


Butlers, The Revolutionary 


Remove Obstacles 


Children's Home, The 


Campbell, Capt. Thomas 


State Aid Received and Canal 

Convention of 1834 


Cathcart, Rev. Robert 

.... 411 



Convention of 1835 

Crawford, Hon. William 


Conveyance of Mails and Passengers 326 

Cottage Hill Seminarv 

Deininger, Rev. Constantine J.. 
Dill, Matthew 


Davis, Phineas 


County Superinten,!.,.: , 


Elgar, John 

County Teachers' \\,>'.. 

Dritt, Capt. Jacob 


Ferries, Early 


Denominational Scli.. i 

Edgar, James 


Hanover Branch Railroad Company 340 


Ettinger, Rev. Adam 


Hanover & Littlestown Railroad... 


High School, The 

Franklin, Gen. William B 


Hanover 4 Marvland Line Turnpike 

Lancastrian School 


Franklin, Rear Admiral 


Road : 


Length of School Term 


Gibson, Commander William.... 


Hanover & York Railroad 

. 339 

Other Schools in the County 

. 375 

Gibson, Gen. Horatio Gates 


History of Railroads 

Progress of the First Efforts 

. 375 

Glasgow, Hon. Hugh 


Invention of Locomotives 


School Buildings 

Glossbrenner, Hon, Adam J 


Invention of Railroads 

Semi-centennial, The 

. 376 

Goering, Rev. Jacob 

Haller, Col. Granville. 

National Transit Lines 

. 344 

Some Early Schools and Teachers. 

".'.'.'.'. 418 

Northern Central Railway 

State Laws 

. 362 

Hamilton, Hance 


Oil Pipe Line 

Postal Telegraph Company 

Stewartstown English and CLissical 

Hartley, Hon. Thomas 





Hostetter. Hon. Jacob 


Railroads in the United States 

. 336 

Sundav.-^e U 

Jameson, David 


Railroads in Pennsylvania, First... 

. 337 


Jameson, Horatio Gates 



Theologic%.l - iiM- 


.Jordan, Archibald Steele 


OSoads, Early.V 

. 321 

Y'ork Borou-l. -,i,...,;- 

Kelley, Hon. James 



. 343 

York Collegiate lu^liuite 

King, Hon. Adam 

Kurtz, Hon. William H 


Susquehanna & York Borough Turn 

York County Academy 

. 3GS 


pike Company 

. 327 

Young Ladies' Seminary 

Lewis, Judge Ellis 

... . 404 

Telegraph, The 

Journalism in York County 


Lischv, Rev. Jacob 


Telegraph at Hanover 


Age, The 

Mavef, Rev. Lewis 

McClean, Archibald 


Telegraph, Other Lines of. 


American Eagle, The 



Telephone, The 


Children's Guide, The 


McLaughlin, Capt. William H... 

.... 425 


Commercial Monthly, The 


McPherson, Col. Robert 




Delta Herald, The 


McPherson, William 

^ide-V5rate?ana Susquehanna Canal 333 

Delta Times, The 


Miller. Gen. Henrv 

'.'.'.'.'. 396 

Causes which led to its Origin.... 


Democratic Press, The 

Mitchell, Hon. JaiuesS 

.. .. 415 

Cost of Construction and Repairs 


Evangelical Zeitung, Die 

Evening Dispatch, The 

Nes, Hoi. Henrv 


Description of Canal 



Prowell, Maj. Joseph 


Its Benefits to York County 


Evening Telegram, The 


Raus, Rev. Lucas 



Expositor, The 


Reed, Gen. William 

.... 401 

Opening of the Canal 

Plans for, and Construction of..... 


Fountain, The 

German Reformed Ma-;i. in. . 1 l„. 

Ross, Hon. James 



Schriver, Gen. Edmund 

.... 416 

York AChanceford Turnpike 

York & Cumberland Railroad 


Hanover Gazette, Tli.; 

Scott, Patrick 

Harbinger, The 

Small Gen M P 

..... 424 

York & Gettysburg Turnpike 

York & Maryland line Railroad.... 


Lesson Quarterly 

Pennsylvania Chronicle uud loik 


Spangler, Gen. Jacob 

.... 404 

Y'ork & Maryland Line Turnpike.. 


Weekly Advertiser, The 


.... 403 

York & Peach Bottom Railway 

Pennsylvania Herald and Y'ork 

Stevens, Hon. Thaddeus 



General Advertiser, The 


Stewart, Hon. John 

'.'.'.'. 413 



Pennsylvania Gazette, The 


Stouch, Capt. George W. H 

.... 426 

Big Barn, The 


Pennsylvania Republican, The 



.... 401 

Characteristics of the Emigran 

Primary Leaf, The 

.... 426 



Recorder (Dailyl, The 


Worley, Francis 

.... 399 

Cigar Industry 


Republieanische Herald, Per 


Ziegler, Rev. Daniel 

.... 409 


The Bench and The Bae ■ 

Associate Judges ' 

Atlee, Hon. William Augustus ■ 

Barber, William, Esq • 

Barnitz, Hon. George ' 

Black, Hon. Jeremiah S ' 

Bonham, Hon. Samuel Cose ' 

Campbell, Esq., John Gardner ■ 

Cnssat, Esq., David ' 

Ohapin, Esq., Edward ■ 

Clark, Gen. John ■ 

Cochran, Hon. Thomas E ■ 

Dare, Hon. George ■ 

District Attorneys ' 

Durkee. Hon. Daniel ■ 

Evans, Esq., John ' 

Fisher, Hon. Robert J ■ 

Franklin, Hon. Walter ■ 

Grier, Col. David ■ 

Hambly, Esq., Thomas C ' 

Hays, Hon. Mills .■ ■ 

Henrv, Hon. John Joseph ' 

Hinkie, Hon. John L ' 

Johnson, Esq., Samuel ' 

Justices of the Peace ■ 

Kirk, Hon. Jacob ■ 

KoUer, Hon. Isaac... ' 

List of Attorneys 435-- 

Mclntyre, Hon. Peter ' 

Mayer, Esq. John L ' 

Members of the Bar ' 

Moore, Hon. John ' 

Newcomer, Hon. David ^ 

President Judges ■ 

Eieman, Hon. John ■ 

Eudisill, Hon. Jacob • 

Schlegel, Col. Henry ■ 

Smith, Hon. James • 

Medical Histoey ' 

Geology ■ 

Analyses of Ores, Rocks, Minerals, 

Belt of Upper Eozoic ■ 

Caiuozoic and Recent • 

Eozoic Rocks.. ' 

Hellam Quartzite ' 

Hydro-Mica Schists ■ 

Iron Ores ' 

Mesozoic Rocks ' 

Palreozoic Rocks ' 

Peach Bottom Slates < 

Pottsdam Sandstone ' 

Trap '. 

York Limestone ' 

York Limestone with Argillites - 

Meteorological ' 

Destruction in the County ' 

Drought of 1822 ' 

Flood of York . 

Flood of 1817 ' 

Flood of 1822 - 

Flood of 1884 ' 

Hail Storm in 1797 - 

Hail Storm of 1821 - 

Heroic Deeds and Narrow Escapes... ' 

Meteoric Shower of 1833 • 

Miraculous Flood of Beaver Creek... . 

Rainfall Table - 

Ruin and Desolation . 

Snow Storm of 1772 - 

Wind Storm of 183U '. 

Topography ■ 

Elevations above Sea Level ■ 

Table of Elevations - 

Early Iron Industries. < 

Cannon Balls for the Revolutionary 

First Iron Works in Pennsylv 
Hellam Iron Works.. 

Manor Furnace 

Margaretta Furnace.. 
Mary Ann Furnace. .. 

, 484 

and Forge., ^si. 

i^oodstock Forge. 
[York Foundry Fi 

(York Fiirnafp .^^ ^.,-i_^^^.. 

Census Reports and Postoffices,. 4S9 

Government Census Reports 490 

Money Order Offices 491 

Postal Routes 490 

Postoffices and Postmasters in 1832.. 491 

Postoffices in 1885 491 

Postoffices in York County 490 

NoTr.s From Early Court Records, 

1749 TO 1770 491 

Constables Appointed at First Court 492 

Servants amdRedemptioners £ 

Secret Societies i: 

Free and Accepted Masons c 

Improved Order of Red Men c 

Knights of Pythias 6 

Odd Fellows 6 

Other Secret Orders 5 

FiKE Insurance Companies £ 

Codorus and Manheim Mutual 5 

Dover, Conewago, Newberry, East 

and West Manchester Mutual... £ 
Farmers Insurance Company of 

York 5 

Farmers Mutual of Paradise 5 

Southern Mutual o 

Spring Garden Mutual 5 

York County Mutual 6 

Miscellaneous Matters £ 

Continental Money 5 

Millerites, The £ 

Present Judges of York County... 5 

Gibson, Hon. John £ 

Latimer.Hon. James W 5 

Wickes, Hon. Pere L £ 

30R0UGH OF YOEIC. 513 

Annexations^.r.'. 520 

Anti-Jacobinism 557 

Baer's Bank (Jacob H.) 559 

Banks and Banking 557 

Banking House ot Weiser, Son & 

Carl 559 

Benevolent, Association 572 

Bethlehem Church of the Evangel- 
ical Association 545 

Bottstown 520 

Bottstown in 1783 521 

Calvary Presbyterian Church 536 

Church History 523 

City Market 522 

Conspiracy in 1803 548 

Drovers and Mechanics National 

Bank 559 

Duke St.Methodist Episcopal Church 542 

Farmers Market 521 

Farmers National Bank 559 

Fire Department, The 560 

First Baptist Church 545 

First Church of the United Brethren 

in Christ 544 

First Evangelical Lutheran Church 523 
First Methodist Episcopal Church... 541 

First National Bank ?. 558 

First Presbyterian Church 535 

First Reformed Church 530 

Founding of York 514 

Fourth of July, 1788 552 

Fourth of July, 1819 563 

Franklin Institute 

Franklin Lyceum 

Gas Co 

Hand in Hand Fire Company.. 

Heidelberg Reformed Church.. 

Inhabitants in 1783 

Laurel Fire Company 

Manufacturing Interests 

BUlmyer & Small Co 

.... 571 
.... 568 
.... 560 

, 564 


Variety Iron Works, E. G. Smyser 565 

Frey,Motter & Co 566 

A. B. Farquhar 566 

P. A. &S. Small 566-568 

Markets 521 

Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.... 546 

Military 554 

Military of Y'ork and Civic Celebra- 
tions 651 

Moravian Church 536 

Municipal History 519 

Old Time Fairs 523 

Old Time Inns and Taverns and 

Later Day Hotels 549 

Opera House 571 

Postoffice, The 559 

Prospect Hill Cemetery 569 

Rescue Fire Company 563 

St. Luke's I 
St. Mary's i 
St. Patrick's 
St. Paul's 

! United Breth- 

ren in Christ.... 

Sun Fire Company • 

Trinity Church of 111.. I • ,, . i;, ,i 


Union Evangelical i. Ml i. I ! I i, i ' 

Union Fire Company 

United Library AssocKiiioii 

"Vigilant Fire Company I 

Visit of President Washington and 

other Distinguished Men ' 

Visit of Lafayette ;; 

Water Company 

Western National l!:i!ii 

Y'ork Club 

York County Nation,. 1 1 i,: 

York National Bank 

Young Men's Christian Associauon : 
Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church., i 

Zion Reformed Church ; 

Borough of Hanover I 

Baltimore Defenders ; 


Col. Richard McAIli-t- 

Gen. Jacob Eyster 


Emanuel's Reformed Church.. 


Fire Department 

First National Bank 

Gas Company 


Growth of this Town 

Hanover Saving Fund Society.. 





Mennonite Church 

Methodist Episcopal Church.... 

Military and Musical 

Mount Olivet Cemetery 

Noted Improvements 

St. Matthew's Lutheran Church.. 


Taxable Inhabitants in 1783 

Town of Hanover 

Trinity Reformed Church 

United Brethren in Christ 

Visit of Gen. Washington 

Water Company 

Borough of Wrightsville 

African Methodist Church 

Business Interests 


Evangelical Lutheran Church 


Methodist Church 


Presbyterian Church 



Town Laid Out 

Township of Hellam , 

Anderson's Ferry 

Border Troubles 

Churches of Hellam 

Cresap, Col. Thomas 

Druck Valley U. B. Church 

Historical Notes 

Historic Old House 

Iron Ore Interests 

Lutheran and Reformed Church. 

Public Schools 

Taxables in 1783 

Village of Hella 

Township of Spring Garden. 

Church of the Evangelical A 


Glades, The 

Mount Zion Church 



Stony Brook ' 

Village of Freystown 

Township of Manchester 

Adoption of the Common School 


Borough of Manchester 

Business Places 


Church of the United Brethren 


Conlederate Invasion 

Eib's Landing 

Emig's Grove Camp MeetingGrounds 620 

Founding of Manchester , 

Manchester Lutheran Church 

Mennonite Meeting-House 

Mount Wolf Village 


New Holland Village 

Old School House, An 

Paper City, A 



Reformed and Lutheran Churc 



Shad Fisheries 

Taxables of 1783 

The Gut 

Union Church of Manchester 

United Brethren Church 

Township op West Manchester. . 

,... 61- 


Assessment of 1884 622 

Formation of Township 621 

Historic Mill Site 623 

St. Paul's Lutheran and Reformed 

Church 622 

Shiloh Church 623 

Topography 621 

Township of Newberry 623 

Ball Hills 637 

Bethel Church 627-629 

Borough of Lewisberry 632 

Business Industry of York Haven 

and other Facts 638 

Cigar Industry 626 

Goldsboro 627 

Goldsboro Sandstone Quarry 629 

Hay Run 6S0 

Indian Relics 634 

Justices of the Peace 635 

Large Mill Burned 639 

Last Indian, The 630 

Lutheran and Reformed Church 636 

Manufactures of Lewisberry 632 

Methodist Church 629-635 

Middletown Ferry 630 

Military Organization 634 

Newberry in 1783 624 

Newberrvtown 625 

Patriotic" Dead 631 

Phvsicians 635 

Plainfleld Bethel 630 

Postofflce 626-634 

Pottery, A 626 

Prize Fight. A Notorious 629 

PuhlicWell 626 

Quaker Schoolhouse 637 

River Meeting-House 629 

St. Paul's Church 627 

Schools of Goldsboro 629 

Schools of Lewisberrv 636 

Society of Social Friends 637 

Stores of Lewisberry 632 

Stores of Newberrytown 626 

Sunday-schools 636 

Terrible Tragedy 639 

Township Formed 624 

Union Meeting-House 626 

Visit of Lorenzo Dow 636 

Yocumtown 631 

York County Rangers 626 

York Haven 637 

York Haven Laid Out 638 

York Haven Paper Mills 639 

York Haven Quarries 640 

Township of Faieview 640 

Boundary Difficulties 641 

Churches 642 

Emanuel's Church of the'Evangel- 
ical ■—-•— — 

Fairview Mutual Insurance C 


Friends' Meeting-House 

Historical Facts and Incidents.. 
Indians, The 

Mount Olivet Church 

Mount Zion Lutheran Church... 

New Market Village 

Pause, A 


Public Schools 

Salem Church 

Simpson, Gen. Michael 


Township . 



Church of God 

Fruit Culture 

Landis Ore Bank 

Lutheran and Reformed Church 

Manufacturers i 

Mount Pleasant Bethel i 

Public Schools 



Township OF Carroll ' 

Beavertown < 

Business Interests of Dillsburg i 

Churches i 

Church of the United Brethren in 

Christ I 

Confederate Invasion i 

Dills, The 

Dillsburg Borough ( 

Dillsburg Bulletin i 

Dillsburg Presbyterian Church i 

Incorporation of Dillsburg I 

Iron Ore Mines i 

Methodist Episcopal Church i 

Military ( 

Physicians ( 

I'ostofflce at Dillsburg I 

Quay, Col. Matthew Stanley I 

St. Paul's Lutheran Church i 

Schools 658, I 

Taxable Inhabitants I 

TOWN.SHIP OF Franklin i 

Borough Schools I 

Business Industry ( 

Churches ( 

Evangelical Lutheran Church ) 

Franklintown ( 

Harmony Bethel f 

Incorporation ( 

Military ( 

St. John's Reformed and Lutheran 

Church ( 

South Mountain Union Church i 

Topography ( 

Township Schools ( 

United Brethren Church I 

Township of Warrington ( 

Alpine I 

Blue Ridge Bethel I 

Boundary Line i 

Churches, Rossville i 

Church of God I 

Historical Facts and Incidents ( 

Houses of Worship ( 

Lutheran Church I 

Maytown I 

Methodist Episcopal Church I 

Mount Airy Church I 

Mount Top ( 

Mount Top Horse Company ( 

Mount Zion Church ( 

Quaker Meeting House ( 

Reformed Church ( 

Rossville ( 

Round Top ( 

Salem Church of the Evangelical 

Association ( 

Topography ( 

Union Church ( 

Visit of Lorenzo Dow ( 

Warrington in 1783 ( 

Wellsville ( 

Township of Washington ( 

Bermudian Meeting House ( 

Emanuel's Church of the Evangeli- 
cal Association f 

Hall Postoffice ( 

Houses of Worship i 

Mulberry Postoffice f 


Salem Lutheran and Refd Church.. 674 

St. Paul's Lutheran and Reformed 
Church 673 


Township of Dover 

Borough of Dover 


Dover Church, The 

Dover in 1783 

Emig's Mills 

Incorporation of Dover 

Indian Relics 

Lutheran Church 

Mennonite Meeting House 

Public Schools, Introduction of... 

Religious Societies 

Rohler's Union Church 

Small Fruits 

United Brethren Church 


Township of Conewago 

Church History 

Green Spring Church 

Historical Notes 

Indian Relics 

Mount Pleasant Chapel 


Quickel's Church 


Zion Lutheran and Refoi-mi 


Township of Paradise 

Altland's Meeting House 


Bigmount Village , 


Confederate Invasion, The 

Holz-Schwamm Church 


Paradise Brickyard 

Paradise Catholic Church 


Taxables of 1783 

Township of Jackson., 


Churches of Spring Grove 

Mt. Zion's Reformed Church 

Reformed Lutheran Church 


St. Paul's Lutheran Church 

Spring Grove Borough 

Spring Grove Paper Mills , 

Township of Manheim 

Lutheran and Reformed Church... 

Public Schools 

Taxables in 1783 

Township of Heidelberg 

Historical Spot, An .' 

Iron Ore Interests 

Mennonite Meeting House 


Township of Penn 

Evangelical Church 

Public Schools 

Township of West Manheim 

Churches , 

Lutheran and Reformed Church.. 

Mount Zion United Brethren Churc 

Public Schools 

St. Bartholomew's Church , 

Townships of Codorus and North 

Borough Schools..' 

Christ's Reformed Church 


Churches of Jefferson 

Church of the United Brethren i 


Hanover Junction 

Historical Notes 

Incorporation of Jefferson 

Iron Ore Interests 

Jefferson Borough 

Jefferson Station 

New Salem 

New Salem Church 

Old Roads 

Old-time Fairs 

Public Schools 

St. Jacob's Church 

St. Peter's Church 

Steltzes' Church 


Stoverstown Church 

Taxables in 1783 

Union Church 


Ziegler's Church 




_ Church 700 

towNSHip OF Shrewsbury 704 

Assessment Roll of 1783 704 

Church History 709 

Disasters 709 

Eminent Citizens 708 

Erection of Shrewsbury 707 

Evangelical Association 706 

First National Bank of Glen Eock... 713 

Fissel's Church 712 

German Reformed Church 706 

Gerry, M. D., Hon. James 708 

Glen Rock Borough 711 

Incorporation of Glen Rock 712 

Industries 707 

Industries of Glen Hock 711 

Journalism 708 

Journalism of Glen Hock 712 

Lutheran Churches 706, 710, 713 

Methodist Episcopal Churches...707, 

709, 713 

Military •. 708, 713 

New Freedom 714 

Public School System- 
Railroad Borough 


R'eformed Church 710, 713 

St. John's Catholic Church 714 

Schools of Glen Rock 712 

Secret Societies 710, 713 

Shrewsbury Borough 707 

Shrewsbury Savings Institution 710 

Soldiers of Shrewsbury 707 

owHSHip OF Springfield 715 

Churches 717 

Friedensaals Kirche 717 

German Baptist Meeting-house 718 

Loganville 715 

Loganville Church 718 

Mining Interest 719 

Mount Zion's Church 718 

New Paradise 716 

Paradise Church 718 

Public Schools 719 

Salem Lutheran and Refd Church.. 718 

Seven Yalley 716 

St. Peter's Reformed Church 717 

Topography 715 

CowNSHip of York 719 

Beth»ny Church 722 

Business Places in Dallastown 721 

Churches 721 

Church of the United Brethren in 

Christ 721 

Cornet Band 722 

Dallastown 7'20 

Foundation of Dallastown 720 

Incorporation of Dallastown 721 

Incorporation of Red Lion 722 

Industries of Red Lion 722 

Innersville Chapel 723 

Longstown 723 

Manufacturers 723 

Mount Onion Chapel 723 

Origin of Name of Dallastown 721 

Originof Name of Red Lion... 722 

Pine Grove Church 72.3 

Public Schools 724 

Red Lion Borough 722 

Red Lion School Building 723 

Residents in 1783 719 

Schools 722 

St. John's Lutheran and Reformed 

Church 720 

St. John's Reformed Church 722 

St. Joseph's Catholic Church 721 

St. Paul's Lutheran and Reformed 

Church 721 

rowNSHip OF Windsor 724 

Bethlehem Church 726 

Churches 726 

Emanuel's Lutheran and Reformed 

Church 726 

Frysville 726 

Historical and Industrial Notes 728 

Iron Ore Interests 727 

Locust Grove Church 727 

Prison for British and Hessian 

Soldiers 728 

Public Schools 727 

Taxables for 1783 724 

Union Church 727 

Windsorville 725 

Windsor Bethel 727 

Zion United Brethren Church 726 

Township of Lower Windsor 729 

Beard's Tannery 731 

Cemetery 732 

Churches 732 

East Prospect Borough 731 



Ebenezer Church 732 

Evangelical Church 731 

Fire Insurance Company 732 

Historical Notes 733 

Iron Ore Interests 733 

Lutheran and Reformed Church 730 

Margaretta Church 732 

New Salem Church 732 

North Trinity Church 732 

Schools 733 

Yorkana 731 

Zion's Church of the Evangelical 

Association 732 

Township of Chahceford 734 

Agriculture v 735 

Bethel Methodist Episcopal Church. 737 

Boundaries 734 

Churches 736 

First Buildings 734 

Guinston United Presbyterian 

Church 736 

Industries 735 

Lockport 736 

Lutheran and Reformed Church 737 

Mount Pleasant Church 737 

New Bridgeville 736 

New Harmony Presbyterian Church 737 

Public Schools V33 

Settlement 734 

St. James Church 737 

Successful Men 735 

The Chapel 737 

Topography 734 

Trinity Church of the Evangelical 

Association 737 

Trout, Hon. Valentine 738 

Township of Lower Chanceford.. 738 

Airville 745 

Airville Circuit of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church 743 

Anecdotes of Rev. Cuthbertson 742 

Centreville 745 

Historical Personages 747 

•- -^all's Ferry 744 

Cendree Methodist Episcopal 

Church 744 

Military 746 

Muddy Creek Forks Postoffice 746 

Organization 739 

Origin of Name 738 

Pine Grove Presbyterian Church 743 

Pleasant Hill Church 744 

Presbyterian Church 741 

Public Schools 747 

Religious History 741 

Remarkable Missionary 742 

Salem Methodist Episcopal Church.. 744 

Taxable List of 1783 739 

Things of the Past. 

Union Chapel 

United Presbytei ' 

Ljork Furnace Brid 

To^ nami ' ut IIUi ' ET i 
Church of the United Brethr 

Christ, Winterstown 

Cross Roads Postofflce 

Historical Notes and Incidents.. 

Hopewell Centre 

Hopewell i ' — 

Lebanon Lutheran and Reformed 

Church ■: 

Methodist Episcopal Church, Stew- 
Mount Olivet Church, Winterstown 1 
Presbyterian Church, Stewartstown 5 

Sadler's Church ; 

Stewartstown Borough ' 

The "King of the Barrens" ' 

United Presbyterian Church \ 

Winterstown Borough ' 

Zion Methodist Episcopal Church, 

Stewartstown ' 

Township of Fawn ' 

Centre Presbyterian Church ; 

Fawn Grove Academy ' 

Fawn Grove Borough ; 

Fawn Township in 1783 ■; 

Friends' Meeting-house ; 

Gatchellville ': 

New Parke ■; 

Prospect Methodist Episcopal 

Church ■ 

Public Schools ' 

Whiteside Chapel : 

Township oV Peach Bottom.... 


Oalvinistic Methodist Church.. 


Cold Cabins 


Historical Notes 769 

Kersev, Jesse 770 

Peach Bottom Baptist Church 766 

Peach Bottom Village and Ferry. ... 764 

Public Schools 767 

Slate Ridge Presbyterian Church.... 762 

Slateville Postofflce 770 

Slatevlile Presbyterian Church 764 

Slate Quarries 767 

Temporary Line 767 

Welsh, The 768 

Welsh Congregationalist Church 768 

West Bangor 768 

conclusio.s- 771 

Addenda 772 


Bailey, W.D 654 

Beidler, Baltzer 602 

Black, Jere S 452 

Campbell, John G 451 

Cathcart, Robert 411 

Cocklin, Jacob 646 

Crider, David W 544 

Deininger, C. J 410 

Detwiler, D. W 732 

Durkee, Daniel 439 

Ebaugh, Adam 748 

Ebert, Geo D 595 

Ebert, Ellas 610 

Eichelberger, A. W 339 

Fisher, R. J : 441 

Frazer, Isaac 628 

Gable, L C 459 

Gibson, John (Frontispiece) 

Hays, M. M 626 

Klugh, John 662 

Lanius W. H 520 

Lederman, Conrad 238 

Lochman, A. H 529 

Logan, Henry 650 

Loucks, Z. K 557 

McConkey, James 761 

Mayer, John L 450 

Miller, Lew 


. M. 

Porter, B. F., M. D 

Ramsay, Wm. F 

Sherwood, Geo. E 

Small, Philip A 

Small, Samuel 

Smyser, E. G 

Spangler, E. W 

Stuck, Oliver 

Weiser, Chas 

Wiest, John, M. D 

Young, Hiram 

Frey, Enos 


Children's Home, York 

Cones toga Team 

Court House, etc 

Exterior of an Old-time Church 

Historic Old House 

Interior of an Old-time Church 

Market House, etc 

Market Scene 

Masonic Hall, York Borough 

Old Court House, etc 

Old Friends' Meeting House near Lew- 


Spring Grove Paper Mills 

To Church on Horseback 

Warrington Meeting House 

York Collegiate Institute 

York County Academy 

Geological Map 

Springetsbury Manor 

Temporary Boundary Line... 
Township Map 



Carroll Township 83 

Chanceford Township 89 

Codorus Township 93 

Conewago Township 94 

Dover Township 95 

Fairvicw Township 96 

Fawn Township 100 

Franklin Township 104 

Hanover Borough 59 

Heidelberg Township 108 

Hellam Township 73 

Hopewell Township Ill 

Jackson Township 117 

Lower Chanceford Township 121 

Lower Windsor Township 127 


Manchester Township 131 

Monaghan Township 146 

Newberrv Township 150 

North Codorus 159 

Paradise Township 160 

Peach Bottom Township 161 

Penn Township 59 

'Shrewshurv Township 169 

Springfield Township 185 

Spring Garden Township 1S7 

Warrington Township 194 

Washington Township 197 

West Manchester Township 199 

West Manheinj Township 200 

Windsor Township 201 

Wrightsville Borough 73 

York Borough 3 

York Township 203 


Eittenger, John W 

Black, Chauncey F 

Bollinger, O. J 

Boyd, Stephen G i 

Hammond, Hervey 1.". 

Hammond, W. S 15 

Heffener, H. W ■> 

Kinard, J. W 12 

Kocher, S. R 7 

Lewis, C. E 3 

Myers, E. B II 

Noss, Herman ;i 

Scott. F. T 4 

Seacrist, H j 

Seitz, N. Z IS 

Spangler, Hamilton 4 

Williams, D.G 5 


Springetsbury Manor, page 88, for line 35, and 
also European Title, page 43, for lines 7 and 8, 
second column, read "The father of Springet Penn 
was not the eldest son of the founder. His eldest 
son was Springet, who died unmarried. His second 
son, William, was the father of Springet, after 
whom the manor was named, and he was the 
youngest child of the founder by his first wife." — 
F. D. Stone, librarian. Historical Society of Penn- 

On page 78, first column, line 24, read "1874," 
instead of "1774." The survey by Thomas G. 
Cross, Esq., was made for contestants of^land within 
fifteen years past. 

Springetsbury Manor, page 93, read "Blunstone's 
Licenses" instead "Blumstone's Licenses." 

On page 106, line 20, first column read "dictator." 

On page 113, second column, line 33, for "say- 
ing," read "saving." 

The Revolution, page 117, second column, first 
line, read "at the Court House, York." 

The Revolution, page 120, first line, second 
column, after the word "colonies" read "And 
whereas it appears absolutely irreconcilable to rea- 
son and good conscience for the people of these 
colonies, now," etc. 

On page 138: "Aid to Baltimore;" on line 21 
read "Harford County" instead of "Harvard 

On page 128, the note citing "Purviance's Nar- 
rative" should be placed at the foot of the second . 
column after the letters which are taken from that 

On page 147, second column, line 15, read "First, 
Second and Third Pennsylvania Regiments." 

On page 147, second column, line 47, strike out 
thelelter "d" in Capt. McClellan's name; also strike 
out lines 49 and 50, they' refer to company of Capt. 
Joseph McClellan. 

On page 153, line 36, second column, read "York 
County" mstead of "Yale County." 

On page 155, "Major Denny's Journal," line 41, 
read "it was designed with that view." 

On page 156, in line 45, strike out the word "of " 
and read "convention prisoners," 

In "Pennsylvania (3ermans," on page 331, sec- 
ond column, next to last line, read "its" for "is." 

Page 334, first column, sixth line, read "Katzen- 
ellenbogen" for "Katzenellenbegen." 

Page 338, second column, eighth line, read 
"above" for "below." 

Page 240, second column, seventh line from 
bottom, read "Farmers'" for "farmers." 

Page 345, second column, read "R. F." for "B." 
F. Strayer. 

Page 356, first column, read "Schindel" for 

Page 367, second column, sixth line from bottom, 
read "assertions" for "aspirations." 

Page 273, second column, lines 36 and 37 from 
top, read "as" for "an" and "in" for "is." 

On page 377 the last word in line 38 should be 

On page 383 the word "topography" occurs in- 
stead of "typography," in thirteenth line from top, 
first column. 

In "Biographies— Bench and Bar," page 448, add 
"Thomas C. Hambly died on Saturday, September 
5, 1885." 

On page 468, in foot note, read "Docteur ea-Sci- 
ences," instead of " Docieures-Sciencea." 

On page 465, first line of second paragraph, read 
"Quaternary," instead of "Quatenary." 

On page 467, eighth and ninth lines, from top, 
first column, read "they are frequently in close 
proximity to," instead of "they are very generally 
in close proximity with." 

On page 467, thirty-fourth line from top, first 
column, read "abound on the slope" instead of 
"abounds," etc. 

On page 469, first and second lines of last para- 
graph, first column, read "We are forced to look to 
other counties," instead of "AVe are forced to look 
to other parts of the county." 

On page 471, second column, first and second 
lines, under head of "The Mesozoic Rocks," etc., 
read "None of the numerous measures of Mesozoic 
age." instead of "None of the numerous members 
of Mesozoic rocks." 

In the foot note read "I have shown that, calcu- 
lating by the ordinary method the beds exposed in 
I Prof. li. D. Rogers' Yarleyville section, * "- * 
1 their thickness would appear to be 51,500 feet," etc. 
! On page 473, thirteenth line from top, second 
I column, read "may have been suggested," instead 
I of "seems to have been suggested," etc. On same 
j page, read "Detweiler," instead of "Detwieler." 
! The foot note, second column, should be on page 474. 





BY j-OHiisr GiBSOisr. 





TilT.^ - - - -T'-np ETC., ETC. 

THERE is no portion of the ;. i..;;...-. 
United States in which there is centered 
more of historic interest than that occupied by 
the county of York in the State of Pennsylva- 
nia. The town of York, in the words of LaFay- 
ette, was "the seat of the American Union 
in our most gloomy times." In its cemeter- 
ies lie buried the remains of two of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
But not only during, but before and after, 
that great event, the American Revolution, 
the incidents of our history are full of in- 
terest. The county was organized 136 years 
ago. Its earliest settlements were made 
some twenty years before. Throughout the 
whole period of time since then its progress 
has been steady and its development com- 
mensurate with the growth of the American 
nation. It is the purpose of this history to 
trace that progress and to study that devel- 
opment. As a portion of the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania, York County is largely 
identified with its early settlement and its 
social and political progress. 

Many of our citizens have had interest 
enough in the subject to search out for them- 
selves from available sources, such as the 
Colonial Records and Pennsylvania Archives, 
and the collections of the Historical Society, 
the matters that pertain to our early history. 
The historians of Lancaster County have 
furnished some material, inasmuch as the 
original settlement of our territory was made 
while it was a part of that county. Such are 

the «oiks of I. Daniel Rupp and Rev. D. 
Humbert — the former of whom also published 
a history of York County in connection with 
that of Lancaster. A complete history, how- 
ever, to its time, was written by Adam J. 
Glossbrenner, who was assisted in the com- 
pilation of the work by W. C. Carter, fifty 
years since — a work well known to the citi- 
zens of the borough of York, but copies of 
which are now scarce. The great amount 
of information contained in it, the accuracy 
of its details of facts, and the pleasing style 
of its composition, as well as the curious na- 
ture of its contents, have made it a noted 
literary production, and it is now, as the 
Italians say, rococo in its character. The 
editor of this book takes pleasure in saying 
that that history has been to a large extent 
embodied in this work, with its proper credit. 
This it well deserved. Wherever available 
the words of that history have been used, in- 
stead of taking the carefully compiled infor- 
mation therein afforded and molding it 
into other language. Every subsequent at- 
tempt to portray the early history of this 
county has been indebted largely to that book. 
Rupp's History and Day's Annals give it 
credit for material. The work, therefore, 
ought to be perpetuated for the benefit of our 
people. A history of the county was writ- 
ten, some years since, by M. O. Smith, editor 
of the Hanover Herald, and published by 
him in his newspaper by weekly installments. 
That history faithfully collates facts from all 


sources, and evidences a very patient investi- 
gation of the original records and ancient 
documents, while the simple style of the 
narrative makes the work attractive. The 
editor is indebted to that work foT'many 
points and data. He also takes occasion to 
say that he has embodied in this history, 
wherever available, his own historical sketch 
of the county, delivered on the 4th of 
July, 1876, and which was published at the 
time by O. Stuck & Son. 
— ^The first chapter of the present work shows 
what people came here to settle and under 
what auspices, and the form and character 
of government to which they were accus- 
tomed when the responsibilities of self- 
government fell upon them as upon the rest 
of the people of America. The dealings with 
the Indians are of interest to us as the de- 
scendants of those who purchased from them, 
or contended with them, for the possession of 
this domain. That remarkable race of men, 
their manners, their nature, their religion 
and polity, have so impressed the minds of 
our people, that societies for the perpetuation 
of their rites and ceremonies, accompanied 
with moral teachings derived from their 
customs, are prevalent in the land, somewhat 
after the order of speculative Masonry. They 
are indeed a part of our history. 

As hunters and traders in skins, they are 
more particularly associated with the terri- 
tory of York County. 

The great contest between the Penns and 
Lord Baltimore involved intricate questions, 
which diplomacy on a larger scale has hardly 
ever grappled with. It was a controversy 
which concerned our people almost exclu- 
sively, many of whose titles to their lands de- 
pended upon its determination, and the bor- 
der troubles arising from which were un- 
paralleled in history anywhere. It was a 
coarse age, that of the period of the settle- 
ment of this county — it was so in England 
and on the continent of Europe, as contem- 
porary history shows, and roughness of man- 
ners and disregard of the claims of others 
are not worse in their details here than in 
older countries. \ The efforts to establish a 
boundary line between the provinces of Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland, and to fix the status 
of the settlements on this side of the Susque- 
hanna River, the peculiar jurisdiction arising 
from the royal attempt to quiet the disturb- 
ances by the running of the temporary line 
with its salvos to the respective proprietors, 
created curious complications. This is the 
only locality to which at the time of its impe- 
tration the royal order of 1738 was applicable. 
It concerned our people alone of the inhabit- 

ants of Pennsylvania, and the establishment 
of the final boundary line by the agreement 
of the proprietaries alone determined who 
were to be Pennsylvanians and who were to 
be Marylanders. This was the celebrated 
Mason and Dixon's line, famous once as the 
line of sectional division of North and South. 
But for us it constitutes the entire southern 
boundary of the county, and fixed the domi- 
cile of those persons who lived upon the 

The manor of Springetsbury, which com- 
prises within its limits the city of York, in- 
volved in its surveys and settlement many 
interesting questions of title, passed upon by 
the highest tribunals of Pennsylvania and of 
the United States. The origin of this manor 
and its bounds was at one time a matter of 
great importance, for after the Eevolution, 
the right to the lands was contested by the 
Commonwealth itself. / 

The part taken by our people in the great 
wars of the nation was common to the people 
of the United States, and the narrative shows 
that we were not behind any in devotion to 
our country. The period of the Revolution 
as its events centered around York, is rife 
with incidents of the deepest interest. For 
the greater part of those extracts from con- 
temporary memoirs and chronicles, which so 
enliven the scenes that were enacted here, the 
editor is indebted to Martin S. Eichelberger, 
Esq., of York, who has evinced great zeal in 
the collection and preservation of historical 
incidents and events connected with our local 

j In the war for the maintenance of the 
Union, as in the war of the Revolution, the 
borough and county of York contributed to 

1 all branches of the service their full comple- 
ment, while the events that took place here 
have made it a center of more than ordinary 
historic interest. To this branch of the 
general history, as well as to other portions 
of the same which claimed special notice, 
complementary and entertaining papers have 
been contributed by competent writers — as 
also biographies of those worthies who are 
inseparable from our history. 

The fashion of late has been to compose 

; what are called popular histories, that is, of 
the people, to tell what that once unknown 
factor has done toward the development of 
the national prosperity. This work is in- 
tended to be such, and its entire scope must 
therefore be taken together. The agricult- 
ural, mechanical and mercantile progress of 
our people, and all the pursuits of ordinary 
life, are combined to present a bright page 

I in the general history of the nation. 


rJ^HE English, who came over to this conti- 
rjL nent with William Perm, came from a 
spirit of adventure. Indeed, the conditions or 
concessions as to grants of land in the prov- 
ince were agreed upon between the proprie- 
tary and those who were styled " adventurers 
and purchasers." The immediate followers 
of William Penn came on a mission of good 
will to man, and to found a mighty empire, 
guided by that inner light, which is the 
foundation of all true liberty and govern- 
ment — a government not of forms made for 
the people, but by the people for themselves. 
The language of the jaroprietaries was : ' ' We 
lay a foundation for after ages to understand 
their liberty as Christians and as men, that 
they may not be brought into bondage but by 
their own consent; for we put the power in 
THE PEOPLE."* \ The belief in spiritual guid- 
ance and the religious fervor of the society 
of Friends, made not simply an enthusiast, 
but an apostle, of the great founder of this 
commonwealth. He sought out those who 
were oppressed for conscience' sake. A few 
years before he obtained his charter he had 
visited that portion of the continent of Eu- 
rope which to many of our people is most 
deaT and famous, the Palatinate upon the 
Rhine. He sympathized with the Swiss re- 
formers and others who had taken refuge 
there; and when that fertile country was 
made the scene of devastating wars, when 
their Elector, Frederick V, could not main- 
tain his principality, and the armies of Louis 
XIV, under Marshal Turenne, caused the 
people to experience the worst calamities of 
lire and sword, and were compelled to flee 
frona their homes, they found an asylum by 
his invitation on these shores. A number of 
Mennonites went to England in 1707 and 
made an agreement with William Penn, at 
London, for taking up lands.f Thus com- 
menced that great German emigration that 
made the English fear that their new land 
would be possessed by aliens ; but which 
added to the stability of the province and 
became the means of its agricultural wealth. 
The forests disappeared before that people, 
and, as has been said, like the lichens and 
mosses of nature, they fastened themselves 
to the fertile soil where they were planted, 
and the agricultural regions of this common- 
wealth where they settled are the boast of 
Pennsylvanians. They seem to have paid 
iittl e attention at first to the political features 


t ni Col. Rec. 374. Eupp's Hist. Lane. Co. p. 74. 

I of their new home. They accepted the free- 
dom they enjoyed as a means of exercising 
their industry, and of practicing their thrift. 
They seemed to dwell apart from others, and 
formed, as it were, a separate population, 
and in many portions of the State, to this 
t day, they are distinguishable from their fel- 
I low citizens, maintaining a language pecul- 
iarly their own. For a long time, with 
conversation and books in German, they and 
their children were ignorant of the English 
tongue. They preserved their usages, "'and 
held among themselves the superstitions of 
the peasantry of the land from which they 
came.* The howl of the dog, the hoot of 
the owl, the croak of the raven were to them 
prognostics of evil. They believed in dreams, 
love spells and charms, and in incantations 
for the relief of aches and hemorrhages. 
Sorcery and witchcraft were as much matters 
of reality to them as to the New Euglander. 
The horse- shoe nailed to the door was fatal 
to the witch, and the tail or ear of the black 
cat or young dog would counteract the mach- 
inations of the sorcerer.f Some of these 
superstitions in a modified foriTi linger 
amongst their descendants in these days of 

Yet, with all this, they were firm in their 
religious faith. Their preachers came with 
them, taught in the schools of the Reformers. 
Churches were established at once, and it re- 
quired no laws, like the Blue Laws, to com- 
pel their attendance on the services. They 
were Lutherans and German Reformed, and 
among them were Mennonites and Amish. 
The latter had come over in the first immi- 
gration and remained where they had settled 
in the territory now comprising the counties 
of Berks, Lancaster, and Lebanon. Those 
who subsequently crossed over into what is 
now York County, were generally orthodox 
followers of Luther and Zwingli. The im- 
press of their worship and theology has a per- 
manent hold here that cannot be displaced. 

When licenses to settle opened the rich 
regions of Codorus and Kreutz Creeks to 
them, they at once occupied the choice 
places, extending their settlements toward 
the site of the jjresent borough of Hanover. 
The names of the beautiful cities of Mannheim 
and Heidelberg, capitals of the country from 
which they principally came, are remembered 
in the townships bearing these names. Man- 
heim is one of the original townships of the 
county. The Rhenish Palatinate, and places 
adjacent, have furnished the ancestors of many 
of those citizens of York County who now 


constitute its principal families in wealth 
and culture. If one visits that section of 
Europe, he will find those same idioms of 
speech which are the peculiar features of 
the celebrated Pennsylvania Dutch lan- 
guage, except so far as they may have been 
corrupted by Germanized Anglicisms or 

On the 2d of January, 1738, Gov. Thomas, 
in a message to the General Assembly, 
said: "This province has been for some 
years the asylum of distressed Protestants 
of the Palatinate, and other parts of Ger- 
many, and I believe it may with truth be 
said, that the present flourishing condition 
of it is in a great measure owing to the in- 
dustry of those people; and should any dis- 
couragement divert their coming hither, it 
may well be apprehended that the value of 
your lands will fall, and your advances to 
wealth be much slower, for it is not alto- 
gether the goodness of the soil, but the num- 
ber and industry of the people that make a 
flourishing country." To which the Assembly 
replied: "We are of opinion with the Gov- 
ernor that the flourishing condition of this 
province is in part owing to the importation 
of Germans, and other foreigners; but we beg 
leave to say, that it is chiefly to be ascribed 
to the lenity of our government, and to the 
sobriety and industry of the first settlers of 
this country, and of the other British sub- 
jects inhabiting the same." * 

The jealousy of foreigners expressed by 
the English settlers was soon diverted b}' 
another class of immigrants, whose antagon- 
ism to the views of the Friends was more 
to be apprehended than the aggregation 
of Germans. This was the Scotch-Irish, 
a people of peculiarly marked character. 
They were the descendants of the Scotch 
•and perhaps English, who had been settled 
a century before in the province of Ulster, 
in the north of Ireland. James I had 
parceled out that part of Ireland to Scot- 
tish and English settlers in the early part 
of the seventeenth century, which is known 
in history as the plantation of Ulster. 
And later, after the Restoration, when 
Charles II attempted to introduce Epis- 
copacy into Scotland, many of the Coven- 
anters took refuge in the north of Ireland. 
And still later, when the Union was formed 
between the kingdoms of England and Scot- 
land in 1707, in the reign of Queen Anne, f 
the dissatisfied seeeders took refuge in the 
same country. The province of Ulster be- 
came a flourishing and enlightened part of 

1 the "Green Isle," where the Presbyterians 
obtained control. From thence the more ad- 
venturous sought a more secure asylum here. 
Of the counties of the province of Ulster, 
Monaghan is the only name which is fixed in 
the county of York, being one of the original 
i townships; while in that portion of the 
' county which was afterward made the county 
I of Adams, are the names Menallen, Tyrone 
and Strabane. The Scotch-Irish were a hardy 
and brave race. They are described as hot- 
headed, excitable, invincible in prejudices, 
warmly attached to friends, and bitter antag- 
onists to enemies; the hand opened as impe- 
tuously to the one as it clenched against the 
other. They were Calvinistic in faith, and 
haters of prelacy, as they venerated Calvin 
and Knox. They lost none of these character- 
istics here. They did not respect the Quak- 
ers and they hated the Indians.* 

Their ancestors had experienced persecu- 
I tion on the hills of Scotland, and the world 
: owes much to those barren heights and to the 
sturdy Covenanters who came from them, and 
passed through many trials for freedom and 
the rights of man. This people, in their set- 
tlements, did not locate on the rich limestone 
lands, which it was said were liable to frost 
and heavily wooded, but found their way to 
the barrens and red lands, to which they 
were accustomed, and which their sturdy in- 
1 dustry has made fertile. They have been the 
progenitors of statesmen and of lawyers of 
{ distinction and influence, who have been the 
peers of any in the world, and whose intel- 
lect and energy have molded the free 
institutions of America. Such men as James 
Smith, James Koss, Hugh H. Breckenridge, 
: James Buchanan and Jeremiah S. Black are 
• numbered among them. 

i From these two peoples, the Germans and 
' the Scotch-Irish, are descended the larger 
' portion of the inhabitants of this county. 
At the time of its settlement, the population ' 
of Pennsylvania by immigration, principally 
from Germany and the north of Ireland, was 
increasing at the rate of 5,000 or 6,000 a 
year. That of the Scoth-Irish began about 
1715, and the number annually increased to 
such an extent that the Provincial Secretary, 
in writing to the proprietaries, says : "It 
' looks as if Ireland is to send all her inhabi- 
tants, for last week not less than six ships 
arrived, and every day two or three arrive 
I also. The common fear is that they crowd 
where they are not wanted." So the Scotch- 
Irish possibly thought of the Germans. By 
reason of feuds, in 1749, between the Germans 
and Irish in York County, the proprietaries 

* Introductory Memoir-supra. 


instructed their agents, in order to prevent 
further difficulties and disturbances, not to 
selJ any more lands in York County to the 
Irish, but to hold out strong inducements by 
advantageous overtures to settle in the north, 
in the Kittaning Valley.* 

We must not overlook the fact that the 
peculiar people to vfhom the colonization of 
Pennsylvania is due, had some settlers here. 
The hills of Newberry were found by the 
Friends, who came from Chester and planted 
themselves on that land known as Sir William 
Keith's Tract. There still linger among the 
inhabitants of that section and the surround- 
ing region of country some of their peculiar 
marks. One is that of affirmations in courts 
of justice instead of the oath on the Book. 

These people were peacemakers and were 
opposed to war. Yet their descendants could 
not long maintain their peaceful attitude, for 
that section of country was subject in some 
degree to incursions of the Indian. That 
race, whom the followers of Penn had 
made friendly, appeared in tierce and deadly 
array as the allies of the French, and the 
Friends here upon the border imbibed to 
some extent the martial spirit of their fellow- 
citizens?? /But there will be occasion here- 
after to n&te, in passing, the embarrassments 
of the province on account of the anti -bel- 
ligerent principles of the Friends, as well as 
of large bodies of Germans, whose religious 
faitl^ contained the same doctrines regarding 

~ It seems strange to us, of the present day, 
that the religious peculiarities of the original 
settlers upon the soil of Pennsylvania should 
be so expressly noted. But the history of the 
seventeenth century, in which the colony of 
Pennsylvania was planted, was that of 
struggles for religious freedom. In England, 
dissenters of all kinds had boldly proclaimed 
their opinions and had been subjected to 
punishment for them, and the Covenanters 
of Scotland had been hunted in their recesses 
by the armies of the king. While the greater 
struggles around monarchical thrones were 
can-ied on by Catholic and Protestant, the 
quiet religionists like the Quakers and the 
Anabaptists were securely working their way 
among the peasantry. A sympathetic feeling 
extended itself from land to land, and hence, 
when the colonization of this great common- 
wealth began, immigration was opened to 
those peasants, to a country where they could 
worship God according to the dictates of 
their own consciences, and enabled them to 
become that power in political life known as 
the People. Religious toleration became at 

*Egle's Hist. Penn., Cumb. Co., p. 615. Gordon's Prf. 241-2. 

once in Pennsylvania a fundamental princi- 
ple, and that, rather than political freedom, 
had been the real object of its first settlement. 
The wars that devastated Europe so many 
years had been religious wars. They had 
ceased at the time when this history begins. 
There was the dawn of a new era. The pol- 
itical rights of the individual had begun to 
clamor for recognition. The opening of the 
eighteenth century had already changed the 
aspect of afl'airs. The treaty of Utrecht had 
ended the war of the Spanish succession, 
which placed Philip V on the throne of 
Spain. Louis XIV, the grand moiiarque, 
had calmly passed from earth, and from the 
State of which he had declared himself 
the impersonation. Charles XII of Sweden 
had fallen by the fatal cannon ball in Nor- 
way, soon after, 

" On dread Pultowa's awful day, 
When fortune left the royal Swede." 
Peter the Great had founded his mighty 
empire, and hitherto barbarous Enssia had 
taken its place among the powers of Europe. 
The Scottish and English union had been 
formed, constituting the kingdom of Great 
Britain. The second king of the House of 
Hanover, George II, had ascended the throne. 
There was a period of peace on the continent 
of Europe, and democratic ideas had begun 
their advance — an advance which before the 
close of the century secured the independence 
of the American colonies and plunged a 
great nation on the continent of Europe into 
a state of anarchy — a nation, which, after suc- 
cessive periods of democratic and monarch- 
ical rule, has at length become an established 
republic. Even as a monarchy, France had 
helped our people to republican freedom. 

/The government of Pennsylvania had been 
established on a purely democratic basis. It 
had been instituted by William Penn, with 
the advice of one of the noblest and wisest of 
men, Algernon Sidney. The right of popu- 
lar representation was enjoyed to some extent 
in all the other colonies, but the system of 
Penn was a holy experiment — the experiment 
of a commonwealth in which the whole 
power lay with the people, the trial of a pure 
democracy, to bear witness to the world that 
there is in human nature virtue sufficient for 
self government.* The gi'eat founder had 
died in 1718, some years before the first set- 
tlers crossed the Susquehanna River into 
our territory. They came on this side of 
the river with his principles of government 
tixed for them in theii-- new homes. An 
account of the organization of the govern- 
ment of the province will show how speedily 

*Dixon's Life of Penn. 


the hold of the people on its administration 
was secured. On the 4th of March, 1681, 
Charles II had constituted William Penn 
proprietary of the land in America, which the 
monarch himself named Pennsylvania. In 
1682 Penn visited the country, landing at 
Newcastle on the 27th of October. He called 
an assembly of the freemen, which met at 
Chester on the 4th day of December, and which 
though it continued in session but four days, 
passed Jaws for the government of the prov- 
ince. He then divided the territory into 
three counties, namely, Pliiladelphia, Bucks 
and Chester. Writs were issued for the 
election of members of the Council and 
Assembly provided by the charter — three 
from each county for the Council and nine 
for the Assembly. This Council and Assem- 
bly met for the first time on the 10th of 
March, 1683, and over the Council the pro- 
prietary himself jsresided, giving personal 
assent to its transactions. These represent- 
atives sooQ manifested jealousy of their rights. 
The Frame of Government under the charter 
had provided for a number not exceeding 
seventy-two for the Provincial Council and 
200 for the Assembly. This included the 
three lower counties, as they were called, 
namely, Newcastle, Kent and Sussex, which 
had been annexed as Territories to the Prov- 
ince. It was supposed that the seventy-two 
chosen by the writs issued had the power of 
the whole freemen of the Province and Ter- 
ritories and so were capable of serving as a 
Provincial Council and General Assembly 
and thus hinder the people from the benefit 
of the charter. The Governor answered 
"that they might amend, alter or add for the 
public good, and that he was ready to settle 
such foundations as might be for their hap- 
piness and good of their posterities accord- 
ing to ye powers vested in him."* The 
number was to be increased by the governor, 
council and freemen, in Provincial Coun- 
cil and Assembly met. A new charter of 
privileges was granted by the proprietary in 
1701, which was approved and agreed to by 
the Assembly and Council. This allows four 
members out of each county for the Assem- 
bly. The three lower counties did not accept 
the charter and separated themselves from 
the province, hence the representation was 
increased to eight members from each county. 
The Assembly had by the last charter been 
given the right to sit upon its own adjourn- 
ments, and could not be dissolved during the 
term for which it was elected. It passed 
bills of every character, took upon itself the 
reorganization of the judiciary, refused to 

vote supplies or not, at its pleasure, and 
claimed the right generally to meddle ' with 

the affairs of state, and assuming full leg- 
islative power, the government virtually fell 
under its control.* Settlers in all parts of 
the province were thus, from the start, accus- 
tomed to the right of suffrage, not alone for 
the purpose of representation, for the right 
had also been extended to the choice of sher- 
iff and coroners in each county, at least to 
name the persons from among whom these 
officers should be selected, a century and a 
half in advance of the mother country, which 
has not even yet attained to popular suffrage 
in representation. The great Reform Bill 
did partially relieve the jaeople of Great 
Britain from the oppressions of government, 
but the property qualifications still exist. 
There was no test here for holding office but 
a belief in Christianity. The Friends held, 
the wealth of the province and the control of 
the Assembly. The Episcopalians were the 
next in influence, though not numerous."}" 
In addition to the religious denominations 
of Germans already mentioned, the Moravi- 
ans claimed consideration, and there after- 
ward sprang up the sect of the Dunkers and 
the Menists. 

The very first law passed by the General 
Assembly of the Province was "The Law 
concerning Liberty of Conscience,"" and 
though repealed by the Council, there was a 
similar law passed on the 14th of October, 
1705. So when the first Roman Catholic 
Church was built on Walnut Street, Phila- 
deljjhia, in 1734, and Gov. Gordon objected 
that it was contrary to the laws of England, 
passed in the reign of William III, the 
Council doubted whether the act of 1705, 
passed in the fourth year of Queen Anne, 
was repealed. Besides, it was contended that 
there was warrant for the provincial law in 
the charter of privileges. The church there- 
fore remained.^ " This " says Hildi'eth, 
"was the only Catholic Church allowed in 
any Anglo-American colony prior to the Rev- 
olution." The act of William and Mary 
seems to have been in force in Maryland; 
though by a law of 1704. chapels were al- 
lowed in private houses, or where they were 
under ^a common roof.§ 

[It will thus be seen how religious and 
political freedom had been already established 
in the province, at the time of the commence- 
ment of our history. Before any authorized 
settlements were made on the west side of the 
Susquehanna, the county of Lancaster had 

HiWreth's Historr, U. S. 
III. Col. Eec, pa'ge 563. 
Hist, of Bait. Sharff. 


.befin organized in tbe year 1729. In the 
spring of that same year the first settlements 
were made, under the authority of the 
government, in what is now called York 
County. During the interval of time from 
1729 to its organization in 1749, oar- people 
had their representation in the Assembly as 
citizens of Lancaster County. Among the 
Delegates during that period were John 
Wright and Samuel Blunston, who were 
Quakers, and who are so well known in the 
history of the province and of this county, 
as foremost men in Indian affairs and in re- 
sistance of Maryland encroachments. The 
history of that period of time on our soil is 
of the most intense interest, and forms a 
very considerable part of the trials of the 
early settlers. John Wright and Samuel 
Blunston were in the commission of the 
peace, and were by virtue of their oiSce 
Justices of the Courts of Quarter Sessions. 
In pursuance of an act of Assembly in 1739, 
providing for the division of Lancaster 
County into districts, the first district was 
constituted of Hempfield, Lancaster and 
Hellam Townships.* This last named 
appears to have been the township formed 
in the territory now York County, and was 
the seat of the fiercest border contests. In 
1741 the town of York was laid off on the 
Codorus Creek, within Springetsbury Manor, 
and became a center of renown and enterprise. 
During this same interval of time, namely, 
between the time of the first settlement and 
the county organization, .there were born men 
who were destined to take conspicuous part 
in the affairs of the county and of our coun- 
try's history. James Ewing was born in 
Manor Township, Lancaster County, in 1736. 
Henry Miller was born in Lancaster City in 
1741. Thomas Hartley was born near Reading 
in 1748. John Clark was born iu Lancaster 
in 1751, just two years after the formation 
of the county of York. The names of these 
patriots suggest reflections upon the spirit- 
stii'ring times in which they lived and acted. 
/'"York took a very prominent part in the frans- 
"actions of those day.?, as will be seen here- 
after. The Revolution occurred scarcely 
forty years after the settlement of the county, 
and the eloquence of that period does not 
alone belong to the Roundheads and Cavaliers 
of Massachusetts and Virginia. The Scotch- 
Irish of Pennsylvannia seconded with voice 
and pen the great struggle for freedom, and 
the rolls of honor contain numerously the 
names of their descendants, as also of those 
of Palatine ancestors. 

*Rupp, 274. . .,' . > I. -■,,%!= -^ 


/The following interesting account of the 
earTy settlers is copied from Glossbrenner's 
History of York County, 1834: 
>'' '{Kreidz CreeM-^The first settlements in 
this county were made on Kreutz Creek* and 
in the neighborhood where Hanover now 
stands. Before the erection of the county of 
Lancaster in 1729, a number of persons 
resided on tracts of land lying on the west 
side of the Susquehanna, within the bounds 
of what is now York County. These persons 
remained, however, but a short time on the 
lands they occupied — were not allowed 
to warm ia the nests on which they had 
squatted — and may not be looked upon as 
the progenitors of the present possessors of 
the soil of York County. They were known 
only as '^Maryland intruders?' and were 
removed in the latter end of the year 1728, 
by order of the Deputy-Governor and Coun- 
cil, at the request of the Indians, and in con- 
formity with their existing treaties. 
'*In the spring of 1729 John and James 
Hendricks, under the authority of Govern- 
ment, made the first authorized settlements 
in what is now called York County. They 
occupied the ground from which some fam- 
ilies of squatters had been removed, some- 
where about the bank of Kreutz Creek. They 
were soon followed by other families, who 
settled at a distance of about ten or twelve 
miles west and southwest of them. 

"The earliest settlers were English; these 
were, ho^vever, succeeded by vast numbers of 
German emigrants. It is a remarkable fact, 
that, when the first settlements were made in 
this county, the greater portion of the lands in 
the eastern and southeastern part of it were 
destitute of large timber. In sections where 
now the finest forests of large timber stand, 
miles might then have been traversed without 
the discovery of any vegetable production of 
greater magnitude than scnrboak; and in 
many places even that diminutive representa- 
tive of the mighty monarch of the forest was 
not to be found. This nakedness of the 
country was generally, andwe have no doubt 
correctly, attributed to a citstom which pre- 
vailed among the aboriginal owners of the 
soil, of annually or biennially destroying by 
fire all vegetation in particular sections of 

* Some persons say that the proper name of this creek 
is Kreis' Creek, from "an early settler near its mouth, whose 
name was George Kreis. But others with greater appearance of | 
triitli sav that the common name is the correct one. It is called 
Kreutz Oreek not from a man of the same name, as some assert, 
but on account of the union of two streams, and thereby the 
formation of wliat the Germans call a Kruetz li. e. a cross). In 
the return of a survey made in 1722, it is called the " White Oak 
Branch." It had, however, no certain name until about 
year 1736, when numerous German settlements were made or 



the country for the purpose of increasing the i 
facilities of hunting. 

"Most of the German emigrants settled in 
the neighborhood of Kreutz Creek, while 
the English located themselves in the neigh- 
borhood of the Pigeon Hills. In the whole 
of what was called the 'Kruetz Creek Settle- 
ment,' (if we except Wrightsville) there was 
but one English family, that of William 

"The early inhabitants of the Kreutz Creek 
region were clothed, for some years, alto- 
gether in tow cloth, as wool was an article 
not to be obtained. Their dress was simple, 
consisting of a shirt, trowsers and a frock. 
During the heat of summer, a shirt and 
trowsers of tow formed the only raiment of 
the inhabitants. In the fall the tow frock 
was superadded. "When the cold of winter 
was before the door, and Boreas came rush- 
ing from the north, the dress was adapted to 
the season by increasing the number of frocks, 
so that in the coldest part of the winter some 
of the sturdy settlers were wrapped in four, 
five or even more frocks, which were bound 
closely about their loins, usually with a 
string of the same material as the garments. 

" But man ever progresses, and when sheep 
were introduced, a mixture of tow and wool 
was considered an article of luxury. But 
tow was shortly afterward succeeded by cot- 
ton, and then linsey-woolsey was a piece of 
the wildest extravagance. If these simple, 
plain and honest worthies could look down 
upon their descendants of the present day, 
they would wonder and weep at the change 
of men and things. If a party of them could 
be spectators at a ball of these times in the 
borough of York and see silks and crapes, 
and jewels, and gold, in lieu of tow frocks 
and linsey-woolsey finery, they would 
scarcely recognize their descendants in the 
costly and splendid dresses before them; but 
would, no doubt, be ready to imagine that 
the nobles and princes of the earth were 
assembled at a royal bridal. But these 
honest progenitors of ours have passed away, 
and left many of us, we fear, with nothing 
but the names they bore to mark us their 

"But all of good did not die with them. If 
they would find cause of regret at the depart- 
ure from their simplicity and frugality, they 
would find much to admire in the improved 
aspect of the country, the rapid march of 
improvement in the soil of their adoption. 
Where they left unoccupied land, they would 
find valuable plantations, and thriving vil- 
lages, and temples dedicated to the worship of 
the God of the Christians. Where they left a 

field covered with brushwood, they would find 
a flourishing and populous town. The Codorus, 
whose power was scantily used to propel a 
few inconsiderable mills, they would see with 
its banks lined with large and valuable grist- 
mills, saw-mills and fulling-mills; they would 
find the power of its water used in the man- 
ufacture of paper and wire, and they would 
find immense arks of lumber and coal floating 
on its bosom from the Susquehanna to the 
very doors of the citizens of a town whose 
existence commenced after their departure 
from toil and from the earth. 

" But to return to the situation of these early 
settlers. For some time after these early set- 
tlements were made, there was neither a shoe- 
maker nor a tanner, in any part of what 
is now York County. A supply of shoes for 
family use was annually obtained from Phil • 
adelphia; itinerant cobblers, traveling from 
one farm-hoase to another, earned a liveli- 
hood by mending shoes. These cobblers car- 
ried with them such a quantity of leather as 
they thought would be wanted in the district 
of their temporary visit. The first settled and 
established shoe-maker in the county was 
Samuel Landys, who had his shop somewhere 
on Kreutz Creek. The first, and for a long 
time the only tailor, was Valentine Heyer, 
who made clothes for men and women. The 
first blacksmith was Peter Gardner. The 
first schoolmaster was known by no other 
name than that of ' Der Dicke Sohulmeister.' 
The first dwelling houses of the earliest set- 
tlers were of wood; and for some years no 
other material was used in the construction. 
But about the year 1735 John and Martin 
Shultz each built a stone dwelling house ou 
Kreutz Creek, and in a few years the example 
was numerously followed." Glossbrenner's 
History gives us the further information of 
the time it was written, in regard to the early 

" Settlements of 'The Barrens.'— For sev- 
eral years after the settlements were made in 
the neighborhood of Pigeon Hills, and on 
Kreutz Creek, the inhabitants of those regions 
were the only whites in the county. But 
about the years 1734, 1735, 1736, a number of 
families from Ireland and Scotland settled 
in the southeastern part of the county, in 
what is now known as the ' York Bai-rens. ' 
These families consisted principally of the 
better order of peasantry — were a sober, 
industrious, moral, and intelligent people — 
and were for the most part rigid Presby- 
terians. Their manner partook of that sim- 
plicity, kindness and hospitality which is so 
characteristic of the class to which they 
belonged in their native countries. 



"The descendants of these people still retain 
the lands which their respectable progenitors 
chose upon their arrival in York County. 
And we are happy to add, that the present 
inhabitants of the inappropriately named 
'Barrens' inherited, with the lands of their 
forefathers, the sobriety, industry, intelligence, 
morality and hospitable kindness of their 

" The townships comprised in the ' Barrens ' 
are Chanceford, Fawn, Peach Bottom, Hope- ; 
well, and part of Windsor, and from the ] 
improvements which have of late years been I 
made in the agriculture of these townships, 
the soil is beginning to present an appear- | 
ance which is entirely at variance with the 
idea a stranger would be induced to form of 
a section of country bearing the unpromising j 
name of ' Barrens. ' 

" Before the commencement of the improve- I 
ments in farming recently introduced, the ' 
mode of tilling which generally prevailed 
was ruinous. Having abundance of wood- 
land, the practice was to clear a field every 
season. Wheat was uniformly the first crop, 
of which the yield was from eighteen to 
twenty bushels per acre. The second crop was 
rye, then corn, then oats. After going through 
this course, it was left for a year or two, and 
then the course began again; this was contin- 
ued until the soil would produce nothing. But 
most of the farmers have, as we have said, 
much ameliorated the condition of their lands, 
by the adoption of a better system of culture. 

" Having introduced the first settlers of the 
'Barrens,' we shall defer further remark 
upon this section of country, while we return 
to ' olden time,' and look after the early set- 
tlers of other parts of the county. We have 
now settled the eastern, southeastern and 
southwestern parts of the county, and leave 
the settlers 'hard at it,' while we take a 
view of the north and northwest. 


"About the same time that the 'Barrens' 
were settled by Irish and Scottish emigrants, 
Newberry Township and the circumjacent 
region was settled by a number of families 
from Chester County, who, under the auspi- 
cious influence of that spirit of peace and 
amity which had been spread abroad by the 
wise and excellent proprietary of Pennsylva- 
nia, sate themselves down here and there in 
a few rudely constructed cabins, surrounded 
on all sides by the still more rude wigwams 
of their aboriginal neighbors. Thomas Hall, 
John McFesson, Joseph Bennet, John Ran- 
kin and Ellis Lewis were the first persons to 

visit this section of the county; and having 
selected the valley in which the borough of 
Lewisberry is situated, they gave it the name 
of the 'Red Lands,' from the color of the 
soil, and 'red rock,' on which it is based. 
By this name it was principally known to 
them and their eastern friends for many 
years. It was by a descendant of Ellis Lewis 
that Lewisberry was laid out — and it is from 
Joseph Bennet that the main stream which 
winds its devious way through the valley 
derives its name of ' Bennet's Run.' 

"An anecdote is related of Bennet, Ran- 
kin and Lewis, connected with their first visit 
to the 'Red Lands.' Having arrived at the 
eastern bank of the Susquehanna River, and 
there being no other kind of craft than 
canoes to cross in, they fastened two together 
and. placing their horses with their hinder 
feet in one and their fore feet in the other, 
thus paddled to the shore, at the imminent 
peril of their lives. 

"This section of the country, naturally 
productive, had suffered a material deterio- 
ration of quality, and was indeed almost 
' worn out ' by a hard system of tillage, when 
the introduction of clover and plaster, in the 
year 1800, established a new era in the hus- 
bandry of the neighborhood, and gradually 
produced a considerable amelioration of the 
soil. At present the spirit of ' liming ' is 
gaining ground rapidly in Newberry and the 
adjoining townships, and promises very fairly 
to effect a material increase of productive- 
ness. There is also a great change of sys- 
tem in the husbandry of this section which 
is doing much for the land. Formerly the 
farmer depended mainly upon keeping a 
large stock, and enriching his land by the 
manure which he would be thus enabled to 
make, at the expense of all the hay and grass 
on the farm. At present he keeps a compar- 
atively small stock, except where there are 
extensive meadows, and depends more upon 
plowing down a clover lay and liming. It 
is to be remarked also that this quantity of 
manure is not lessened by this curtailment of 
the stock of his farm ; but with care may in 
fact thus be increased, and his land greatly 
benefited. For instead of putting all his 
hay and straw into them, he turns some 
under with the plow, leaves some to shade 
the ground, and saves a goodly portion to 
put under them. 

' ' We have now fairly settled those parts 
of the county which were, the first to be in- 
habited by the whites. Those parts of 
which we have made no mention in noticing 
the early settlements were not in fact taken 
up by the immigrants to York County; but be- 



came populated from the stock which we 
have introduced to our readers. In the 
course of time the Kreutz Greek settlement 
increased in population, and gave inhabitants 
to a large tract of country surrounding it, 
including parts of Hellam, Spring Garden, 
York and Shrewsbury Townships. The few 
early settlers of the region in which Han- 
over stands gave population to several town- 
ships in that quarter of the county. The 
number of families in the 'Red Lands' and 
thereabout was for some time annually aug- 
mented by fresh emigrants from Chester 
County, the small portion of territory at first 
chosen became too small for the increased 
population, and the whole northern division 
of the county, comprising Newberry, Fair- 
view, Monaghan, AVarrington, Franklin and 
Washington Townships, were partially set- 
tled as early as 1740-50."* 

"Mills there were none for the first few years 
— the people being obliged to cross the Sus- 
quehanna for their flour and meal. Even 
from the Conowago settlement, Digges' choice 
(now Hanover) the long journey was made. 
Andrew Schriver, an early settler in that 
neighborhood, (whose first dwelling in this 
county, by the way, was a haystack), used to 
relate to wondering auditors, in his old age, 
how he tied his clothes on the top of his head, 
lighted his pipe and forded the Susquehanna. 
Roads being almost unknown, wagons and 
carriages were not much used, journeys be- 
ing made on horse-back. While the Indians 
were generally peaceable, great caution was 
used to avoid injmy from the drunken or 
vicious among the sons of the forest, while 
away from home on these journeys, "f 

"It did not take long to build a house in 
those days. Logs were felled and hewed of 
the pi'oper length, and arranged with a 
friendly aid into the frame work of a one- 
roomed log-cabin. A roof of puncheons rudely 
shaped with the broad axe was placed upon 
it, and an outside chimney of stone and 
sticks, filled in with clay, adorned one end 
of the edifice. The interstices between the. 
logs were then plastered up with mud and 
moss, a door, and an aperture for a window 
added, and, if the building were a luxurious 
one, a puncheon floor, and the house was 
done. A block or two served for stools; a 
broad slab of timber for a table; a rude frame 
work for a couch. Here in one chamber 
would sleep all the family; here was their 
kitchen; here did they eat. In some more 
elegant e.stablishments, a double cabin or 
even a loft was to be found. A few wooden 

bowls and trenchers, some spoons carved from 
a horn, a calabash and an iron pot, with two 
or three forks and knives, completed the sim- 
ple furniture, China or even ordinary delf 
ware was unknown in those times; a few pack 
horses in their annual journey were the only 
means of communication with the seaboard. 
For food, the chief reliance was upon the 
product of the chase, the corn, pumpkins and 
potatoes which were cultivated upon the little 
farm and the invariable dish of pork. No settler 
was without his drove of swine, and ' hog and 
hominy' is still a proverbial expression for 
Western fare. Their cows yielded them milk; 
and corn meal either ground by hand or 
pounded in a wooden mortar, furnished their 
only bread."* 

' ' The most important feature of a new set- 
tlement, was, however, its fort. This was 
simply a place of resort for the people when 
the Indians were expected, and consisted of 
a range of contiguous log-cabins, protected 
by a stockade and perhaps a block-house or 
two. It was chiefly in the summer and fall 
that the approach of the savage was to be 
dreaded. Families would move into the-i 
fort. Panics would crowd the inland towns, "f / 


rvTTHEN William Penn visited the province 
<S/\ in 1682, the great treaty of amity and 
peace was made with the nations of the Lenni 
Lenape Indians, at Shakamaxon, under the 
historic elm, marked now by a monument 
within the limits of the city of Philadelphia. 
In the spring of 1683, he visited the interior 
of the province, going as far west as the Sus- 
quehanna, where he contemplated founding a 
great city. This conception was almost re- 
alized when Wright's Ferry was- nearly deter- 
mined upon as the site for the National 
Capital, and possibly it has been fully real- 
izeil in the opinion of the present inhabitants 
of the State Capital. During the period of 
his second visit to the province, he formed a 
treaty of amity and trade with the tribes on 
the Susquehanna, from whom he had already 
obtained grants of land, through Col. Don- 
gan, of New York. This treaty, which 
opened the way for settlements as far as the 
Susquehanna, was made by William Penn in 
person, at Philadelphia, on the 23d of April, 
1701, with the Indians inhabiting upon and 

*Introductory Memoir to Braddock's Expeditiou. ^"^ 



about that river, and an ambassador from the 
Five Nations. By this last mentioned treaty, 
the parties were to be hereafter " as one head 
and heart, and live in true friendship and 
amity as one laeople." The articles confirmed 
the friendship of the parties, and a firm and 
lasting peace between them, and bound each 
never to injure the other. The kings and 
chiefs were to be subject to the laws of the 
government of the province, and not to aid 
or abet its enemies; to give notice of all 
designs of hostile Indians, and not to admit 
strange Indians to settle in the prov- 
ince. William Penn, for himself and his 
successors, agreed not to permit any per- 
son to trade or converse with any of the 
Indians, except upon approval under his 
hand and seal. No skins or furs were to be 
sold out of the province, and the treaty oth- 
erwise regulated their trade. The Indians 
confirmed the sales, already made, of lands 
lying near and about the Susquehanna. In 
confirmation of these articles, the parties 
made mutual presents to each other of skins, 
on the part of the Indians, and of articles of 
merchandise, on the part of the English, " as 
a binding pledge of the promises never to be 
broken or violated."* 

The treaty of Shakamaxon is altogether 
traditional, and though the theme of art and 
story, is, by many, deemed mythical, but this 
treaty with the Susquehanna tribes is in writ- 
ing, under hand and seal, and is lodged among 
the archives of the province. The record states 
that the kings and chiefs had arrived in town 
two days ago, with their great men and In- 
dian Harry as their interpreter, with some of 
their young people, women and children, to the 
number of about forty, and that after a treaty 
and several speeches, the articles were sol- 
emnly agreed on.-f At the time of the treaty 
of April 23, 1701, according to the minutes 
of/the Provincial Council, the representatives 
present of the several tribes are named as 
follows: Connodaghtoh, King of the Susque- 
hanna, Minguay or Conestogoe Indians; 
Wopaththa (alias Opessah),King of the Shaw- 
anese; Weewhinjough, chief of the Gan- 
awese, inhabiting at the head of the Patow- 
meck; also, Ahoakassough, brother to the 
Emperor or Great King of the Onondagoes 
of the Five Nations. The first named are 
further described in the articles of agreement 
" as Indians inhabiting upon and about the 
River Susquehanna. There was a tribe 
known to the early colonists as Susquehan- 
nas, who occupied the territory along that 
river to its source, for some hundreds of 

years. They are said to have been a power- 
ful nation and considerably advanced in the 
arts of civilization and war, which is evi- 
denced by the mounds and fortifications 
existing where they inhabited.^ They had 
terrible wars with the Five Nations, and 
were not only conquered by the latter, but, 
according to the authorities, utterly exter- 
minatedi'T",: The lands along the river fell 
under the control of the Five Nations just 
about the time of the first visit of William 
Penn to his province. The Five Nations 
consisted of the Mohawks, the Oueidas, the 
Onondagoes, the Cayugas and the Senecas, 
and afterward became the Six Nations, by the 
addition of the Tuscaroroes. These nations 
were sometimes called Mengwes, otherwise 
spelled Minguays. Hence, as in the treaty, 
the name Miuguay-Susquehanna Indians. In 
documents of the period we also find those 
settled at Conestogoe styled Seneca-Susque- 
hanna Indians.^ At this same treaty of 
1701, an ambassador of the Emperor of the 
Five Nations, a king of the Onondagos, was 
present. Therefore, the settlement at Cones- 
togoe was evidently planted by the Five Na- 
tions after their conquest of the Susquehan- 
nas. The names of all the tribes of that 
confederacy are mentioned, more or less, by 
contemporaries, as applying to the Indians 
settled there, but they were known in a body 
as the Conestogoe Indians. 

The Shawanese mentioned in the treaty were 
some three or four score of families, who 
came from Carolina in 1698, and applied 
for leave of the Conestogoe Indians and of 
William Penn to settle in Pennsylvania, and 
leave was granted them. They promised to 
live in peace and friendship, and the Cones- 
togoes became sureties for their good behav- 
ior to the Government.§ Others of this 
people subsequently settled at Conestogoe 
and some about Wyoming. About 1738 they 
were estimated at 700 fighting braves, and 
turned out to be among the fiercest of those 
tribes whose savage treachery is so well 
known in the sad history of that valley. The 
Ganawese, as is mentioned in the treaty, in- 
haEHedTTn'and about the northern part of the 
river Potomac. They had come into the 
province by leave and were once known as 
Piscataway Indians. Having been reduced 
to a small number by sickness they applied 
for leave to settle at Conestogoe, with the 
proprietary's consent, and for them also the 
Conestogoes became guarantees in a treaty 
of friendship. 11 The tribe of Shawanese is 

»History of WyomiDg. 


JDougaD's Deed, infra. 


mentioned some years subsequently in a 
letter of Gov. Gordon, as consisting of a 
thousand fierce fellows, and had become a 
source of apprehension.* A tribe called the 
Conojs_had settled in the same vicinity, who 
"afterward removed to the Juniata, and whose 
name became a terror. There were also some 
of the Delaware Indians settled at Conesto- 
goe. All of these tribes, except the Cones- 
togoes, became in after years formidable 
enemies of the English, but during the period 
now treated they were all friendly and dis- 
posed to maintain a permanent jjeace. 

"William Penn's great treaty at Shakamaxon 
was made with the Delaware Indians, who are 
named the Lenni Lenape, and the several 
tribes of Indians already mentioned, other 
than the Five Nations, were branches of that 
people. Lenni Lenapi means original people, 
but this race were not the original occupants 
of the country where they were found. Their 
own accounts brought them from the land of 
the setting sun. They were named Delawares 
by the colonists, from their settlements being 
in proximity to the river of that name. The 
name is not Indian, but was given to the bay 
and river in honor of Lord De la "War, who 
is said to have first entered it with a fleet. 
The Delawares were once a warlike people, 
and came in conflict with the Five Nations, 
who were also called the Iroquois. History 
relates that they were conquered and were 
compelled to put on petticoats and acknowl- 
edge themselves women.* They frequently 
admitted their feebleness. As late as 1742, 
in the presence of the Provincial Council at 
Philadelphia, a chief of the Six Nations, 
Cannasatego, turning to the Delawares, 
holding a belt of wampum in his hand, spoke 
to them after this fashion: ''Let this belt of 
wampum serve to chastise you; you ought to 
be taken by the hair of the head and shaken 
severely till you recover your senses and be- 
come sober; you don't know what ground you 
stand on. "We have seen with our eyes a deed 
signed by nine of your ancestors about fifty 
years ago for this very land, and release 
signed not many years since by some of your- 
selves and chiefs now living to the number 
of fifteen or upward. But how came you to 
take upon you to sell land at all ? "We con- 
quered you, we made women of you, you 
know you are women, and can no more sell 
land than women. We charge yoii to re- 
move instantly. 'We don't give you the lib- 
erty to think about it. This string of wam- 
pum serves to forbid you, your children and 

grandchildren to the latest posterity, forever 
meddling in land affairs."* 

An explanation is given by the Delawares 
for this sincjular subjugation. The women 
were the peacemakers among the Indians, as 
the warriors would not deign even to propose 
peace, and the prayers and appeals of the 
weaker sex led to the burj'ing of the toma- 
hawk. In order to effect reconciliation it 
was necessary that one of the powerful tribes 
should act the part of the peacemaker and 
assume the garb of the woman. Confiding 
in the sincerity of the Iroquois, in an unfor- 
tunate moment, the Delawares yielded and 
assumed the petticoat. They were disarmed, 
and the Iroquois took such absolute control 
over them, that, as in the instance just relat- 
ed, when European adventurers had fraudu- 
lently deprived them of their land, by cun- 
ning leagues made with the chiefs of their 
conquerors, they were obliged to relinquish 
their claims and were silenced by the com- 
mand not to speak, as they were women.f, 
But the Delawares did not rest under the ban 
imposed upon them. Though they were pre- 
vented for many years from recovering by 
force of arms and numbers their original su- 
periority, on account of the rapid settlements 
of the Europeans encroaching upon them, 
they did at length throw oft' the yoke, and at 
Tioga, in 1756, Tledyuscung extorted from 
the Iroquois chiefs an acknowledgment of 
their independeneaj The Delawares be- 
came the most formidable of the hostile In- 
dian tribes, and appeared in a terrible attitude 
in those dreadful incursions that made the 
settlements on our frontiers scenes of devasta- 
tion and massacre. At the period of the set- 
tlement of this county they had largely de- 
serted the eastern parts of Pennsylvania and 
moved westward with the fiercer tribes. The 
Indians who remained were peaceful and in 
complete harmony with the proprietary gov- 
ernment. It appears that it was difficult for 
those Indians who remained in this region to 
maintain themselves, even in the necessaries 
of life. They had periodical fits of hunting, 
but they were waylaid by traders and plied 
with rum, for which they parted with their 
valuable furs. The warlike ones had wan- 
dered to other parts, leaving the feeble behind 

It~Ts this mixture of feebleness- and feroc- 
ity, that has made the American Indian at 
once an object of pity and of dread; that has 
caused him to be despised and his nobler 
qualities overlooked. Unable to cope with 

*IV Col. Hec. 579. 
, , /fDay's ABnals, p. 7. Heckenwelder. 
' tDay, 7. 


the cunning of traders, and realizing the de- 
ception practiced upon him for gain, drawn 
backward by a power against which he is 
helpless to contend, he instinctively burns for 
revenge. His nature is such that he cannot 
embrace civilization. Though possessed by 
some intuitive promptings of nature of a 
species of libei-ality in gifts and a lofty idea 
of peace and its blessings, the firm sentiments 
of generosity, benevolence and goodness 
were wanting. This has been declared to be 
so by those most familiar with the Indian 
character. "William Penn and his followers 
came among the Delawares in a sjairit of 
peace and brotherly love, to which they 
seemed to respond, but they succeeded no bet- 
ter than the Puritans in changing their hab- 
its and character, nor could the missionaries, 
Catholic or Protestant, or Edwards or Brain- 
erd, or any other of the great teachers who 
went among them. They were morally in- 
flexible, and adhered to their hereditary cus- 
toms and manners. The Indian child soon 
discovers a propensity for the habits of his 
ancestors. This is displayed in their wild 
and fitful hunting, and indolence, and in 
their manner of warfare. Their war parties 
consisted of volunteers for special expedi- 
tions, surprising the enemy and taking their 
scalps. They would follow each other sin- 
gly and in silence. They would hide and 
dash upon the unwary.* It is this that 
made the frontiers tremble. 

Much learning has been exhausted in ac- 
counting for their appearance on this conti- 
nent. "William Penn, in his letter to the 
Free Society of Traders of the Province at 
London, in 1683,f accepts without question 
the theory that they were the remnants of the 
lost tribes of Israeh He writes: "For their 
origin, I am ready to believe them of the 
Jewish race; I mean of the stock of the ten 
tribes; and that for the following reasons: 
first, they were to go to a 'land not planted, 
nor known;' which to be sure, Asia and 
Africa were, if not Europe; and He that in- 
tended that extraordinary judgment upon 
them might make the passage not uneasy to 
them, as it is not impossible in itself, from 
the easternmost parts of Asia, to the western- 
most of America. In the nest place I find 
them of the like countenance and their child- 
ren of so lively resemblance, that a man 
would think himself in Duke's place or Berry 
street, in London, when he seeth them. But 
this is not all: they agree in rites; they reck- 
on by moons; they offer their first fruits, 
they have a kind of feast of tabernacles; they 

are said to lay their altar upon twelve stones; 
their mourning a year; their customs of 
women, with many other things that do not now 
occur." He also says about them, "their 
eyes, little and black not unlike a straio'ht 
looked Jew." "Their language is lofty yet 

narrow; but like the Hebr 

ew m signification 

full; like shorthand writing, one word serv- 
eth in the place of three, and the rest are 
supplied by the understanding of the hearer; 
imperfect in their tenses, wanting in their 
moods, participles, adverbs, conjiinctions, 
interjections; I know not a language spoken 
in Europe, that hath words of more sweetness 
or greatness in accent and emphasis than 
theirs." From many other sources we learn 
that their language was as perfect in its way 
as taught by nature, and governed by rules 
and methods just as the bee builds its cells 
regularly without the recognition of the laws 
of geometry. 

The religious ideas of the a'borigines 
have been a matter of much comment,- 
as well as how far they possessed a knowl- 
edge of a Supreme Being. "William Penn, 
in his letter, already quoted, writes thus: 
"They say there is a Great King that made 
them, who dwells in a glorious country to 
the southward of them, and that the souls 
of the good shall go thither where thev 
live again." ' 'Their worship, ' 'he says, "con- 
sists of two parts, sacrifice and cantico. 
Their sacrifice is their first fruits. The first 
and fatted buck they kill goeth to the fire, 
where he is all burnt with a mournful ditty 
of him, that performeth the ceremony, but 
with such marvelous fervency and labor of 
body, that he will even sweat to a foam. The 
other part is the cantico performed by round 
dances, sometimes words, sometimes songs, 
then shouts; two being in the middle that 
begin ; and by singing and di'umming on a 
board direct the chorus." "Their diet is 
maize, or Indian corn divers ways prepared; 
sometimes roasted in the ashes; sometimes 
beaten and boiled with water, which they call 
homine; they also make cakes, not unpleasant 
to eat. They have likewise several sorts of 
beans and pease, that are good nourishment; 
and the woods and rivers are their larder." 
"If any European comes to see them or calls 
for lodging at their house, or wigwam, they 
give him the best place and first cut. If they 
come to visit us, they salute us with an Itah : 
which is as much as to say, good be to you, 
and set them down; which, is mostly on the 
ground close to their heels; their legs up- 
right; it may be they speak not a word, but 
observe all passages. If you give them any- 
thing to eat or drink, well; for thev will not 



ask; and be it little or much, if it be witli 
kindness, they are well pleased, else they go 
away sullen but say nothing. "* " They 
are great concealers of their own resent- 
ment; brought to it by the revenge that 
hath been practiced among them. " "But 
in liberality they excel; nothing is too 
good for their friend. Give them a fine 
gun, coat or other thing, it may pass 
twenty hands before it sticks ; light of 
heart, strong affections, but soon spent. The 
most merry creatures that live, feast and 
dance perpetually. They never have much 
nor want much. Wealth circulateth like 
blood; all parts partake, and though none 
shall want what another hath; yet exact ob- 
servers of property. Some kings have sold, 
others presented me with several parcels of 
land: the pay or presents I made them were 
not hoarded by the particular owners; but 
the neighboring kings, and their clans being 
present, when the goods were brought out, 
the parties chiefly concerned, consulted on 
what, and to whom, they should give them. 
To every king, then, by the hands of a per- 
son for that work appointed is a proportion 
sent, so sorted and folded and with that 
gravity that is admirable. Then that king 
sabdivideth it in like manner; they hardly 
leaving themselves an equal share with one 
of their subjects." "' And be it on such oc- 
casions as festivals, or after their common 
meals, the kings distribute, and to them- 
selves last. They care for little because they 
want but little, and the reason is, a little 
contents them. In this they are sufficiently 
revenged on us; if they are ignorant of our 
pleasures, they are also free from our pains. 
They are not disquieted with bills of lading 
and exchange, nor perplexed with chancery 
suits, and exchequer reckonings. We sweat 
and toil to live: their pleasure feeds them; I 
mean their hunting, fishing and fowling, and 
their table is spread everywhere. They eat 
twice a day, morning and evening, their seats 
and table the ground." 

"In the fall, when the corn cometh in, 
they begin to feast one another. There have 
been two great festivals already; to which all 
come that will. I was at one myself — their 
entertainment was a great seat by a spring 
under some shady trees, and twenty bucks, 
with hot cakes of new corn, both wheat and 
beans; which they make up in a square form, 
in the leaves of the stem, and bake them in 
the ashes; and after that they fall to a dance. 
But they that go must carry a small present, 
in their money; it may be sixpence, which is 
made of the bone of a fish; the black is 
with them as gold; the white silver; they 

call it all wampum." He also says : "The 
justice they have is pecuniary; in case of any 
wrong or evil fact, be it murder itself, they 
atone by feasts, and presents of their wam- 
pum, which is proportioned to the quality of 
the offence or person injured." " It is rare 
that they fall out. if sober;- and if drunk, 
they forgive it, saying ' it was the drink and 
not the man that abused them.'" "Since 
the Europeans came into these parts, the}' 
have grown great lovers of strong liquors, 
rum especially; and for it exchange the rich- 
est of their skins and furs. If they are 
heated with liquors, they are restless till they 
have enough to sleep; that is their cry, 
'some more, and I will go to sleep;' but 
when drunk one of the most wretched spec- 
tacles in the world." Well did William 
Penn say: " The worst is that they are the 
worse for the Christians; who have propa- 
gated their vices and yielded them tradition 
for ill and not for good things." .... 
" It were miserable indeed for us to fall 
under the just censure of the poor Indian 
conscience, while we make profession of 
things so far transcending." 

He further says: " Their government was 
by kings, which they called sachems, and those 
by succession always of the mother's side. 
For instance, the children of him who is 
now king will not succeed him, but his 
brother by his mother, or the son of his sis- 
ter, and after them the children of her 
daughter, but no woman inherits. Every 
king had his council, consisting of all the 
old and wise men of his nation. War, peace, 
selling of land, or traffic, were only under- 
taken after advising with them, and also 
with the young men. The king sat in the 
middle of a half moon, and had his council 
of the old and wise men on each hand; be- 
hind them, or at a little distance, sat the 
younger fry in the same figure." "Having 
consulted and resolved their business, the 
king ordered one of them to speak to me; 
he stood up, came to me, and, in the name 
of the king, saluted me; then took me by 
the hand, and told me he was ordered by tbo 
king to speak to me, and that now it was not 
he, but the king, that spoke, because what he 
should say was the king's mind. He first 
prayed me. To excuse them, that they had 
not complied with me the last time: he feared 
there might be some fault in the interpreta- 
tion, being neither Indian nor English; be- 
sides it was the Indian custom to deliberate 
and take up much time in council, before 
, they resolve; and that if the young people 
and owners of the land, had been as ready as 
he, I had not met with so much delay. 


Having thus introduced his matter, he fell to 
the bounds of the land they had agreed to 
dispose of, and the price, which now is little 
and dear; that which would have bought 
twenty miles not buying now two." "Dur- 
ing the time that this person spoke, not a 
man of them was observed to whisper or 
smile; the old, grave; the young, reverent 
in their deportment. They speak little, but 
fervently and with elegance. I have never 
seen more natural sagacity, considering them 
without the help (I was going to say the 
spoil) of tradition; aud he will deserve the 
name of wise, that outwits them in any 
treaty, about a thing they understand." 

"When the purchase was agreed, great 
promises passed between us of kindness and 
good neighborhood, and that the Indians and 
English must live in love as long as the sun 
gave light; which done, another made a 
speech to the Indians, in the name of all the 
sachamakers or kings, just to tell them what 
was done, next to charge and command them 
' to love the Christians, and particularly to 
live in peace with me, and the people under 
my government; that many governors had 
been in the river; but that no governor had 
come himself to live and stay here before; 
and having now such an one, that had treat- 
ed them well, they should never do him or 
his any wrong.' At every sentence of which 
they shouted and said Amen, in their way." 

If their personal appearance and lan- 
guage indicated such resemblances as tend 
to prove an Eastern origin, there are, on the 
other hand, certain things, for which the 
Eastern races are proverbial, and of which the 
American Indians knew nothing. Of all 
races of mankind, they alone were ignorant of 
the pastoral state. They kept neither sheep 
nor kine. They knew nothing of the use of 
the milk of animals for food. They had 
no wax, nor oil, and no iron.* They 
had no idea of government or of trial 
and condemnation. Retaliation was the only 
law of punishment.* Everything, to their 
conception, was material in its character. 
They had some sort of a genius that was an 
object of veneration and fear, called the 
Manitou. This was represented by a bird, a 
buffalo, a bear, a feather, a skin; but, in no 
case, a man. Each Indian appears to have 
had his Manitou, and any evil that happened 
to him was attributed to its anger. They 
buried with the warrior his Manitou, his pipe, 
his tomahawk, his quiver and bow, and his 
apparel — placed by his side his bowl of maize 
and his vension f or . his long journey to the 
country of his ancestors.* "With many 

manly qualities and an evident respect for 
each other as warriors, and admiration for 
powers of endurance in the midst of tortures, 
and delight in the eclat of success, there was 
no reverence for man as such, no matter what 
an individual's fame might be. The apothe- 
osis of the Aryan race had no place among 
them, or the Semitic reverential awe of the 
prophet. His fellow man was not adored, 
nor was homage paid to the dead.* Long 
before William Penn landed on the shore of 
this continent. Christians had been at work 
among the Indians, and it is difiScult to say 
what ideas by that time had been implanted 
among them of a Great Spirit, or any spirit 
of poetic fancy, that inhabited the woods, 
the water, the stars or the sea. 

The Indians have been described as being 
well formed, straight, and having no deform- 
ity among them. Their color, reddish brown 
or copper color, as distinguished from olive, 
with dark, straight hair and no beards; their 
cheek bones prominent, with projecting jaws, 
and an expression of indolent insensibility, 
and with no flexibility of feature, so that 
when the Indian depicted his passions, it 
was by strong contortions and a kindling 
of the eye, that seemed ready to burst from 
its socket. Their clothing was made of the 
skins of the bear, fox, and beaver, and mocca- 
sins of deer skin, without a sole, ornamented 
on the upper side. * Their wigwams were made 
with long poles fixed in the ground, covered 
with bark, having no door but a loose skin, 
and having an opening in the roof for a 
chimney, and were aboat the height of a man. 
In one of them the whole clan huddle together, 
men, women, and children, with weeds or 
grass on the ground for a floor. In traveling 
they would lie around great fires. * 

The pipe of peace was reverenced by them. 
The person of him who traveled with it was 
sacred. Each village had its calumet, which 
was adorned by the chief with eagle feathers 
and which was consecrated by the nation. 
This, together with the ceremonies attend- 
ing its acceptance, has served to throw a 
charm around the savage nature, and is 
remembered by its figurative use in our 
language. "The envoys from those desiring 
peace or an alliance, would come within a 
short distance of the town, and uttering a 
cry, throw themselves on the ground." The 
great chief, bearing the peace pipe of his 
tribe, with its mouth pointing to the skies, 
goes forth to meet them, accompanied by a 
long procession of his clansmen, chanting the 
hymn of peace. The stranger rises to 
receive them, singing also a song to put away 



all wars and bury all revenge. As they meet, 
each pariy smokes the pipe of the other, and 
peace is ratified."* "With all this commend- 
able decorum, worthy of imitation in our 
own public councils, the imposing scene was 
accompanied by features that may be consid- 
ered inimitable. "Some had the nose tipped 
with blue, the eyebrows, eyes and cheeks tinged 
with black, and the rest of the face red; others 
had black, red and blue stripes drawn from 
the ears to the mouth: others had a broad, 
black band, like a ribbon, drawn from ear to 
ear across the eyes, with smaller bands on 
the cheeks. When they made visits, and 
when they assembled in council, they painted 
themselves gloriously, delighting especially 
in vermilion."* 

Their frequent councils with the English 
were attended with the same ceremonies and 
gi f ts to which they had been accustomed among 
themselves. "Their delight was in assem- 
bling together and listening to messengers 
from abroad. Seated in a semi -circle on the 
ground, in double or triple rows, with the 
knees almost meeting the face; the painted 
and tattooed chiefs, adorned with skins and 
plumes, with the beaks of the red-bird and 
claws of the bear; each listener, perhaps, 
with a pipe in his mouth, and preserving deep 
silence, they would give solemn attention to 
the speaker, who, with great action and en- 
ergy of language, delivered and brought the 
message; and if his eloquence pleased, they 
esteemed him as a god. Decorum was never 
broken, there were never two speakers strug- 
gling to anticipate each other; they did not 
express their spleen by blows ;they restrained 
passionate invective; the debate was never 
disturbed by an uproar; questions of order 
were unknown. "* 

"The art of public speaking was in high 
esteem among the Indians, and much studied. 
They were extremely fond of method, and 
displeased with an irregular harangue, be- 
cause it is difficult to be remembered. Their 
speeches were short, and the sense conveyed 
by strong metaphors; in conversation, they 
were sprightly,but solemn and serious in their 
messages relating to public affairs. Their 
speakers delivered themselves with surprising 
force and great propriety of gesture. The 
fierceness of their countenances, the flowing 
blanket, elevated tone, naked arm, and erect 
stature, with a half circle of auditors seated 
on the ground, cannot but impress on the 
mind a lively idea of the ancient orators of 
Greece and Kome."t 

Wampum is described to be belts of cloth 


t.Smith's History of New York. Proud. 

of some kind on which are fastened beads 
made of pieces of shell, cut and polished, 
some white and some of purple color, the 
latter being the more valuable. Each belt 
was called a fathom. At every treaty belts 
of wampum were presented, and in this way 
their annals were kept. During these trea- 
ties, at every clause of speech ratifying or 
creating a covenant, a belt was given. These 
belts were about four inches wide and thirty in 
length, and were treasured and kept as records 
of the nation, and were had recourse to on 
subsequent occasions, which ceremony being 
omitted, all they said passed for nothing.* 
Belts of wampum were also used as money. 
The use of these beads or pieces of bone, in 
the nature of coin, was, probably, derived 
from intercourse with the Europeans, and 
existed among the Delawares in the locality 
where the scenes were enacted which Willim 
Penn describes. 


T'Between the town of Lancaster and the 
Susquehanna River, there was a very large 
town and settlement of Indians called Coq- 
estogoe, which appears to have been a chief 
place of councils, and gave the name to such 
Indians as inhabited there and in that vicin- 
ity. The Conestogoe Indians were a friendly 
and peaceable people, long settled among the 

The resident Indians complained of set- 
tlers and traders interfering with their hunt- 
ing, and it was to accommodate them that 
Springetsbury Manor, as will hereafter be 
related, was laid out, though on the part of 
Pennsylvania, it was designed to prevent 
Maryland encroachments. These Indians are 
therefore intimately associated with the 
events surrounding our early settlements. 
Our territory was on their way to their hunt- 
ing grounds, and they desired that it should 
be free to them. The only Indian town men- 
tioned, on the west side of the river was a 
place called Conedoughela,f further south 
than Conestogoe. Frequent visits were made 
by Indians to the government at Philadelphia, 
and frequent councils were also held at Con- 
estogoe, where the governors of the province 
attended, and belts of wampum were given, 
and gifts of personal goods and skins were 
exchanged in testimony of confirmed friend- 
ship. The minutes of the provincial coun- 
cil will show the nature of these interviews, 
and the condition of the Indians and their re- 
lations to the whites, just previous to the time 
of the settlements west of the Susquehanna. 


At a meeting of the Provincial Council 
held at Philadelphia, June 6, 1706, James 
Logan, Secretary, gave an account of his 
visit, with othel's of the council, to the In- 
dians at Conestogoe the preceding October, 
when he told them, "That he was come from 
the Governor of Pennsylvania, who had al- 
ways been a friend to all the Indians within 
the bounds of it. That Gov. William Penii. 
since first he came into this country, with 
all those under him, had always inviola- 
bly maintained a perfect friendship with all 
the natives of this country that he found 
possessed of it at his first arrival. . That 
when he was last in the country he visited those 
at that place, and his son upon his arrival did 
the same, in order to cultivate the ancient 
friendship between them, that he and his 
posterity might, after bis father's example, 
maintain peace and good understanding with 
them and theirs. That they should take 
great care in giving ear to malicious reports 
spread and carried by ill men, for that we 
heard they had been alarmed at the Chris- 
tians putting themselves in arms in all these 
parts and mustering; the reason of this was 
the war with the French, and was designed 
rather to help them than to hurt them, but 
as they and we are brethren, each must be 
assistant to the other, and therefore tho 
English took up arms to defend themselves, 
and the Indians also, against both their 
enemies." The Secretary further added, that 
"among the Shawanois, with whom their 
chief abode was, he had also held a treaty 
to the same purpose with that at Conestogoe..' ' 
"That he had made a journey among the 
Ganawese, settled some miles above Cones- 
togoe, at a place called Connejaghera, above 
the fort, and had conferences with them, 
which seemed wholly to compose all their 
apprehensions, and that he had reason to 
believe he left all these three nations in a 
perfect good understanding with us.'"* There 
were present at this conference chiefs of the 
Conestogoe, Shawanese, and Ganawese Indi- 
ans upon Susquehanna, being come to town, 
in order to confer with the Government, 
about public affairs relating to them, and 
were all seated in the council chamber. An- 
daggyjuuquagh, the chief of those of Con- 
estogoe, (whose name appears in the deeds 
for the lands upon the Susquehanna,) laid 
before the Governor a very large wampum 
belt of twenty-one rows, with three hands 
wrought in it in black, the rest white, which 
belt he said was a pledge of peace, formerly 
delivered by the Onondagoe Indians, one of 
the Five Nations, to the Nantikokes, when 

» 11 Col. Reo. 244. 

they made them tributaries; that the Nanti- 
kokes, being lately under some apprehensions 
of danger from the Five Nations, some of 
them had this spring come up, and brought 
this belt with them, and that they had 
another of the same also at Conestogoe to 
show to those of the Five Nations that were 
expected shortly to come down to receive the 
Nantikokes' tribute." This belt had been 
taken to Philadelphia, that it might be shown 
to those of the Five Nations who might come 
down that way, as evidence that there was 
peace with them and that the English were 
at peace with the neighboring Indians. The 
Shawanese also owned themselves under some 
apprehensions from the Five Nations. The 
Nantikokes were a Maryland tribe or nation. 
Gov. Evans, with several persons, visited 
the Indians, and among others met the Nan- 
tikokes, and while among them, one of them 
took into his hands a belt of wampum fi-om 
a line whereon there hung nineteen others, 
and several strings of beads, and said, ' ' they 
had been given to under.stand the Queen had 
sent orders that the Indians should live in 

' peace with one another, and that they were 
sent to give some of these belts in behalf of 
the Governor of Maryland, and themselves, 
to the Five Nations. Governor. — How long 
have you been at peace with these nations? 
Nantikoke, — Twenty-seven years. Governor. 
What is the reason then of so many belts of 
wampum and strings of beads ? Nantikoke. — 

j We send them as tribute." 

j /At a meeting of the Council, June 16, 1706, 
tlle^Indians were informed that a law had 
been enacted that no person should trade 
with them, but such as should first have a 
license from the Governor. They desired 
that only two persons should be allowed to 
trade with them; but it was answered that 

, they would be the more subject to be imposed 

; on, the fewer should trade with them. They 
further desired that none might be suffered 
to go up into the country beyond their towns 
to meet the Indians returning from hunting, 
for they sustain great damage by that prac- 
tice, by being made drunk at their return 
before they got home to their wives, and so 

j were imposed on and cheated by the traders 
of the fruits of all their labors. Upon this 
they were desired to take care among them- 
selves that none of their people should sell 
anything to the traders till they came home 
to their own towns. And in licenses that 

j should be given for the future, the Governor 
would take care to oblige them not to go any 

I higher into the country than the noted Indian 
towns, and to trade nowhere else.* On the 

1 «II Col. Eec 248. 


/23d of July, 1712, several Indians being 
'' arrived from Conestogoe on business of im- 
portance, met the Council. Tagodrancj' or 
Civility, a war captain and chief with Tan- 
yahtickahungh, the old speaker, Knawonhunt 
and Soachkoat, two brothers, and some others 
being sate, they first presented a bundle of 
deerskins, and by Indian Harry, their inter- 
preter, said: "That the Proprietor, Gov. 
Penn, had, at his first coming amongst them, 
made an agreement with them that they 
should always live as friends and brothers, 
and be as one body, one heart, one mind, and 
as one eye and ear, and that what one saw 
the other should see, and what the one heard, 
the other should hear, and that there should 
be nothing but love and friendship between 
them and us forever." They presented a 
small' bundle of furs and said, that on their 
part they had always kept up to this agree- 
ment, and should constantly observe it in all 
respects; that if anything came to their 
knowledge relating to us they would always, ; 
like brothers and friends, acquaint us with 
it, and if, at any time, any foreigner's or ; 
strangers came among them they would give 
notice of it immediately at Philadelphia, and 
in all things would acquit themselves accord- 
ing to what they had promised and engaged. 
They presented two bundles of skins together, 
and said that on our part we had promised 
them to regulate the trade that was carried 
on with them at Conestogoe and had spoken 
of licenses to be given to the traders, by 
which means all abuses were to be rectified. 
But that since licenses were granted they 
found themselves worse dealt by than ever; 
they received less for the goods they sold the 
traders ; were worse treated and suffered more ; 
injuries, which they desired the Council to 
inquire into and know why it was so and 
cause it to be redressed. They presented a 
fifth bundle, and said that the cattle the 
traders kept, hurt and destroyed their corn. 
The Council having taken into consideration 
the complaints of the Indians, ordered that 
the traders whose cattle had done damage 
should be forthwith obliged to make compen- 
sation, and that they should remove to a ; 
greater distance and not be allowed on any 
terms to keep any cattle or horses than what 
are for their immediate service, unless they 
should live on purchased land.* ' 

Sir William Keith, whose name is associ- | 
ated with the first surveys made in the terri- 
tory now comprising the county of York, 
arrived from England, on the 31st of May, 
1717. with a commission from the Proprietor 
and the Royal Approbation, to be Lieutenant- I 

«II Col. Rec. 553. ■ I 


Governor of the province. On the 15th of 
July* he informed the Provincial Council 
I that he intended to set out for Conestogoe 
the next morning, and goods to the value of 
£20 were provided as presents for the Indians. 
A number of the members of the Council 
accompanied him, and on the 8th of July the 
chiefs and others of the Conestogoe or Min- 
goe Indians, the Delawares, the Shawanese 
and the Ganawese, all inhabitants upon or 
near the banks of the Susquehanna, met 
them. The Governor told the Indians that 
he had lately been sent over by their great 
and good friend and brother, William Penn, 
to act in his place and stead in affairs of 
government, while he himself was absent 
near the great King and Emperor of the Eng- 
lish. iThat the Governor and his Council had 
come to inquire what new matter had befallen 
them, and to give them all necessary assis- 
tance. /The Mingoes, or Indians of Conesto- 
goe, answered that they wanted to know what 
Christians had settled back in the woods 
behind Virginia and Carolina. The Governor 
answered that the settlements of Maryland, 
Virginia and Carolina, to the southward, 
were subject to the same great King of 
England and had nations of Indians under 
their protection. ) It was then related that, 
the son of a chie.' of the Delawares had been 
killed by a large company made up of Chris 
tians and Indians, while hunting, i During 
the same conference complaint came from 
Virginia of the killing of some Catawba 
Indians by the Senecas. ) It was then said to 
them that to hui't or molest the Indians who 
were in friendship with any English govern- 
ment was a breach of the league of friendship. 
And thereupon a treaty was made. 

First, for their strict observance of all form 
er contracts of friendship made between them 
and the government of Pennsylvania. See 
ondly, That they must never molest or dis- 
turb any of the English governments, nor 
make war upon any Indians whatsoever, who 
are in friendship with and under the pro- 
tection of the English. Thirdly, That in all 
cases of suspicion or danger they must ad- 
vise and consult with this government, before 
they undertook or determined anything. 
Fourthly, That if through accident any mis- 
chief of any sort should happen to be done by 
the Indians to the English, or by the English 
to them, then both parties should meet with 
hearty intention of good will to obtain an ack- 
nowledgment of the mistake, as well as 
to give or receive reasonable satisfaction. 
Fifthly, That upon these terms and condi- 
tions the Governor did, in the name of their 

*II Col. Rec. 19. 


great and good friend William Penn, take 
them and their people under the same pro- 
tection and in the same friendship with this 
Government, as William Penn himself had 
formerly done and would do now if he were 
present. To which the several chiefs and 
their great men assented, it being agreed that 
in testimony thereof they should rise up and 
take the Governor by the hand, which ac- 
cordingly they did with all possible marks of 
friendship on their countenance and behav- 

7 ^tithe war with the southern Indians the 
' Conestogoes had lost their king, and at the 
meeting of the Council, June 16, 1718, they 
presented a new one, by the name of One- 
shanayan, "who had an English heart and 
great love for the Chriatians."y 

At this conference, Tagotalessa or Civility 
chief or captain of the Conestogoe Indians, 
with other chiefs of the same nation, a chief 
of the Shawanese above Conestogoe, George,an 
Indian sent to represent the Gawanese, and a 
chief of the Delawares, formerly on Brandy- 
wine, all then inhabitants on the Susquehanna, 
came from their respective habitations to pay a 
visitto the government, andjwaited on the Gov- 
ernor and Council, and John Cartlidge and 
James Hendricks, being interpreters, both 
skilled in the Delaware tonguey After stating 
that they came only on a friendly visit, and to 
renew the old league of friendship and pre- 
senting a bundle of skins, Civility, among 
other things, said "that he with some of the 
young men had this last spring some incli- 
nation to go out to war toward the south 
ward, but being put in mind that it would 
not be agreeable to this government, and af- 
terward receiving the Governor's letter for- 
bidding them to proceed, they desisted; that 
they intend to go out this next winter 
a-hunting that way, and think it proper to 
acquaint this government therewith, for that 
they bear such a respect to the government, 
and know that we have always been so ready 
to protect and assist them, that they are 
agreed not to do anything which will be dis- 
agreeable to us; that they look upon them- 
selves but like children, rather to be directed 
by this government, than tit to offer anything 
more on this head. But they mast crave leave 
to add one thing further, viz. ; that they have 
reason to think that the authority of this | 
government is not duly observed, for that 
notwithstanding all our former agreements, 
that ram should not be brought among them, 
it is still carried in great quantities. They 
have been doubtful with themselves whether 

they should mention this, because if they were 
supplied with none from hence, they would 
be from Maryland, which would be a means 
of carrying ofl' their peltry thither, but there 
have been such quantities of that liquor car- 
ried of late amongst them by loose persons 
who have no fixed settlements, that they are 
apprehensive mischief may arise from it; that 
though they are perfectly well inclined when 
sober, yet they cannot answer for their peo- 
ple when drunk, and lest any inconveniences 
may ensue from thence to this government, 
whom they so much respect, as well as their 
own people, they desire this may be taken 
into consideration in order to be prevented 
and redressed by all proper measures." The 
Delaware chief, who was present, added that 
"the young men about Paxtan had been lately 
so generally debauched with rum, carried 
amongst them by strangers, that they now 
want all manner of clothing and necessaries 
to go a hunting, wherefore they wish it 
would be so ordered that no rum should be 
brought amongst them, by any except the 
traders who furnish them with all other nec- 
essaries, and who have been used to trust 
them, and encourage them in their hunting." 
The Governor on the next day replied, that 
"he could not take in good part their motions 
towards going to war last spring, consider- 
ing they had engaged themselves to the con- 
trary in their last treaty with him at Cones- 
togoe, that they might draw i^owerf ul enemies 
upon them and engage their friends into their 
quarrels." That they had "too just cause to 
complain of loose idle fellows bringing quan- 
tities of rum amongst them to their great in- 
jury, and that this had not for some time past 
been sufficiently looked after, but he would 
speedily take care to have it in a great meas- 
ure prevented. That they of their parts must 
endeavor to prevent their women and young 
people from coming to Philadelphia to 
purchase and carry up rum from hence, which 
too many were ready to deliver them private- 
ly for their skins, and that when they meet 
with any brought amongst them, they should 
stave it, as they had formerly been ordered 
and undertook to do." 

,' rh reference to the surveys of land, he 
s&id, "they cannot but be sensible of the care 
that has been taken of them; they had ex- 
pressed a willingness to retire from Cones- 
togoe, yet the government here had persuaded 
them to continue near us; we had run a line 
aroand them that none might come near 
them, and had fenced their cornfields by 
John Cartlidge's care, who alone being placed 
within those lines may be more capable of 
looking after the tract, and the bounds of it. It 


is also further thought fit that lines should be 
run around the other Indian towns, as soon as 
conveniently may be to secure them the more 
effectually from encroachments. But while 
such care is taken of them, it is expected they 
shall in all cases on their parts show a due 
regard to this government, that they be aiding 
to all its officers in what may lie in their 
power, that they suffer no idle persons to 
spread rumors amongst them, or if they hew- 
any such that they give no credit to them, 
that if they can discover any evil minded 
persons to have ill designs against this gov- 
ernment, or any part of it, they must without 
delay disclose it to the Governor, or some per- 
son in authority under him." There were 
then provided for the Indians a few garments, 
■with some powder and shot to kill venison, 
some tobacco and pipes, some bread, and a 
dram was provided for them when they 
went. * 

After the death of William Penn, which 
occurred on the 30th July, 1718, Col. 
French, on behalf of the government, at 
Conestogoe in 1719, met the. following rep- 
resentatives of tribes: Canatowba, Queen 
of the Mingoes; Sevana, King of the Shaw- 
anese; "Wightomina, King of the Delawares; 
Wininchach, King of the Conowagoes. (This 
is the first mention of the tribe of the Gone- 
wagoes.) Captain Civility of Conestogoe 
was also present, being interpreter of the 
several nations represented. This Captain 
Civility was for many years the spokesman 
on behalf of the Indians at Conestogoe, 
whose name will be frequently met with, 
acting as interpreter, and corresponding with 
the government, and figuring much in coun- 
cils. His influence was evidently very great 
with both sides. His Indian name has already 
been given as Tagotalessa, Tagodrancy, and 
others less pronouncable, and he is described 
as a "descendant of the ancient Susquehanna 
Indians, the old settlers of these parts, but 
also reputed of Iroquois descent." 

Mutual complaints were made by the In- 
dians of the respective provinces of Virginia 
and Pennsylvania to the government. The 
Indian chiefs at Conestogoe complained that 
their Indian hunters had been attacked near 
the head of the Potomac Kiver by a consid- 
erable body of Southern Indians, come out to 
war against the Five Nations, and the settle- 
ments on the Susquehanna, and ten Mingoes 
had been killed. But at the same time there 
came ofiicial complaints from the Governgr of 
Virginia. The Shawanese said that two of 
their men had been killed. James Logan 
asked if they had been abroad hunting. He 

was answered, No. They had gone out to 
war. He then demanded the reason why 
they should offer to go to war after their solemn 
promise to our Government to the contrary. 
The chief of the Shawanese replied that a dis- 
pute arising among some of their young men, 
who was the best man, to end it they resolved' 
to make the trial by going out to war, that 
they could not be restrained, and went out 
with some of the Five Nations.* 
,-' A treaty made on the 6th of July, 1721, f 
by Gov. Keith, was published in the 
Philadelphia Gazette at the time, as "The 
Particulars of an Indian Treaty, at Cones- 
togoe, between his Excellency, Sir William 
Keith, Bart., Governor of Pennsylvania, and 
the deputies of the Five Nations, and where- 
by appears the method of managing those 
people at that time." There had occiirred a 
disagreement betweeh the Pennsylvania and 
Virginia Indians, the same against whom the J 
war feeling had existed, which demanded 
the attention of the government. The Gov 
ernor visited Virginia that year. On the 
5th of July he arrived at Conestogoe about 
noon, and in the evening went to Captain 
Civility's cabin, where four deputies of the 
Five Nations and a few more of their people 
came to see him. This was said to be the 
first time that the Five Nations had sent any 
of their chiefs to visit the Governor of Penn- 
sylvania. The first branch of the treaty was 
with the Conestogoe Indians on account of 
the troubles with those of Virginia. The 
Governor said: "I am but just now returned 
from Virginia, where I wearied myself in a 
long journey, both by land and water, only 
to make peace for you, my children, that you 
may safely hunt in the woods without danger 
from Virginia and any Indian nations that 
are at peace with that government. But the 
Governor of Virginia expects that you will 
not hunt within the great mountains on the 
other side of the Potomac River, being it is a 
small tract of land which he keeps for the 
Virginia Indians to hunt in. And he promises 
that his Indians shall not any more come on 
this side of the Potomac, or behind the great 
mountain, this way to disturb your hunting, 
and this is the condition I have made for 
you, which I expect you will firmly keep, 
and not break it on any consideration what- 
soever." The second branch of the treaty 
was with the Five Nations. As that cele- 
brated confederacy owned the lands pur- 
chased for our people, their doings are of 
interest to us. In the course of the speech 
of Ghesaont on behalf of the Five Nations, 

^*inCoI. Eeo.92. 

tin Col. Kec. 123— Proud 132. 


he said " though they cannot write, yet 
the}' retain everything said in their councils 
witii all the nations they treat with, and pre- 
serve it carefully in their memories, as if it 
was committed in our method to writing. 
They complain that our traders carrying 
goods and liquors up Susquehanna River, 
sometimes meet with their young people go- 
ing out to war, and treat them unkindly, not 
only refusing to give them a dram of liquor, 
but use them with ill language and call them 
dogs, etc. They take this unkindly because 
dogs have no sense or understanding, where- 
as they are men, and think that their brothers 
should not compare them to such creatures. 
That some of our traders calling their young 
men by these names, the young men an- 
swered If they were dogs, they might act as 
such, whereupon they seized a keg of liquor 
and ran away with it." N. B. This seems to 
be told in their artful way, to excuse some 
small robberies that had been committed by 
their young people. — Gazette. 

"Then, laying down a belt of wampum upon 
the table, he proceeded and said that all their 
disorders arose from the use of rum and 
strong spirits, which took away their sense 
and memory; that they had no such liquors 
among themselves, but were hurt with what 
we furnished them, and therefore desired that 
no more of that sort might be sent amongst 
them." This speech of Ghesaont is a line 
specimen of Indian eloquence, and now ex- 
hibits their force in the use of metaphor. 
"He presented a bundle of dressed skins, and 
said that the Five Nations faithfully 
remembered all their ancient treaties, and 
now desire that the chain of friendship 
between them and us may be made so strong 
as that none of the links can ever be broken. 
Presents another bundle of skins and ob- 
serves that a chain may contract rust with 
lying and become weaker; wherefore he 
desires it may now be so well cleaned as to 
remain brighter and stronger than ever it 
was before. Presents another parcel of skins 
and says that as in the firmament, all 
clouds and darkness are removed from the 
face of the sun, so they desire that all mis- 
understandings may be fully done away. So 
that then when they who are now here shall, 
be dead and gone, their whole people, with 
their children and posterity, may enjoy the 
clear sunshine of friendship with us forever, 
without anything to interpose and obscure it. 
Presents another bimdle of skins and says 
that looking upon the Governor as if William 
Penn was present, they desire that in case 
any disorders should hereafter happen be- 
tween their young people and ours, we should 

not be too hasty in resenting any such acci- 
dent, until their council and ours should have 
some opportunity to treat amicably upon it, 
and so to adjust all matters as that the friend- 
ship between us may still be inviolably pre- 
served. Presents a small bundle of dressed 
skins, and desires that we may now be 
together as one people, treating one another's 
children kindly and affectionately on all 
occasions. He proceeds and says that they 
consider themselves in this treaty as the full 
plenipotentiaries and representatives of the 
Five Nations, and they look upon the Gov- 
ei-nor as the great King of England' s Repre- 
sentative, and therefore they expect that 
everything now stipulated will be made ab- 
solutely firm and good on both sides. Among 
other things, presenting a bundle of bear 
skins, he said that having now made a 
firm league with us, as becomes our brothers, 
they complain that they get too little for 
their skins and furs, so as they cannot live by 
their hunting; they desire us therefore to 
take compassion on them and contrive some 
way to help them in that particular." 

On the 8th of July, the Governor and his 
Council, at the house of John Cartlidge, Esq., 
iving advised upon and 
proper present, in return for that 
of the Indians, which consisted of a quantity 
of stroud match coats, gunpowder, lead, bis- 
cuit, pipes and tobacco, the Governor made 
his speech in reply to that of the Five 
Nations from which the following extract is 
made:* "As to what you have said of trade, 
I suppose the great distance at which you 
live from us prevented all commerce between 
us and your people; we believe those who go 
into the woods and spend all their time upon 
it endeavor to make the best bargains they 
can for themselves; so on your part you must 
take care to make the best bargain you can 
with them, but we hope our traders do not 
exact, for we think that a stroud coat or a 
pound of powder is now sold for no more 
buck-skins than formerly, f 

The skins they delivered in the morning liaving 
been numbered and weighed as ordered, they were 

found to be, 
38 summer Deer Skins in the hair, many of them 
ordinary, wt. 681. at 18d., £5. 2. 

10 small Drest Deer Skins, wt. 181. at 3-6d, 3. 2. 
1 Good Winter Buck in the hair, 6. 

3 Bear Skins a 8 ps. 16. 

£8. 6. 
What is prepared & was now Delivered them, are 
8 Stroud Water Coats of the best sort, a 

17-6d. ~ £7. 0. 

10 lb. of Powder, a 20d. 16. 8 

20 lb. Lead, a 3d, 5. 



6 pr. Stockings, pt. Blew & pt. Red, a 3-9d. 16. 6 

1 Dozn. Tobacco Boxes, a 7. 

1 Dozn. Tobacco Tongs, a 4. 6 

13 lb. Tobacco, a4d., 4. 

3 Dozn Pipes. 1- 

1 Red Stroud to the Queen, 17. 6 

£10. 12. 3 
These being Delivered the Governour Gave them 
an Entertainment, and the Secretary was Ordered to 
provide for them as from the fflrat, all necessarys 
During their stay & for their Journey on their return 

'•Beaver is not of late much used in Europe, 
and therefore does not give so good a price, 
and we deal but very little in that commodity. 
Bat deer skins sell veiy well amongst us, and 
I shall always take care that the Indians be not 
wronged, but except other measures be taken 
to regulate the Indian trade everywhere the 
common methods used in trade will still be 
followed, and every man must take care of 
himself, for thus I must do myself, when I 
buy anything from our own people; if I do 
Aot give them their price, they will keep it, 
for we are a free people. I am sensible rum 
is very hurtful to the Indians; we have made 
laws that none should be carried amongst 
them, or if any were, that it should be staved 
and thrown upon the ground, and the Indians 
have been ordered to destroy all the rum that 
comes in their way. But they will not do it; 
they will have rum, and when we refuse it 
they will travel to the neighboring provinces 
and fetch it. Their own women go to pur- 
chase it, and then sell it amongst their own 
people, at excessive rates. I would gladly 
make any laws to prevent this that could be 
effectual, but the country is so wide, the 
woods are so dark and private, and so far 
out of my sight, that if the Indians them- 
selves do not prohibit it, their own people, 
there is no other way to prevent it. For 
my part I shall readily join in any meas- 
ures that can be proposed for so good a 
purpose. " 

/These interviews between the provincial 
Grovernors and the Indians will serve to rep- 
resent in some sort to our minds the political 
relations of each to the other, the manner of 
their social intercourse, and of the unhappy 
condition of the Indians, in this section of 
Pennsylvania, who, when free from liquo^. 
were inoffensive, faithful and hospitable. 4' 
The Quakers treated them in an honorable 
manner. TVith the frontier settlers, the 
case was otherwise, when traders came among 
them, cheating them. Some of thes^ were of 
a vile class, as will be seen by an act of 
Assembly of 1754. All sorts of people found 
their way into the province, and the Indians 

were subjected to the distresses^fso feelingly 
described in the journal of the great inter- 
preter, Conrad Weiser. 

These treaties serve an important histori- 
cal purpose in showing the names of the 
tribes or nations who inhabited the country 
anywhere in this vicinity. There were no other 
tribes than those mentioned, else they would 
necessarily have been obliged, for their own 
protection, to join with the others in treaties.7 
Even from a distance, from Maryland and' 
New York, there appear the Nantikokes and 
the Six Nations, and there is mention of Vir- 
ginia Indians. At one conference, there was 
present the King of the Couewagoes. As 
there is the stream of that name, we may guess 
either that the tribe took its name from that 
creek, or gave their name to it, and presum- 
ably they were resident near it. A letter 
from Thomas Cookson to Richard Peters, 
April 23, 17-i6, writing concerning a tract 
of land about three miles from York, says: 
"The land was settled by Adam Dickenson, 
who, it is said, has an entry on your books, by 
the proprietor's order, for settling the same 
on his obtaining license, from the Indians 
who lived there about." 

Yet it was the Indians at Conestogoe who 
complained of the settlement of John Grist, * 
and of whatever tribes were those who inhab- 
ited here, they were represented before the 
Provincial Council by the Conestogoes. It 
appears, however, from all we can ascertain, 
that the Indians did not inhabit to any large 
extent the territory now comprising the 
county of York. It was, as it appears from 
the Indian complaints, preceding its settle- 
ment, a hunting ground, or in the way to 
hunting grounds, nearly all woods, and 
claimed by the Indians to have been expressly 
reserved for them by William Penn. The 
original settlers here found immense tracts 
of land entirely denuded of timber by the 
annual fires kindled by the Indians, for the 
purpose of improving their hunting grounds. 
Yet there is room for the exercise of the skill 
of the arohfeologist, from rude and scanty 
remains of the aborigines, such as weapons 
of stone found near the river in many local- 
ities, especially near the mouth of Cone- 
daghly Creek and Cabin Creek, in Windsor 
Township. About the Devil's Cave in that 
locality tradition fixes one of their haunts. 
Eelics have been found about Wrightsville. t 

tSome Indian relics were found here in 1.S35. "A brass 
medal has been left at this office " — says the editor of the Colum- 
bia Spy— "which, together with several other articles, and a 
human skull, was dug up a few days since, in Wrightsville, York 
Co., Penn. It bears on one side a head, with the inscription, 

" George, King of Gre - . - -. 

with his bow and arroi 
to have been worn as ; 


The Indians and the English moved along 
ioTiarmony, subject only to those occasional 
disorders and crimes incident to any commu- 
nity, especially in the intercourse between 
opposite races, or induced by a free supply 
of rum. The Indians at Conestogoe contin- 
ued there until the settlement was abandoned 
in 1763, when the race in that section was 
virtually exterminated. 


'^jnHE first deed that appears iu the chain 
-L of Indian title is dated J anuary 3, 1696, 
in the eighth year of the reign of William I 
III. " Thomas Dongan, late Governor of New 
York, and now of London, Esq., to 'William 
Penn, Governor of the province of Pennsyl- \ 
vania in America; for and in consideration 
of the sum of one hundred pounds, for all 
that tract of land, lying upon both sides of 
the river, commonly called or known by the 
name of the Susquehanna, and the lakes ad- 
jacent, in or near the province of Pennsyl- 
vania in America, beginning at the moun- 
tains or head of the said river, and running 
as far as and into the bay of Chesapeake, 
which the said Thomas Dongan lately pur- 
chased of or had given him by the Seneca- 
Susquehanna Indians: With warranty from 
the Seneca- Susquehanna Indians." This 
sale was effected by deeds of lease and re- 
lease, on succeeding days, according to the 
approved English forms of conveyancing 
under the statute of uses. The Indian deed 
to Col. Dongan is not known now to exist, nor 
is there any trace of it in the public offices. 
It is known, however, that he was the agenl 
of William Penn to make the purchaseiS/ 
The time of the purchase of Col. Dongan is 
fixed by the relation of it, given in the treaty 
of July, 1721, at the council at Conestogoe, j 
already referred to, with Sir William Keith, 
from which the following extract is made: 
"The discourse being continued they were 
told that it was now very near, viz. : within 
one moon of thirty -seven years since a great 
man of England, Governor of Virginia, called 
the Lord Effingham, together with Col. Don- 
gan, Governor of New York, held a great 

were fouDd also two others of similar description — a brass ket- 
tle, a string of white heads one yard and a half in length, 
some red paint, and twenty-live rings, one of which was dated 
ni6."—Riipps Hist, of York County, page 72i 
*II Smith's Laws HI n. 

treaty with them at Albany, of which we 
have the writings to this day. Ghesaont an- 
swered, they knew it well, and the subject of 
that treaty; it was, he baid, about settling of 
lands. Being furthered told that in that 
treaty tlie Five Nations had given up all their 
right to all the lands of Susquehanna to the 
Duke of York, then brother to the King of 
England, he acknowledged this to be so 
and that William Penn since had the right to 
these lands. To which Civility, a descendant 
of the ancient Susquehanna Indians, the old 
settlers of these parts, but now reputed as of 
an Iroquois descent, added that he had been 
informed by their old men that they were 
troubled when they heard that their lands 
had been given up to a place so far distant 
as New York, and that they were overjoyed 
when they understood William Penn had 
brought them back again, and that they had 
confirmed all their right to him."* This 
would make the date of the Dongan deed in 
July, 1684. It was confirmed in 1700 by 
the following deed: 

We, Widaagh, alias Orytyagh, and Andaggy- 
junkquagh, Kings or Sachems of the Susquehan- 
nagh Indians, and of the river under that name, 
and lands lying on both sides thereof, doe declare 
that for and in consideration of a parcel of English 
Goods unto us given, by our friend and brother, 
William Penn, Proprietary and Governour of Pen- 
silvania, and also in Consideration of the former 
much greater costs and Charges, the said William 
Penn hath been at intreating about and purchasing 
the Same ; We doe hereby Give, Grant and Con- 
firm unto the said William Penn, all of the said 
River Susquehannagh, and all the Islands therin 
and all the Lands, Situate, lying and being upon 
both sides of the said River, and adjoyning to ye 
same, extending to the utmost confines of the 
Lands which are, or formerly were, the Right of 
the People or Nation called the Susquehannagh 
Indians, or by what name soever they were called 
or known thereof, and also all Lakes, Rivers, Riv- 
ulets, Fountains, Streams, Trees, Woods, Under- 
woods, Mines, Royalties, and other Mines, Min- 
erals, Quarries, Hawkings, Huntings, fishings, 
fowlings, and other Royalties, Privileges and Pow- 
ers, whatsoever to them or any of them belonging, 
or by them enjoyed, as fully and amply in all re- 
spects as we or any of our Ancestors have, could, 
might or ought to have had, held, or enjoyed ; And 
also all the Right, Title, Interest, Possession, Claim 
and Demand, which we or any of us, or the said 
Nation or any, in Right of the same, have, or here- 
after can or may claim, to have in the same ; And 
we do hereby ratifie and confirm unto ihe said 
William Penn, ye bargain and sale of the Said 
Lauds, made unto Coll. Thomas Dongan. now Earl 
of Limerick, and formerly Govern'r of New York, 
whose Deed of sale to the sd. Govern'r Penn we 
have seen, To have and to hold the sd Rivers, 
Lands and Pr'misses, hereby granted and confirmed 
with their and every of their Rights, Members & 
Appurtenances unto ye sd Will. Penn, his heirs 
and assigns, to the only proper Use and behoof of 
the said Will. Penn, his Heirs and Assignees for- 

«III Col. Rec. 129. 


In Witness we' of. we have, for our Selves & \ 
Nation, hereunto set our Hands & Seals, the _thir 
teenth day of September, 17007'^'' 
Sealed and delivered in presence of Ed. Antitt, 
Hen. Tregeny, Esq., Edward Singleton, David Pow- , 
ell^James Logan.* 

"'The ConestogoG Indians complained of 
this- deed at the treaty with Sir William 
Keith in 1722, alleging that William Penn, 
forty years before, got some person at New ^ 
York to purchase the lands on Susquehanna I 
from the Five Nations, who pretended a 
right to them, having conquered the people 
formerly settled there; and when the Cones- 
. togoes understood it. they were sorry ; and 
that William Penn took the parchment, and j 
laid it upon the ground, saying to them: "It 
should be common amongst them, viz. : the 
English and Indians." The Governor an- 
swered: "I am very glad to find that you 
remember so perfectly the wise and kind ex- 
pressions of the great and good William Penn 
toward you; and I know that the purchase 
wiich be made of the lands, on both sides of 
Susquehanna, is exactly true as you tell it, 
only I have heard further, that when he was 
so good to tell your people, that notwith- 
standing that purchase, the lands should still 
be in common between his people and them, 
you answered, that a very little land would 
serve you; and thereupon you fully confirmed 
his right, by your own consent and good 
will."t -,, ' ^- '' •; 1 ■' 

" It is remarkable that the Indian deed to 
Col. Dongan was not produced, and it 
seemed to have been conceded that his pur- 
chase was from the Five Nations, who pre- 
tended right to the lands by conquest. The 
words "'adjoining to ye same, extending to 
the utmost confines of the lands which are, or 
formerly were the Right of the People or 
Nation, called the Susquehannagh Indians 
by what name soever they were called or 
known thereof," were intended to embrace 
and confirm the title however derived, but did 
not include any extent of land and is left in- 
definite. The object of William Penn was to 
secure the river through the whole extent of 
the province, and although it was not de- 
signed for immediate settlement it was to 
secure the whole of the Susquehanna from 
the claims of adjoining colonies, as the char- 

■-*rol. Thomas Dougan was appointed Governor of New York 
by the Huke of York, September, 1682, and arrived in the prov- 
ince August 26, 1683. He returned to Ireland in 1689, and suc- 
ceeded to the Earldom of UmeTici-.— Smith's Bist. of Ntw York, 
published 1756. 

til Smith's Laws, 112 note, el sea. 

ter bounds were not distinctly known. ' ' Ac- 
cordingly by the articles of agreement of the 
23d of April, 1701, already mentioned, be- 
tween William Penn and Connodagtah, King 
of the Indians inhabiting upon and about , 
the river Susquehanna, and .chiefs of the (■ 
same, and kings and chiefs of the Shawanese '■ 
and Ganawese Indians, and an erubassador ; 
of the Five Nations, the deed of the 13th of | 
September, 1700, above set forth, was rati- I 
fied in the following clause: -'Item, the In- j 
dians of Conestogoe, and upon and about the 
Eiver Susquehannah, and more especially 1 
the said Connodaghtah their king, doth fully 1 
agree to. And by these presents absolutely ! 
Ratifie the Bargain and Sale of Lands lying ! 
near and about the said Eiver formerly made , 
to the said William Penn his heirs & Sucr ' 
cessors, and since by Orytyagh & Andaggy- 
junquah, parties to these presents confirmed 
to the sd William Penn. his heirs & Suc- 
cessors by a Deed, bearing Date the 13th day ■ 
of September, last, under the hands & Seals 
j duly executed, and the said Connodaghtah 
\ doth for himself and his nation covenant and 
agree, that he will at all times be ready fur- 
ther to confirm and make good the said Sale, 
according to the tenure of the same."* 
I Some years afterward, in 1720, at a con- 
! ference held with the Indians at Conestogoe, 
by James Logan, Secretary of the Provincial 
Council, Civility informed him'that some of 
the Five Nations, especially the Cayugas, had 
I at divers times expressed a dissatisfaction at 
j the large settlements made by the English 
on the Susquehanna, and that they seemed 
I to claim a property or right to those lands. 
The Secretary answered that he, Civility, and 
[ all the Indians were sensible of the contrary, 
; and that the Five Nations had long since 
made over all their right to/ Susquehanna to 
the government of New York, and that 
Gov. Penn had purchased that right, with 
which they had been fully acquainted. Civ- 
ility acknowledged the truth of this, but 
proceeded to say, " he thought it his duty to 
inform us of it, that we might the better 
■prevent all misunderstanding." The Gov- 
ernor, when the Secretary had made his 
report, said that there was ground to appre- 
hend that the Five Nations, and especially 
the Cayugas, did entertain some secret 
grudges against the advancing of our settle- 
ments upon the Susquehanna River, and he 
suspected they were spirited up by French 
agents from Canada or Mississippi to make 
those new and groundless claims, f After 
this report of Secretary Logan, Gov. Keith 


on the 19th of July, 1720, wrote to the 
President of New York that some of the 
nation called Cayugas asserted that all the 
lands upon the Susquehanna River belonged 
to them, and that the English had no right to 
settle there, and intended to come down with 
their people in order to demand possession 
of those lands. He then writes: " When 
Gov. Penn first settled this country, he 
made it his chief care to cultivate a strict 
alliance and/ friendship with all the Indians, 
and condescended so far as to purchase his 
lands from them, but when he came to treat 
with the Indiana on the Susquehanna, find- 
ing they accounted themselves a branch of 
the Mingoes or Five Nations, he prevailed 
with Col. Dongan, then Governor of New 
York, to treat with those nations in his be 
half, and to purchase from them all their 
claims of right to the lands on both sides of 
the Susquehanna, which Col. Dongan did 
accordingly, and for a valuable consideration 
paid in sterling money, Col. Dongan by good 
deeds transferred or conveyed his said right 
purchased from the Five Nations to Gov. 
Penn and his heirs in due form of law. 
Upon Gov. Penn' 8 last arrival here, about 
twenty years ago, he held a treaty with 
the Mingoes or Conestogoe Indians settled 
on. Susquehanna, and their chiefs did not 
then only acknowledge the sale of, those 
lands made to Col. Dongan as above, but as 
. much as in them lay, did also renew and 
confirm the same to William Penn. Lastly, 
about nine or ten years ago, a considerable 
"number of the Five Nations, not less than 
fifty, came to Conestogoe, and meeting there 
with Col. Gookin, late governor of this 
province, attended by several members of his 
council. Col. Dongan's purchase was men- 
tioned to them, and they not only appeared 
to be fully satisfied therewith, but proceeded 
in a formal manner, without any hesitation, 
to confirm a]l of our treaties of friendship 

with them.' 


During the administration of Sir William 
Keith, who was Lieutenant-Governor of the 
province from 1717 to 1726, those settlements 
began on the west side of the Susquehanna 
River that occasioned the complaints of the 
Indians, and those Maryland intrusions that 
led to authorized settlements on the part of 

John Gristf had, in 1721, with other per- 

Tilll Col. Eec. 101. 
,,^tThe following note is from Rupp's History : " The stream 
(Kfeutz Creek) has its name from George Kreiss, an early settler 
on that creek, near the Susquehanna. Others calling to aid 
the union of the two streams, lorming a cross, or Kreutz, in 

sons settled himself and family and taken up 
lands on the west side of the river, without 
any warrant from the commissioners of prop- 
erty or any other leg;J right, and continued 
in the possession of them in contempt and de- 
fiance of the repeated orders of the Secretary 
of the Province. Complaint was made by 
the Indians at Conestogoe to the Governor, 
in July, of abuses they had received from 
him. The Governor, with the advice of the 
Commissioners, judged it necessary, for the 
quiet of the Indians, and to prevent suCh 
audacious behavior for the time to come, by 
a warrant under his hand and seal directed 
to John Cartlidge, Esq,, one of his Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace, residing at Conestogoe, 
to warn and admonish John Grist and his 
accomplices forthwith to relinquish the lands 
whereof they had taken possession. In case of 
their refusal the warrant required the Justice 
to raise the posse comitatus and to burn 
and destroy their dwelling houses and habita- 
tions. Notice was given, and they refused to 
remove themselves from off the lands, where- 
upon the Indians destroyed some of their 
cattle. John Grist came to complain to the 
Governor at Philadelphia, where, behaving 
himself in a very insolent and seditious man- 
ner, he was committed to gaol. The Council 
in compassion for his poor family, ordered 
that leave be given him to carry off his corn 
then in the ground. On the 21st of August, 
1721, he entered into a recognizance in 
the sum of 200£ to be of good behavior 
for twelve months, and to remove himself 
and family from his late settlement 
within the space of one month, and being 
Beverly reprehended by the Governor for his 
past contumacy and admonished to behave 
civilly for the future, he was discharged upon 
paying his fees.* 

In April, 1722, Gov. Keith informed 
the Council that the Indians were like to be 
disturbed by secret and underhand practices 
of persons, both from Maryland and Philadel- 
phia, who, under the pretense of finding a 
copper mine, were about to survey and take 
up lands on the other side of the river, con- 
trary to a former order of the government. 
He had gone to the upper parts of Chester 
County, himself, in order to locate a small 
quantity of land, to which he had purchased 
an original proprietary right. He under- 
stood upon the road that some persons were 

German ; hence Kreutz Creek, by which i 
has been known since 1739. The 
Glossbrenner. May thes 

the settlement 
•s of Carter aud 

.__^ , not have derived its name from 

John Grist, who with drrers other persons, settled himself and 
family, and hadHaken up land, as early as 1718, on the west side 
of the Susquehanna, as shown before? In a report ot 17J9, 
touching the location of a road from Wright's Ferry toward the 



actually come with a Maryland right to sur- 
vey lands tifteen miles above Conestogoe, and 
he arrived in time to prevent the execution 
of their design. The Surveyor-General was 
along with him, and part of his right was 
located and surveyed, namely, 500 acres 
upon that spot on the other side of the 
Susquehanna, which was like to prove a bone 
of contention and breed so much mischief. 
This survey was made April 14, 1722, and 
became known as Sir William Keith's tract 
of Newberry. On his way back the Governor 
learned that the young men of Conestogoe 
had made a famous war dance the night 
before, and that they were all going out to 
war immediately, and thereupon he appointed 
a council to be held with the Indians, the 
next morning in Civility's cabin. On the 
15th of June, 1722, the Governor spoke as 
follows: " L'asttimel was with you at Cones- 
togoe you showed me a parchment, which 
you had received from William Penn, con- 
taining many articles of friendship between 
him and you and between his children and 
your children. You then told me he desired 
you to remember it well for three genera- 
tions, but I hope you and your children will 
never forget it. That parchment fully 
declared your consent to William Penn's 
purchase and right to the lands on both sides 
of the Susquehanna. But I find both you 
and we are likely to be disturbed by idle 
people from Maryland, and also by others 
who have presumed to survey lands on the 
banks of the Susquehanna, without any 
powers from William Penn, or his children, 
to whom they belong, and without so much 
as asking your consent." There had been 
certain stipulations between the governors 
and councils of Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
that no surveys or settlements should be 
made by any private persons whatever on the 
west sidenf the Susquehanna by rights from 
either province, and a commission was then 
issued to make diligent inquiry, and search 
after any person, who, under the pretense of 
land rights from either Maryland or Penn- 
sylvania, should presume to survey or settle 
any lands within ten miles distauce of Sus- 
quehanna to the westward and not only to 
forbid all persons to survey as aforesaid, but 
by force to restrain them.* 

Commissioners of property had been ap- 
pointed by William Penn from amongst his 
intimate friends here to superintend his 
landed concerns, who had authority to pur- 
chase lands and grant them for such sums 
and quit rents as to them, or any three of 
them, should seem just and reasonable, or as 

*I1I Col. Eec. 161. ' 

should be respectively agreed for. And 
whatever usages grew up in later times, in 
respect to acquiring lands by settlement, it 
would seem that no title was at first per- 
mitted without an otBce right.* It seems, 
however, that the manager of the land of- 
fice had orders from the proprietary agents 
or commissioners of property to make a sur- 
vey beyond the Susquehanna. This, the 
Governor complained of as contempt of his 
authority, and that it might be of unhappy 
consequences with the Indians, as being con- 
trary to what the Governor in his treaty two 
or three days before had stipulated with 
them. But being an affair of property, the 
council took no cognizance of the matter.f 

On the 2Sth of May, 1722, Philip Syng, a 
silversmith, was committed to prison for 
surveying, under a Maryland warrant, on the 
west side of the Susquehanna. He said that 
the tract of land surveyed by William Keith, 
Governor, belonged to him, Philip Syng & 
Co , by a Maryland title, and was surveyed 
by his order and for his use by a surveyor 
from Maryland. He was charged with en- 
deavoring to defraud the proprietor of Penn- 
sylvania of his just rights, and to create a 
misunderstanding between the government 
and its good neighbors of Maryland, and to 
disturb the'lndians settled upon the Susque- 
hanna River, under this government, at 
that juncture, when it was requisite to give 
them all possible satisfaction. The Sheriff 
being ordered to attend with his prisoner, 
he was called in, and being examined upon 
the matters alleged against him, he; made 
answer to the several interrogatories put to 
him as follows: 

" Have you surveyed any lands by virtue 
of a Maryland right upon the west bank of 
the Susquehanna, viz. : That place known by 
the name of the Mine? " 

" I have." 

"How much land did you then survey? " 

" Two hundred aci-es." 

"By what surveyor?" 

"John Dussey, a surveyor of Maryland." 

"How came you to think that place was in 
Maryland? " 

"I was informed so." 

" When the Governor met you on the 4th 
of April, at Pattison's, had you then made 
this survey?" 

: "No." 

"Did not the Governor then acquaint yon 
that that place was not within the limits of 
Maryland, and that if you presumed to make 
any survey, then he would commit you?" 

*Sergeant'8 Land Laws, p. 35. 
! till Col. Rec. 161 . 



"I do remember that the Govei'nor said if 
he had found us there it would have 
amounted to a severe fine, but as for the rest 
I have forgot." 

He was committed for prosecution.* 
foil the 18th of July, 1722, Gov. Keith in- 
formed the council by letter from Conestogoe, 
that the Indians were very much alarmed 
with the noise of an intended survey from 
Maryland upon the banks of the Susque- 
hanna, and proposed to them to, cause a large 
tract of land to be surveyed on the other side 
of the river for the proprietors, to begin 
from the upper line of his new settlement, 
six miles back and extending downward upon 
the river as far as over against the mouth of 
the Conestogoe Creek. The Indians were ex- 
ceedingly pleased with the proposition, and 
the Governor having heard that the Mary- 
landers were to set out that day, proposed to 
begin the survey the next morning. He also 
directed a company of militia from Newcastle 
to march out and wait his orders, fully de- 
termined to run the old Octoraroe line as far 
west as the branches of the Potomac. The 
Governor considered this survey as the only 
effective method of preserving the peace. 
The Council, however, replied to the Governor 
on the 20th of June, 1722, that undoubtedly 
it would be of service to keep the nations of 
Indians right in relation to any encroach- 
ments made or intended by Maryland, but 
that it did not lie before them as a council of 
state to concern themselves with surveys of 
the proprietaries' lands. As to running a line 
line from the mouth of the Octoraroe westward 
to the Potomac, as it was a matter concern- 
ing the peace of the public, they must say, 
that could it be done by consent between the 
governors of both provinces, and fixed as a 
boundary by consent, not to be passed until 
such time as the division line would be set- 
tled by either side, it would contribute to the 
tranquility of the whole, but if that could 
not be done they apprehended the attempt 
would occasion further disturbances. But if 
that government should forcibly proceed to 
make such surveys, they ought to be diverted 
from it by all the methods justifiable among 
subjects to the same sovereign, but not oth- 
er, f Three nations of Indians entered into 
this plan, the Conestogoes, the Shawanese, 
and the Ganawese. They were unwilling, 
however, to discourse particularly on the bus- 
iness of land, lest the Five Nations might 

during 170' 


repi'oach or blame them, and though the Five 
Nations had no right to these lands, they said 
and four do not pretend to any, yet the fifth, 
the Cayugas, were always claiming some right, 
and they suggested to the Governor to go to 
Albany and settle with the Cayugas. But 
they requested Ihe Governor to cause the 
surveyor to come and lay out the land for Mr. 
Penn's grandson, to secure them.* Thus 
originated the warrant for the survey of the 
manor of Springetsbury.f Col. French, to 
whom the warrant of survey was directed, in 
which the true reasons and motives for such 
a procedure were amply and satisfactorily set 
forth, expressed " the opinion that the Gov- 
ernor had acted with great prudence and cau- 
tion in pressing the only effectual measTire 
which the present situation of affairs would 
allow, for quieting the minds of the Indians 
and preserving the public jaeace. And since 
the Honorable Springet Penn was, in his 
opinion, the late proprietor's heir at law, 
whatsoever turn the affairs of that family 
might take in order to resettle the property 
and dominion of this province, he did not 
see or comprehend how the Governor's hav- 
ing caused the lands to be surveyed, after the 
manner which is here returned, could be in- 
terjjreted or deemed to the prejudice of a 
family for whose service it was so plainly 
meant and intended. "J 

In the meanwhile, according to reports, 
the proprietor of Maryland was not idle on 
his part in making surveys of manors. In 
a letter from Gov. Keith to the Governor 
of Maryland, dated Newberry, on Susque- 
hanna, June 23, 1722, he wrote that he had 
been informed that a warrant was issued for 
surveying a manor to my Lord Baltimore 
ujjon the banks of the Susquehanna above 
Conestogoe, including the settlement from 
whence he then wrote, and that an order had 
been issued by the Governor of Maryland to 
press men and horses for their service, and 
that they were to set out from Baltimore on 
Monday, viz. : next day, under the command 
of Capt. Dorsey. He says: "Knowing the 
weakness and former attempts of some of 
your people, of whom I have formerly com- 
plained to yourself, who justly bear the 
character of land pyrates, I was resolved to 
put it out of their power, upon this occasion, 
to embroil us by their ridiculous projects, and 
returning immediately to Conestogoe, where I 
indeed h ad left the Indians but two days before, 
much alarmed with general reports that the 
Marylanders were coming to smwey the lands, 

*III Col.Rec.lS3. 
tSee chap. VII. 
tin Col. Eeo. 184. 



which no reasonable man could then believe, I \ 
now did at the earnest request of the Indians, 
order a survey to be forthwith made upon the 
banks of Susquehanna, right against our 
Indian towns. And you will find the reasons 
I had for it more fully set forth in a copy of 
the Warrant of the Survey here enclosed. 
As I found this absolutely necessary to be 
done for quieting the Indians, as well as to 
prevent the mischief which might happen 
upon any of your people's presuming to en- 
croach upon what these Heathens call their 
own property; so likewise it appeared to me 
the only method I could take at this juncture 
for preventing our own people from taking up 
or settling lands on this side,* to disturla or 
hamper the Indians, unto whom this Province 
is bound by old treaties to give them a full 
scope and liberty in their settlements from 
the Christian inhabitants." He further said 
that the survey is twelve miles north of Phil- 
adelphia, and within the limits of this 
province without dispute.f 

On the 29th of July, 1723, Charles Calvert, 
Governor of Maryland, wrote that he had 
received instructions from Kight Honorable 
Charles, Lord Baltimore, absolute lord and 
proprietary of the Province of Maiyland, 
forthwith to return to him the true limits and 
boundaries of the said province, in pursuance 
of a letter from the Right Honorable the 
Lord Commissioner for trade and plantations. 
That he, in obedience to his lordship's com- 
mands, intended on the 10th, 11th and 12th 
days of September next, on the west side of 
the SuBquehanna, to take the fortieth degree 
of northerly latitude from the equinoctial, 
the better toward enabling him to answer 
the ends of His Majesty's service expressed 
in his lordship's letter. And that the Lord 
Baltimore had thought proper thus to make 
known the same to the Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, lest he or some of the Pennsylvanians, 
our neighbors, might take umbrage or miscon- 
strue their transactions. Gov. Keith in reply 
said, among other things, that if, under 
the pretense of executing any orders from my 
Lord Baltimore, or from the Lord Commis- 
sioners of Trade and Plantations, which have 
not been communicated to the Proprietor and 
Governor of this province, for the time being, 
it is in tended or designed to take any obser- 
vation or run out any line whereby the pro- 
prietor of Pennsylvania may be hereafter 
excluded from, or in the least prejudiced in 
what will on a fair inquiry appear to be his 
just right, or if under any pretense whatso- 
ever it be proposed that the officers of Mary- 

land by themselves, and without the concur- 
rence of the proprietor of this province, or 
of such as are lawfully empowered by him, 
shall take upon them to extend by any obser- 
vation or survey the northern boundary of 
Maryland beyond the Octoraroe line estab- 
lished (as he was ready to prove by incontest- 
able evidence) above forty years ago by 
Charles, then Lord Baltimore, and second 
proprietor of that Province, who certainly 
was well acquainted with the measuring and 
construction of his own patent or grant from 
the crown, that in either of these cases his 
duty indispensably obliged him strenuously 
to oppose all observations or surveys made 
with any such inequitable and partial intent. 
That in the year 1719 he had received a 
letter from the Lords Commissioners of Trade 
and Plantations, which is believed to be much 
the same as that received of the part of Mary- 
land, and that there was nothing there to 
direct or countenance them to discover the 
bounds of Maryland by astronomical rules 
and uncertain observations. "But if Mr. 
Secretary Lloyd, whom I know to be a very 
ingenious and inquisitive gentleman, must 
needs improve his skill in observations of 
that nature, he will do it to better purpose 
and more safely by consulting my Lord Bal- 
timore's original patent or grant, which 
coniines the province of Maryland on this 
side, in these words: To that part of Dela- 
ware Bay which lieth under the fortieth 
degree of northerly latitude," than by running 
up into the woods on the west side of Susque- 
hanna River, without a sufficient authority 
and proper direction for that purpose." 

To this Gov. Calvert responded: "That 
Gov. Keith's letter had been laid be- 
fore the Council, and they were of opin- 
ion that he should strictly observe his 
lordship's instructions to take an observation 
on the west side of the Susquehanna, on 
the 10th, 11th, and 12th of September next, 
so that it is not a project or concert of Mr. 
Secretary Lloyd's."* He then gave notice 
by postscript that he intended to be upon the 
plantation of Robert West, called Maiden's 
Mount, in Baltimore County, but commonly 
known by the name of Bald Fryar, on Mon- 
day, the 9th day of September, in order there 
to iDegiu to take observations. Gov. Keith 
then acquainted the Council at a meet- 
ing held on the 4th of September, 1723, that 
he proposed on the morrow to go to Conesto- 
goe, whereupon they requested him to meet 
I Col. Calvert upon Susquehanna, if he 
could conveniently. In the meantime, how- 
ever, an agreement had been made in En- 


gland between Lord Baltimore and the widow 
of William Penn, and others interested, to 
the eifect that until a boundary line was 
agreed upon, no land should be surveyed, 
taken up or granted near the boundaries 
claimed on either side. This had been made 
on the 17th of February, 1723.* And for 
the time the dispute was ended. 


Delegations from the Five Nations fre- 
quently visited Conestogoe and Philadelphia, 
and in council had renewed and strengthened 
the leagues of friendship with the English 
by gifts of wampum and skins and receipt 
of merchandise in exchange. Gov. Keith 
visited Albany officially, in 1722, with 
some of the Provincial Council, taking with 
him presents of clothing, powder and lead, 
"to encourage their hunting, that they may 
grow rich and strong." The Governor re- 
ceived at his chamber ten chiefs of the Five 
Nations, being two from each, together with 
two others, said to be of the Tuscaroroes. 
In their language, the word for pen was 
"onas," hence that was the name by which 
they called William Penn, and they were 
accustomed to address each of the Governors 
of this province as such. On this occasion 
they spoke as follows: "Brother Onas: We 
here now freely surrender to you all those 
lands about Conestogoe, which the Five 
Nations have claimed, and it is our desire 
that the same may be settled with the Chris- 
tians. In token whereof we give this string 
of wampum." To which Gov. Keith re- 
sponded: "Brethren: You know very well 
that the lands about Conestogoe, upon the 
river Susquehanna, belong to your old friend 
and kind brother, William Penn; neverthe- 
less, I do here, in his name, kindly accept , 
of the offer and surrender which you have 
made to me, because it will put an end to all 
other claims and disputes, if any should be 
made hereafter, "f 

Still later, on the 4th of July, 1727 
Gov. Gordon was obliged to reiterate to 
the Indians, chiefly Cayugas, that Gov. 
Penn, that is Onas, took away none of their 
lands without purchasing them and paying 
for them, and that they had the deeds for all 
the lands on Susquehanna ; that the Five 
Nations never since claimed these lands, 
though they had many visits from them 
hither for brightening the chain of friend- 
ship. "And live years since, when Sir Will- 
iam Keith and four gentlemen of the Council 
were at Albany, at a general meeting of all 

the Five Nations, the chiefs of 
confirmed the former grant and absolutely 
released all pretentions to those lands. Our 
records show this, and those people who are 
now here cannot but be sensible of it."* 

At a council held at Philadelphia, in the 
Great Meeting house, June 5, 1728, Mr. 
Logan spoke to the Indians to this effect: 
That their great friend, William Penn, had 
made it his constant rule never to suffer any 
lands to be settled by any of his people until 
they were first duly purchased from the In- 
dians, and his commissioners, who acted for 
him during his absence, had as carefully used 
the same method, they never agreed to the 
settlement of any lands till the Indians were 
duly satisfied for them. That it was stipu- 
lated at the first settlement of this province, 
between the proprietor, William Penn, and 
the Indians that they should sell no lands to 
private persons or to any besides himself, or 
his commissioners, and afterward a law was 
enacted to the same purpose, that all of the 
purchases made of the Indians by any other 
than the proprietor or his agents should be 
entirely void, which law, he said, is still in 
force. That the commissioners had been 
strictly careful to avoid granting any lands 
that had not been first duly purchased of the 
Indians, and the Indians were not put offbut 
suffered voluntarily to remove, f 

In 1730 Capt. Civility wrote to Gov. Gor- 
don, from Conestogoe, that at Lancaster he 
heard much talk that both Dutch and English 
were going to settle on the other side of the 
Susquehanna. That Mr. Wright and Mr. 
Blunston had surveyed a great deal of land 
and designed to dispose of it. That it was 
in their road to hunting and their young men 
might break the chain of friendship. That 
Mr. Wright had often said, when he first 
came to those parts, that no person should 
settle on that side of the river without the 
Indians' consent; that the Governor had de- 
sired, when with them at Conestogoe, that 
they should not hurt any of his people, 
which they carefully observed, and likewise 
that Edward Parnell, who was settled there, 
should go off, which he did. That they 
heard that one of William Penn's family was 
coming to this country and they would be 
glad to see any of his family. That they 
were then going out to hunt, and desired the 
Governor to suppress his people from settling 
there until they returned from their hunting, 
and then some of their chiefs would come 
down to him and have some further treaty 
about the matter. J Thomas Penn, one of the 

«III Col. Eec. 273. 
till Col. Eec. 320. 
XI Arch 271. 




proprietaries, arrived on the 11th of August, 
and took control of the province. 

At a meeting of the Provincial Council at 
Philadelphia, in 1735, representatives of the 
Conestogoes, Shawanese and Ganawese being 
present. Thomas Penn read over to the In- 
dians the former treaties, reciting the deed 
of agreement of 1701, and the Indians pres- 
ent fully ratified and confirmed all the same 
between the government and the several na- 
tions in whose name and behalf they had 
come. At this council Civility said: "That 
when William Penn first came into this coun- 
try, he called many of the Indians together 
and told them that the great king of England 
had given unto him a large tract of land, on 
which several nations of Indians were set- 
tled; that it was his desire to live in peace 
and good friendship with all those Indians, 
and therefore he would make purchases from 
them of those lands, before they should be 
possessed by the white people. That William 
Penn and the Indians agreed on other arti- 
cles, of all which two papers were written; 
one of them their brother William Penn had, 
and the other they have brought with them to 
show that thoy preserve all these things 
carefully. That William Penn told the In- 
dians this agreement was to continue for 
three generations."* 

On the 11th of October, 1736, in the tenth 
year of the reign of King George the Sec- 
ond, a deed was executed by the Sachems or 
Chiefs of the nations of the Onondagoes, Sen- 
ecas, Cayugas, Oneidas and the Tusearoroes, 
to John, Thomas and Richard Penn, after 
reciting in the preamble as follows: 

Whereas, the late Proprietary of the Province 
of Pennsylvania, AVm. Penn, Esqr., soon after his 
first arrival in his said province, took measures to 
have the River Susquehanna, with all the Lands ly- 
ing on both sides of the same, purchased for him 
and his heirs of those Indians of the fflve Nations, 
* * * and accordingly did purchase them of Coll. 
Thomas Dongan. & pay for the same. Notwith- 
standing which the Indians of the five Nations 
aforesaid, have continued to claim a Right in & to 
the said River and Land; nor have these claims been 
hitherto adjusted; whereupon the Sachems of Chiefs 
having with all the others of the said Nations met 
the last Summer at their great Council, held in ye 
Country of the said Onondagoes, did Resolve & 
Conclude that afinal Period and Conclusion should 
be put to all disputes that might possibly arise on 
that Occasion." 

And having appointed the aforesaid sa- 
chems or chiefs as plenipotentiaries of all 
those nations to repair to Philadelphia, in 
order to confirm the several treaties of peace 
which have hitherto been concluded between 

*III Col. Rec. 598-9. 

them and the said province, and also to settle 
and adjust all demands and claims that have 
been heretofore made touching or concerning 
the aforesaid Susquehanna and the lands ly- 
ing on both sides thereof: In consideration 
of the premises and " 500 lbs. powder, 600 
lbs. lead, 45 guns, 60 strouds water match 
coats, 100 blankets, 100 duffle match coats, 
200 yds. of half thick, 100 shirts, 40 hats, 
40 prs. of shoes and buckles, 40 prs. stock- 
ings, 100 hatchets, 500 knives, 100 houghs 
(hoes), 60 kettles, 100 tobacco tongs, 100 scis- 
sors, 500 awl blades, 120 combs, 2,000 need- 
les, 1,000 flints, 24 looking-glasses, 2 lbs. Ver- 
million, 100 tin pots, 200 lbs. tobacco, 25 
glls. rum, 1,000 pipes, 24 dozen of gartering." 

Conveyed to the said proprietaries, " all the 
said river Susquehanna, with the lands lying 
on both sides thereof, to extend eastwardly as 
far as the head of the branches or springs 
which run into the said Susquehanna, and 
all the lands lying on the west side of the 
said river to the setting of the sun, and to 
extend from the mouth of the said river 
northward, up the same to the hills or moun- 
tains called in the language of the said na- 
tions, the Tyannuntasacta, or endless hills, 
and by the Delaware Indians, the Kekkachta- 
nanin Hills."* 

On the 25th of October, 1736, a release 
was executed by the several chiefs on behalf 
of the same nations, and also of the Mo- 
hawks, of the lands conveyed by the preced- 
ing deed, described more particularly as fol- 
lows: Lands on both sides of the river Sus- 
quehanna, from the mottth thereof as far 
northward or up the said river as the ridge of 
hills called the Tyoninhasachta, or Endless 
Mountains, westward to the setting' sun, and 
eastward to the furthest springs of the waters 
running into the said river. Releasing all 
right, claim and pretensions to all the lands 
lying within the bounds and limits of the 
government of Pennsylvania, beginning 
eastward on the river Delaware, as far north- 
ward as the said ridge or chain of endless 
mountains as they cross the country of Penn- 
sylvania from, eastward to the west. That 
neither they nor any in authority in their na- 
tions, would sell to any jDerson, white men or 
Indians, other than the children of William 
Penn, or persons authorized by them, any 
lands within the limits of Pennsylvania. On 
this deed of release there is an endorsement 
of ratification, dated the 9th oO July, 1754, 
signed by nine Indians. f 



''T^HE European nations claimed the right 
X by discovery to own and possess all 
countries inhabited by savages. It was a 
right they assumed to be inherent in them as 
Christians, for the conversion of the heathen, 
and between themselves the right was deter- 
mined by prior discovery. A newly discovered 
country belonged to the nation whose people 
first discovered it. The grants by the Popes 
to'the Spaniards were never doubted, and no 
other Christian prince intruded into the 
countries made theirs by discovery and con- 
quest. The English acquired the title of lirst 
discoverers through Cabot's voyage along our 
coast in 1498. Yet, as the Delaware River 
was discovered by Henry Hudson, the right 
to the land upon it was claimed by the Dutch, 
because, at the time of discovery, he was in 
their service and under their Hag. Cape May 
was named after a merchant of Amsterdam, 
Capt. Cornelius Jacobson May. The English, 
however, maintained their right, on the 
ground that Hudson was an Englishman by 
birth, and because Lord De La War entered 
the bay in 1610, giving his name to it; but 
the discovery made by Hudson was in 1609. 
There was enmity existing between the gov- 
ernments of New England and New Nether- 
lands. Oliver Cromwell had been applied to 
by the NewEnglanders for aid, and after his 
death, Charles II, restored to the throne, de- 
termined to drive the Hollanders away. He 
granted to his brother, the Duke of York, in 
1664. the territory possessed by the Dutch, 
namely, New York and New Jersey, and the 
land now comprised in the State of Delaware. 
War vessels were sent over and Newcastle re- 
duced by an armed force. The whole prov- 
ince of New Netherlands was surrendered, 
and thus an English title was acquired by 
actual conquest. The Swedes, who had set- 
tled upon the Delaware, had come over under 
a charter from Gustavus Adolphus, but they 
came only as colonists, about the year 1626. 

Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore, obtained 
his grant to Maryland from Charles I, in 16^32, 
and the tirst settlement under it was at. St. 
Mary's in 1634. He claimed, under his grant, 
the lands on the west side of the Delaware 
River included in the whole of the fortieth 
degree of latitude. This grant to Cecil Cal- 
vert was of land promised to his father, 
George Calvert, Secretary of State, and 
which had been named by the king, Mary- 
land, in honor of his queen, Henrietta Maria. 
It was to the unoccupied part of Virginia, 

from the Potomac River northward, including 
lands both on the east and west side of Ches- 
apeake Bay. Charles, the son of Cecil, pro- 
cured a confirmation of the patent in 1661. 
The words of the grant are: "All that part 
of a Peninsula lying between the ocean on 
the east and the bay of Chesapeake on the 
west, and divided from the other part by a 
right line, drawn from the Cape, called Wat- 
kins Point, situated in the aforesaid bay near 
the river Wigbee on the west, unto the main 
ocean on the east, and between that bound on 
the south unto that part of Delaware Bay on 
the north, which lieth under the fortieth de- 
gree of north latitude from the equinoctial, 
and all that tract of land, from the aforesaid 
bay of Delaware, in a right line by the de- 
gree aforesaid, to the true meridian of the 
first fountain of the river Potomack, and from 
thence tending toward the south, to the fur- 
ther bank of the aforesaid river, and follow- 
ing the west and south side of it, to a certain 
place called Cinquach, situated near the 
mouth of said river, where it falls into the 
bay of Chesapeake, and from thence by a 
straight line to the aforesaid cape, called 
Watkins Point." 

The extent of land contained in the fortieth 
degree of latitude, thus mentioned as the 
northern boundary of Maryland, was claimed 
by the proprietors of both provinces as lying 
entirely within their respective grants. That 
part of the peninsula bordering on Delaware 
Bay had been settled and was occupied by 
the Dutch and Swedes, over whom the Duke 
of York claimed sovereignty. The grant to 
Lord Baltimore was only of such lands as 
were "unplanted by any civilized nation", 
and hence the settled part would be excluded 
from his charter. The grant to the Duke of 
York was of all lands occupied by the Dutch 
from the west side of Connecticut River to 
the east side of Delaware Bay. Before the 
grant to the Duke of York, Lord Baltimore 
had claimed all the lands between the 38th 
and 40th degrees of latitude from sea to sea. 
The charters of both Virginia and New En- 
gland had no certain boundaries, and the 
geographical position of the degrees of lati- 
tude mentioned were equally uncertain. 
Therefore, when William Penn conceived the\ 
idea of securing a tract of land in America] 
for his purposes, he made his application for] 
land lying north of Maryland on the east 
bounded by Delaware River, on the west 
limited as Maryland, and northward to extend 
as far as plantable.* To this application ob- 
jections were made by the Duke of York and 
Lord Baltimore. William Penn, in his own 

*Proud. Anderson's History of Commerce. 



account of the application, says he petitioned 
the king for five degrees, when it was urged that 
Lord Baltimore had but two degrees. "Upon 
which the Lord Baltimore, turning his head 
to me, at whose chair I stood, said, 'Mr. 
Penn, will not three degrees serve your 
turn ?' I answered, 'I submit both the when 
and how to the honorable waMen". 

The charter of Charles II to William Penn, 
Proprietary and Governor of the province of 
Pennsylvania, is dated at Westminster, the 
fourth day of March, 1681, in the thirty- 
third year of that monarch. The land granted 
to him is described as follows: "All that tract 
or parcel of land in America, with the islands 
therein contained, as the same is bounded on 
the east by the Delawai'e River from twelve 
miles distance northward of Newcastletown. 
unto the three and fortieth degree of north- 
ern latitude, if the said river doth extend so 
far northward, but if the said river shall not 
extend so far northward, then by the said 
river, so far as it doth extend, and from the 
head of the said river, the eastern bounds are 
to be determined by a meridian line, to be 
drawn from the head of said river, unto the 
said forty-third degree. The said land to 
extend westward five degi'ees in longitude, to 
be computed from the said eastern bounds 
and the said lands to be bounded on the 
north by the beginning of the three and for- 
tieth degree of northern latitude, and on the 
south by a circle, drawn at twelve miles 
distance from Newcastle, northward and west- 
ward, unto the beginning of the fortieth 
degree of northern latitude and then by a 
straight line westward to the limits of the 
longitude above mentioned."* 

Newcastle was a town that had been set- 
tled by the Dutch, and called Nueue Amstel, 
and changed to Newcastle by- the Duke of 
York, being the place now of that name, and 
situate within the fortieth degree of latitude. 
The land bordering on the Delaware Piiver and 
Bay, settled by the Dutch and granted to the 
Duke of York, comprises what is now the 
State of Delaware. This land William Penn 
obtained of the Duke of York, by deed of re- 
lease, dated the '21st day of August, 16S2. 
And by deeds of feoffment, dated the 24th 
of the same month, he procured from the 
Duke all his right, title and interest in the 
land, after known as the three lower counties 
on the Delaware, extending from the south 
boundary of the province of Pennsylvania, 
and situate oo the western side of Delaware 
River and Bay, to Cape Henlopen. The first 
deed was for the town of Newcastle and a 
district of twelve miles around it as far as the 

Delaware River. In the second was compre- 
hended that tract of land from twelve miles | 
south of Newcastle to Cape Henlopen.* 

Proud, in his history of Pennsylvaniai ; 
says: "By the first section of the charter, 
the extent and boundary of the province are 
expressed in such plain terms that it might 
reasonably be supposed they could not well or; 
easily be misunderstood; three degrees of lafc-; 
itude included and bounded between the be- 
ginning of the fortieth and the beginning of 
forty-third degree of north latitude, equal to 
about two hundred and eight English statute 
miles, north and south, with five degrees of 
longitude westward from Delaware River,! 
which, in the parallel of forty-one degrees, I 
are equal to nearly two hundred and sixty-five; 
miles east and west, are as clearly and mani- ; 
festly expressed to be granted to the proprie- ' 
tary of Pennsylvania as words can do it; and 
we are otherwise suiBciently certified that the 
same space or quantity of land was intended' 
by the king to be included in the said grant, , 
yet the dispute between the proprietaries of i 
Maryland and Pennsylvania, on this point, i 
was afterwards remarkable and of many' 
years' continuance, occasioned by each of the 
respective proprietaries claiming to himself 
the whole space or extent of land contained 
in the fortieth degree of latitude, which was , 
the north boundary of Maryland by patent 
of that province, and which though prior to i 
that of Pennsylvania, sjDecifics or assigns no ' 
particular part of the said degree for the 
boundary as the Pennsylvania grant doth, 
which space or degree, containing nearly 
seventy English miles in breadth, north and - 
south, and in length westward, so far as Ma 
ryland extends, was no small matter to occa- 
sion a dispute. But notwithstanding the 
clearness of the terms by which the boundary 
between the said provinces is expressed in' 
their respective charters, as above mentioned, 
yet this dispute was at length, in the year 
1732, finally settled chiefly in favor of Mary-' 
land by fixing the said boundary between the' 
two provinces only fifteen miles due south. 
of the most southerly part of Philadelphia, 
or in the parallel of thirty-nine degrees, for- 
ty-four minutes, nearly, instead of 39 degrees, 
or at the beginning of the fortieth degree, as 
mentioned and intended by charter, which 
renders the real extent of Pennsylvania 
north and Bcnth only about 155 miles, 
instead of 208, and makes the square miles 
in the province about 41,000, and the num- 
ber of acres 26,288,000, or near twenty-six 
millions." When William Penn visited the 
province, in 1682, he had an interview with 


Lord Baltimore in regard to the matter, in 
which he presented a letter from the king, 
that Lord Baltimore should measure his de- 
grees at sixty miles to a degree, his lordship 
said that the king was mistaken, and that the 
letter could not avoid his patent. William 
Perm says that the proprietor of Maryland 
treated him with great civility, but in all of | 
their interviews he could never get him to ar- 
range definitely their respective bound- 
aries. * 

James, Duke of York, succeeded to the 
throne on the death of his brother, Charles, in 
168-i. A petition of Lord Baltimore to the late 
king had been referred to the Committee of 
Trade and Plantations, and the Committee 
after many hearings on behalf of both parties, 
made their report to King James II, and he, 
in November, 1685, by advice of the council, 
ordered a division of the land between the 
Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, from the lat- 
itude of Cape Henlopen to the south bound- 
ary of Pennsylvania, into two equal parts, 
the Delaware side to be the king's, and the 
Chesapeake side to be Lord Baltimore's, on 
the ground that the lands granted by the pat- 
ent of Lord Baltimore were inhabited only 
by savages, and the part in dispute was in- 
habited and planted by Christians before the 
date of the patent. This dividing line termi- 
nated on the north at a parallel of about fif- 
teen miles due south of Philadelphia, touch- 
ing the arc of a circle drawn at twelve miles 
distant from Newcastle to the river Delaware. 
James II, by the revolution of 1688, lost his 
throne and William and Mary succeeded. 
During this period of revolution, William 
Penn was under a cloud of suspicion, having 
been charged with being a Jesuit in disguise. 
It resulted in bis being deprived of the gov- 
ernment of his province, b}' William and 
Mary, which was placed under the control of 
Benjamin Fletcher, Governor of New York. 
The affairs of the province went on much as 
usual, William Markham, the first agent of 
William Penn, having been appointed dep- 
uty. In 1693 the government was restored to 
him. The same fate overtook the rival pro- 
prietary. Cecil Calvert died in 1675, when 
Charles became proprietor, and in 1691 the 
king took the government in his own hands 
until 1715, when the province was restored to 
the heir, then a Protestant. f 

It was at the time of William Penn's sec- 
ond visit to the provintTe, and after his resto- 
ration to the government of it in 1693, that 
the purchase through Gov. Dougan, of 
New York, was effected from the Indians. 


tHist. of Maryland. 

This was done in 1696. After the proprieta- 
ry's return home, the treachery of a trusted 
friend of his own sect threw him into finan- 
cial embarrassments, occasioned his impris- 
onment and the rest of his life was a series 
of trials and sufferings, mental and physical, 
until his death, in 1718. His eldest sou, by 
his first wife, died a year or two aftei' his 
father, leaving a son, Springet Penn. This 
grandson was the heir at law. The grand- 
father, however, had made a will by which 
the government of the province was devised 
in trust to dispose of to the crown or other- 
wise. The soil, rents or other profits of 
Pennsylvania he bequeathed to trustees, to 
lay out 40,000 acres for Guli Springe t's 
descendants (his first wife's family), and 
to sell as much land as would pay of the 
whole of his debts, and then divide the re- 
mainder among the children of his second 
wife, with a pension to his widow out of the 
profits, making his wife sole executrix. The 
rights of the devisees were disputed and a 
tedious suit in the Exchequer Court resulted. 
He had made his will six years before his 
death, and after it was made, he had agreed 
to sell the province to the crown and had re- 
ceived a part of the money. Before the 
making of his will' he had mortgaged the 
province to secure some borrowed money, 
with power to sell. This mortgage was un- 
satisfied at the time of his death. 

It will be remembered that, at this time. 
(1723) the intention of Gov. Calvert, communi- 
cated to Gov. Keith, was to take an observation 
on the west side of the Susquehanna to as- 
certain the fortieth degree of northerly lati- 
tude from the equinoctial. Thus commenced 
the troubles regarding the boundary line 
under the claim of Lord Baltimore to the 
lands west of the Susquehanna, and which, 
if sustained, to the fortieth cfegree of lati- 
tude, would have placed the territory we now 
occupy in the State of Maryland. It will be 
remembered, too, that Gov. Keith, in his 
letter to Gov. Calvert, objects to the ex- 
tension of the northern boundary of Mary- 
land beyond the Octararoe line, established 
above forty years before. With regard to 
this, Gov. Gordon made subsequently the 
following statement; "King Charles the 
First, granted to Lord Baltimore the province 
of Maryland, extending northward to the 
fortieth degree of northern latitude, in the 
manner expressed in his patent, at a time 
when the true latitude of, those parts was 
not well understood, bl^t it can be incontest- 
ably made to appear that the grantee him- 
self claimed by hie grant no higher than the 
head of Chesapeake Bay. In the year 1680, 



Charles II granted to Mr. Penn, the province 
of Pensylvania. bounded southwai-d by a cir- 
cle of twelve miles round Newcastle and to 
the westward of that circle by the same 
fortieth degree. Mr. Penn, coming over in 
1682 with great numbers of people to settle 
this province, the then Lord Baltimore, eon 
to the first grantee, being at the same 
time in Maryland, and willing to fix his 
northern boundary, came up not long after, 
in person, to the mouth of the Oetoraroe 
Creek, on Susquehanna, causing Col. Talbot 
to begin there and run a line from thence east- 
ward to Delaware; after this was done he, in 
1083, sent the same gentleman, Col. Talbot, ^ 
at two different times, with two several com- 
missioners to this government, to demand 
the possession of all the lands lying on tlie 
west side of the Delaware to the southward 
of that line, leaving both times authentic 
copies of his commissions, and no further 
settlement being then made, from that time 
the mouth of Oetoraroe was reputed by the 
inhabitants of those parts on both sides to 
give the northern limits of the one and 
the southern limits of the other province."* 
The Maryland encroachments, as they were 
called by the Pennsylvanians, were founded 
upon this claim of Lord Baltimore to the ter- 
ritory wherein he authorized settlements to 
be made. It does not appear that there were 
any difficulties between the two provinces, 
from the city of Philadelphia to the Susque- 
hanna River. But west of the Susquehanna 
River Lord Baltimore issued his warrants 
under his claims to the fortieth parallel of 
latitude, even pending the litigation between 
him and the Penns, evidently suimising that 
the right to it under his grant might be ulti- ' 
mately acknowledged. 

On the 17th day of February, 1724, there was 
an agreement made between the right honor- 
able Charles, Lord Baltimore, proprietor of 
Maryland, and Hannah Penn, widow and exec- 
utrix of William Penn, Esq., late proprietor 
of Pennsylvania, and Joshua Gee and Henry 
Gouldney, of London, in behalf of them- 
selves and the rest of the mortgagees of the 
province of Pennsylvania, as follows: 
"Whereas there are disputes depending be- 
tween the respective proprietors of the pro- 
vinces of Maryland and Pennsylvania touch- 
ing the limits or boundaries of the said pro- 
vinces where they are contiguous to each 
other. And whereas both parties are at this 
time sincerely inclined to enter into a treaty 
in order te take such methods as may be ad 
visable for the final determining of the said 
controversy, by agreeing upon such lines or { 

other marks of distinction to be settled as 
may remain for a perpetual boundary be- 
tween the two provinces; it is therefore mu- 
tually agreed .... That, avoiding all man- 
ner of contentions or differences between the 
inhabitants of the said provinces, no person 
or persons shall be disturbed or molested in 
their possessions on either side, nor any 
lands be surveyed, taken up or granted in 
either of the said provinces near the boun- 
daries which have been claimed or pretended 
to on either side. This agreement to con- 
tinue for the space of eighteen months from 
the date hereof, in which time it is hoped 
the boundaries will be determined and set- 
tled. And it is mutually agreed on by the 
said parties, that proclamations be issued out 
in the said provinces signifying this agree- 
ment, for the better quieting of the people."* 
There was litigation as to the proprietorship, 
and after some years a compromise was 
effected in the family, and the government of i 
the province fell to John, Thomas and Rich- j 
ard Penn, the surviving sons of the second " 
wife." By a letter of August 17, 1727. 
from John and Thomas Penn to the trustees, ,i 
it was announced that the long depending : 
dispute was at last determined with respect ' 
to the propriety of the province. The court | 
established the will, but in relation to the i 
powers of government the Barons would not [ 
take upon them to decide anything until the j 
Attorney -General should have orders to answer i 
whether his Majesty would be pleased to in- i 
sist upon the performance of the contract 
made with the late queen, or quit it; but j 
this they had not yet, by all the solicitation i 
they could make, been able to obtain, but 
hoped to get it against the next term. How- I 
ever, they were now authorized to execute ( 
the trust, j In 1732, after the mortgage debt, 
and all other claims had been settled, Thomas 
Penn arrived in this country, and for himself 
and brothers took possession of the province. 
In that same year, on r,he 10th of May, ar- 
ticles of agreement were made between 
Charles, Lord Baltimore, proprietary of 
Maryland, and John, Thomas and Richard 
Penn, proprietaries of Pennsylvania. Among 
other things it provided, "that in two 
calendar months from that date, each party 
should appoint Commissioners, not more than 
seven, whereof three or more of each side 
may act, or mark out the boundaries afore- 
said, to begin, at the furthest, sometime in 
October, 1732, and to be completed on or be- 
fore December 25, 1733, and when so done 
a plan thereof shall be signed, sealed and 



delivered by the Commissioners and their 
principals, and shall be entered in all the 
public offices in the several provinces and 
counties, and to recommend to the respective 
Legislatures to pass an act for perambulating 
these boundaries, at least once in three years. 
The party defaulting, to pay the other party 
on demand 6,000 pounds sterling." 

On the 12th of May, John, Thomas and 
Richard Penn signed a commission directed 
to Patrick Gordon, Isaac Norris, Samuel 
Preston, James Logan and Andrew Hamilton, 
esquires and to James Steel and Robert 
Charles, gentlemen, appointing them or any 
three or more of them Commissioners with 
full power, on the part of the said proprie- 
taries, for the actual running, marking and 
laying out the boundary lines, between both 
the province and territories of Pennsylvania 
and Maryland, according to the articles of 
agreement. And an instrument of the same 
tenor and date was executed by Lord Balti- 
i more, directed to Samuel Ogle, Charles 
Calvert, Philemon Lloyd, Michael Howard, 
Richard Bennet, Benjamin Tasker, and 
Matthew Tilghman Ward, Esquires, appoint- 
ing them, or any sis, five, four or three of 
j them. Commissioners, for the same purposes 
on the part of the said Charles, Lord Balti- 
[ more. At a meeting of the Provincial Coun- 
'cil on the 31st of September, 1732, Thomas 
I Penn, proprietary, being present. Gov. 
Gordon acquainted the Board that the differ- 
[ ences between our honorable proprietary 
I family and the Lord Baltimore, touching the 
I disputed boundaries of their respective gov- 
ernments, being now happily accommodated, 
an agreement had been concluded between 
them, which, by the direction of the pro- 
prietor, he was now to lay before the Board. 
That it had been as yet only communicated 
; to the Commissioners, and those gentlemen 
were in a few days to set out to meet Mr. 
Ogle, Governor of Maryland, and those named 
i on the part of that government. The mem- 
I bers of the Council expressed their satis- 
j faction and pleasure .that the differences and 
1 uneasinesses, which had formerly so much 
[disquieted the government, were in so fair 
I a way of being settled, and as execution of 
the agreement was entrusted to persons of 
such good abilities it was to be hoped the 
! same would be speedily brought to a happy 
! issue;* and on the 3d of October, 1732, the 
Governor notified them that pursuant to an 
appointment made between the Lieutenant- 
Governor of Maryland and himself for the 
I meeting of the Commissioners, he was to set 
out to-morrow for Newtown in Maryland. 

*1II Col. Kec. 464. 

The Commissioners respectively appeared at 
the time and place fixed, but upon some 
differences of opinion, the boundaries were 
not made in the time limited. The failure 
was on the side of Lord Baltimore, who 
alleged, in respect of the agreement, that he 
had been deceived in fixing Cape Henlopen 
twenty-five miles southwesterly of the western 
cape of Delaware Bay, whereas Cape Hen- 
lopen is the western cape itself. The Penns 
affirmed that the western cape is Cape Cor- 
nelius, and Cape Henlopen some miles south- 
wardly of it, according to the Dutch maps 
and descriptions published, about the time 
when Lord Baltimore obtained his grant. 
The chart by which the boundaries were given 
named the cape opposite to Cape May, at the 
mouth of Delaware Bay, Cape Cornelius, and 
the point at Fenwick's Island, Cape Henlopen. 
The charts now transpose that order. Lord 
Baltimore endeavored to avoid this agreement 
to settle the boundaries, and the time having 
expired for completing the articles, Charles, 
Lord Baltimore, petitioned the King in Coun- 
cil for relief on the 9th of August, 1734, 
which was opposed by a counter petition by 
John, Thomas and Richard Penn on the 9th 
of December, 1734, and upon references and 
report thereon, the King on the 16th of May, 
1735, ordered the consideration of the report 
to be adjourned, that the Messrs. Penn might 
proceed in equity. On the 21st of June, 1735, 
they exhibited their bill in the court of 
Chancery of Great Britain against Lord 
Baltimore, praying that the said articles may 
be deemed to subsist and be carried into exe- 
cution, and that any doubts arisen may be 
cleared by the decree. After tedious delays 
they obtained a decree on the 15th of May, 
1750, for the specific performance of the 

The opinion of Lord Hardwicke, the great- 
est of the British Chancellors, puts the 
'■ merits of the controversy in a clear light. 
; "Lord Chancellor. — I directed this cause to 
': stand over for judgment, not so much from 
any doubt of what was the justice of the 
case, as by reason of the nature of it, the 
great consequence and importance, and the 
great labor and ability of the argument on 
both sides; it being for the determination of 
the right and boundaries of two great prov- 
incial governments and three counties; of a 
nature worthy the judicature of a Roman 
Senate rather than of a single judge — and 
my consolation is, that if I should err in my 
judgment, there is a judicature equal in 
' dignity to a Roman Senate that will correct 
j it. . . . The settling and fixing these 

I *Penns vs. Lord Baltimore, I Vesey's Reports, 44i. 



boundaries in peace, to prevent the dis- 
order and mischief which in remote countries, 
distant from the seat of government, are 
most likely to happen, and most mischiev- 
ous. . . . This has subsisted above 
seventy years. . . . Though nothing 
valuable is given on the face of articles as a 
consideration, the settling boundaries, and 
peace, and quiet, is a mutual consideration 
on each side, and in all cases make a con- 
sideration to support a suit ia this court for 
performance of the agreement for settling 
the boundaries. ... It appears that the 
agreement was originally proposed by the 
defendant himself ; he himself produced 
the plan or map afterward annexed to the 
articles; he himself reduced the heads of it 
into writing, and was very well assisted in 
making it; and farther that there was a great 
length of time taken for consideration and 
reducing it to form. . . . The defendant 
and his ancestors were conversant in this 
dispute about fifty years before this agree- 
ment was entered into. . . . It is insisted 
the whole fortieth degree of north latitude is 
included; and if so that it is not to be lim- 
ited by any recital in the preamble. There 
is great foundation to say, the comiDutations 
of latitude at the time of the grant vary 
miich from what they are at present, and that 
they were set much lower anciently than 
what they are now. ... In these countries 
it has been always taken that that European 
country which has just set up marks of pos- 
session, has gained the right though not 
formed into a regular colony. . . . Next 
consider the dispute on Penn's charter, which 
grants to him all that tract of land in 
America from twelve miles distant from New- 
castle to the 43rd degree of north latitude. 
.... Upon the charter it is clear by the 
proof that the true situation of Cape Hen- 
lopen is as it is marked in the plan, and not 
where Cape Cornelius is, as the defendant 
insists; which would leave out a great part of 
what was intended to be included in the 
grant, and there is a strong evidence of seiz- 
ure and possession by Penn, of that spot of 
Cape Henlopen, and all acts of ownership. 
But the result of all the evidence, taking it in 
the most favorable light for the defendant, 
amounts to make the boundaries of these 
countries and rights of the parties doubtful. 
Senex, who was a good geographer, says that 
the degi'ees of latitude cannot be computed 
with the exactness of two or three miles, and 
another geographer says that with the best 
instrument it is impossible to fix the degrees 
of latitude without the uncertainty of seven- 
teen miles, which is near the whole extent 

the capes The objection of 

uncertainty arises principally on the question 
concerning the circle of twelve miles to be 
drawn about Newcastle. It was insisted on 
in the answer and greatly relied on in Ame- 
rica, but is the clearest part of the cause. As 
to the centre it is said that Newcastle is a 
long town, and therefore it not being fixed 
by the articles, it is impossible that the 
court can decree it; but there is no difficulty 
in it; the centre of a circle must be a mathe- 
matical point (otherwise it is indefinite) and 
no town can be so. I take all these sorts of , 
expressions and such agreements to imply 
a negative ; to be a circle at such a dis- i 
tance from Newcastle, and in no part to be ' 
further. Then it must be no further dis- j 
tant from any part of Newcastle. Thus, 
to fix a center, the middle of New- 
castle, as near as can be computed can ■ 
be found; and a circle described around | 
that town, which is the fairest way. for 
otherwise it might be fourteen miles in 
some parts of it, if it is a long town. Then 
what must be the extent of the circle ? It 
is given up at the bar, though not in the 
answer. It cannot be twelve miles distant 
from Newcastle, unless it has a semi-diame- 
ter of twelve miles; but there is one argu- 
ment decisive without entering into nice 
mathematical questions: the line to be the 
dividing line, and to be drawn north from 
Henlopen, was either to be a tangent or inter- 
secting from that circle, and if the radius 
was to be of two miles only, it would neither 
touch nor intersect it, but go wide. There is 
no difference as to the place or running of 
the line from south to north, though there 
is at the cape from which it is to commence. 
In America the defendant's com- 
missioners behaved with great chicane in the ' 
point they insisted on, as the want of a i 
center of a circle, and the extent of that 
circle, viz. : whether a diameter of two or 
twelve miles; the endeavoring to take advan- 
tage of one of plaintiffs' commissioners com- 
ing too late to make the plaintiffs incur the 
penalty. The defendant has been misled by 
his commissioners and agents in America, 
to make their objections his defense." It was 
ordered "that before the end of three calen- ■ 
dar months from May 15th, two several proper ' 
instruments for appointing commissioners, 
not more than seven on a side, may run and 
mark the boundaries, to begin some time in 
November next, and to be completed on or 
before the last day of May, 1752." 





THE history of York County, by 
the disputed proprietary ciaims, was in- 
augurated by disturbances which involved its 
first settlers in serious diificulties. They had 
settled themselves in one of those unfortunate 
sections of country known to all history as 
border land. The persons who came west of 
the Susquehanna in quest of new homes, as 
citizens of the province of Pennsylvania, soon 
found that there were other claimants of the 
soil upon which they had planted themselves, 
coming here under the authority of the gov- 
ernment of the province of Maryland. The 
broils and riots which followed in the wake 
of those who had fu-st cleared the forests 
and sowed their crops on this side of the 
river, tilled the annals of that period with 
protests and remonstrances, criminations and 
recriminations, affidavits and counter affida- 
vits, unparalleled in the archives of any 
other government. While it is -our duty, as 
Pennsylvanians, to maintain the rights of 
the founder of this commonwealth, it is 
equally our duty to examine fairly the 
grounds upon which his rival proprietor on 
the south disputed these rights, and made 
claims of his own. The people who are em- 
broiled in differences of the character exhib- 
ited in the documents and traditions of that 
period, are not, as a general rule, to blame, 
especially in an age when the sentiment of 
loyalty to rulers made them regardless of the 
rights of others, in behalf of those who were;,- 
ready and willing to protect them in their 
outrages. The blame must rest with those 
in authority, who could have no cause for 
encouraging unlawful claims, much less for 
the assertion of them by violent measures. 
In all frontier settlements there are fierce 
and reckless men who are eager to carry out, . 
by any means, what they conceive to be the 
will of those in power, of whom they ai'e the 
partisans. It is a remarkable feature in the 
details of those early disturbances, in which 
the interests of the rival proprietaries 
clashed, that the Governors of each province 
for the time being apparently believed and 
relied on the ex parte statements of their 
partisans on the one side or the other. It is 
not the Cressaps, and the Higgenbothams, 
whom we are accustomed to consider as 
fmarauders and disturbers of the peace, or the 
'Wrights or Blunstons, whom, on the other 
hand, we consider the conservators of the 
peace, but those to whom was committed the 
government of the respective colonies, and 

the welfare of his Majesty's subjects therein, 
who are properly to be made the subject of 
animadversion, if they failed to use all the 
means in their power to restrain the evils 
existing, or from a spirit of partisanship 
closed their eyes to the real causes of those 
evils. The details of these disturbances and 
the mutual grounds of contention between 
the proprietaries are too tedious to relate. 
But a narrative of such incidents as led the 
respective provincial governments into the 
bitter controversy, may not be without inter- 
est to our people, especially to those who 
dwell in the locality where the occurrences 
took place. J The first complaint as to in- 
trusions on the west side of the Susquehanna, 
after the agreement of 1724, appears in a 
letter from Gov. Gordon to Gov. Calvert, 
on the 14th of September, 1731: 

Oov. Gordon: — I am further creditably informed 
that some persons of Mar3'land, having obtained 
grants of land from your offices, have pretended to 
lay them out over the river Susquehanna, where our 
Commissioners would never allow any survey to be 
made, not only on account of ouv agreement with 
the Indians, but also of that made with Maryland. 
Yet some of your people have pretended to large 
tracts thereof, which some, 'tis affirmed, lie many 
miles further north than this city of Philadelphia, 
and have further had assurance even to offer them 
to sale to some of our inhabitants, without making, 
on their parts, any scruple of the situation. 'Tis 
now some months since I heard the rumor of this, 
but very lately I have had a much fuller confirma- 
tion of it. 

To which complaint there was the follow- 
ing reply fi'om the Governor of Marylan: 

Oov. Calvert—" As, to what you mention of our 
people taking up lands high up the river Susque- 
hanna, I shall endeavor to enquire into it as soon 
as possible, till when I must beg leave to defer anj' 
further answer on that head."* 

It would appear from this that whatever 
settlers there were over the river at that 
period in the teiTitory, now the counfy of 
York, were ostensibly there without the knowl- 
edge or consent of either government. The 
sequel will not bear this out. The complaint 
came first from the Indians to the government 
of Pennsylvania. A letter from Samuel 
Blunston, "of the 3d of October, 1731, con- 
tains a message from Capt. Civility to Gov. 
Gordon, that "the Conestogoe Indians had 
always lived in good friendship with the 
Christian inhabitants of Pennsylvania, 
and have behaved themselves agreeable to 
their treaties with them. That Williamjr'enn 
had promised them they should not be dis- 
turbed by any settlers on the west side of the 
Susquehanna, but now, contrary thereto, sev- 
eral Marylanders are settled- by the river on 
that side, at Conejohela. And one Crissop, 
particularly, is very abusive to them when 

*I Archives, 294. 


they pass that way. And had beat and 
wounded one of their women, who went to 
get apples from their own trees. And took 
away her apples. And further said, that as 
they shall always take care their people do 
us no hurt, so they also expect we shall pro- 
tect them.''* This incident, trivial as it 
may seem, introduces and exposes the char- 
acter of the principal participant, on the 
side of Maryland, in our border troubles. In 
thissameletter it issaid, in a postscript, "that 
James Logan had said he should be glad if 
Crissop could be taken," and Mr. Blunston 
writes, " we have now just cause to appre- 
hend him for a breach of the law in enter- 
taining and protecting a bound servant, be- 
longing to one of our people, and threaten- 
ing to shoot any person who shall offer to 
take away said servant. If you think it 
will be of any service to the government 
to have him taken, he believed it may be 
done." According to an affidavit of Thomas 
Cressap, made by him on the 29th of Janu- 
ary, 1732, he had lived on the west side of 
the Susquehanna River since the 10th of 
March, as tenant of Lord Baltimore, by vir- 
tue of his Lordship's grant and patent. He 
was the owner of a ferry opposite a point on 
the river called Blue Rock. The incident 
which occasioned his affidavit requires men- 
tion, because it first drew the governors of 
the rival provinces into angry controversy. 
He made oath that one day, about the last 
of October, he heard the report of three guns 
at the Blue Rock, the signal usually made by 
people who want to come over the river. 
That he and Samuel Chance, who was a 
laborer with him, went over the river, and 
that he saw two men and a negro whom he 
took into his boat. He then details an as- 
sault upon him, that after a struggle they 
threw him into the river, out of his depth, 
and went away with his boat and his ser- 
vant, and that he was rescued from an island 
after night by an Indian. He complained to 
a magistrate in Pennsylvania, Mi-. Cornish, 
against the men, and when he demanded a 
warrant the magistrate enquired where he 
lived. He said he was an inhabitant of 
Maryland, a tenant of Lord Baltimore, iipon 
which the magistrate told him he knew no 
reason he had to expect any justice there 
since he was a liver in Maryland. It appears, 
however, that the magistrate granted Cres- 
sap his warrant, and that the men were ap- 
prehended and bound over to court, and were 
indicted, convicted and fined for the assault. 
This deposition was sent to the Governor of 
Maryland, and a full account of the matter 

was also sent to Lord Baltimore. Gov. 
Ogle sent a coj)y of the deposition to Gov. 
Gordon, and complained in his letter of 
the saying by Mr, Cornish, that he knew no 
reason why Cressap had to expect justice 
there, since he was a liver in Maryland, And 
that Cressap was in great fear of other inju- 
ries from the behavior of the magistrate and 
other circumstances, and that some Indians 
said they were offered a good reward by one 
Cartlidge, of Conestogoe, to drive Cressap 
and his family off his land and burn his 
house. The affadavit of Cressap also stated 
that a great number of horses and mares, 
which were claimed by James Patterson and 
others, inhabitants of Pennsylvania, had 
been very injurious and troublesome to him 
and his neighbors, in throwing down their 
fences and destroying their corn. This mat- 
ter of the horses becomes important, because 
of another incident arising out of the killing 
of the horses, which led to the arrest and in- 
carceration of iDersons on both sides, and my 
Lord Baltimore became a participant in the 
scenes that were enacted on this border 
land of ours. To the letter of Gov. Ogle, 
Gov. Gordon replied, among other things, 
that " Cressap, believing himself ag- 
grieved, applied to one of our magistrates, 
telling him that he was an inhabitant of 
Maryland. In which application it must be 
owned that he had a large share of assur- 
ance, for Justice Cornish lives more northerly 
than Philadelphia, andCressap's dwelling, by 
his own description of the Blue Rock, cannot 
be less than five miles northward. That jus- 
tice had been administered in Pennsj-lvanta, 
and that as to the fray, the government was 
in no way concerned in it, unless justice was 
denied, which was not the case. "For 'tis 
plain the whole amounts to no more than 
that a quarrel happened between Cressap and 
some others in Pennsylvania, which he thinks 
tit to call Maryland." It appears from this 
and throughout the whole controversy, that 
the Pennsylvanians continually resented the 
intrusions of the Marylanders into their ter- 
ritory, above a designated line, while on the 
other hand the Marylanders, with the con 
nivance of their government, refused to recog 
nise that line and collisions occurred necessa 
rily incident to settlements under such con 
fiicting claims. The lands about the Codo- 
rus and Conewago were attractive, as Gov 
Gordon wrote in the course of the corres- 
pondence, "and some Maryland gentlemen 
cast their eyes on those lands made valuable 
by the neighborhood of our inhabitants, and 
it suited their purposes to settle such persons 
there as would intimidate Pennsylvanians, 


and give some coTintenance to their claims."* 
Indeed Marjiand surveys had been made 
and returned many years before, as in the in- 
stances related in the chapter on Indian titles, 
among which was a warrant issued for the 
survey of a manor to the Lord Baltimore, 
upon the banks of the Susquehanna, includ- 
ing Newberry, which led to the survey of 
Springetsbury Manor in 1722, and earlier, 
that made by Phillip Syng, by a Maryland 
title that same year. ? In the year 1729,' 
Charles Carroll, as appears by a petition of 
his, about the time of the commencement of 
our border troubles, located a warrant of 
10,000 acres on the vacant lands lying on 
Pipe Creek, and Codorus and Conewago 
Creeks, and lands contiguous, according to 
the accustomed method used within his Lord- 
ship's province. This location was in pos- 
session of the surveyor of Baltimore County 
and was renewed from time to time. 

Charles Carroll states in his petition that, 
apprehending some cultivation made during 
the former location, which the said warrant 
could not effect, he had obtained a special 
warrant to take up the same on express 
terms. About the l-4th of June, 1732, he 
and John Ross went to view the lands, the 
better to inform themselves how to finish a 
survey of the same, and on the 21st of that 
month they came to the house of John Hen- 
dricks, on the Susquehanna River. The com- 
plaint of Carroll was that while they were 
at Hendrick's house several persons came 
there with a warrant from Justice Wright to 
arrest John Tradane, of the province of 
Maryland, resident at Monochasie, and which 
they were told was intended to try whether 
they would interfere, by objecting to the 
power of Pennsylvania. But they took no 
notice of the proceedings. Carroll com- 
plained that John Wright, Jr., a son of the 
Justice, had said " that in case the hominy 
gentry hindered their executing the warrant, 
they themselves should be put in prison, and 
that the best of their hominy gentry in Mary- 
land should not get them out, and that if the 
Governor were there they would serve him in 
the same manner; that they would teach 
them to come to take their lands, and that 
neither they nor their Marylanders should 
come there to make a hominy country of 
their lands." He complained also, he said, 
of other reflecting and abusive language to 
that purport. The complaint of Carroll 
also set out that one James Pattison, who 
came over, said that all the lands thereabout 
belonged to Mr. Penn. That Mr. James 
Logan advised the people of Pennsylvania 

to stand up manfully against the Maryland- 
ers, and that Pattison said, for his own part, 
he wotild tight to his knees in blood before 
he should lose his plantations on either side 
of the river. Carroll asked him if ever he 
had a patent under Mr. Penn for his planta- 
tion or the lands he claimed, or had a war- 
rant for taking it up, to which Pattison an- 
swered that he had neither warrant nor pat- 
ent, and Carroll then said that Mr. Logan's 
advice was dangerotis. This memorial of 
Charles Carroll was presented for the purpose 
of praying protection from the Maryland 
government in executing his warrant, and 
settling the lands, as they, the petition said, 
would have to repel force by force. * 

James Patterson, or Pattison as above 
called, had been settled, according to 
Gov. Gordon, on Springetsbury Manor 
about fifteen years, but because it was a manor 
he had no patent, f 

The titles within this manor are elsewhere 
explained. Patterson had a plantation on 
this side of the river, but resided on the east 
side. He had, it appears, a number of 
horses necessary for carrying goods and skins 
in his trade with the Indians. Some of the 
family of John Lowe killed his horses, 
whereupon he came in the night time with a 
warrant, and the sheriff's posse, to arrest two 
of Lowe's sons, Daniel and William Lowe. 
But they also seized John Lowe, the father, . 
and he, being brought before Justices Blun- 
ston and Wright, and nothing appearing 
against him, was discharged. Affidavits 
made by John Lowe and Thomas Cressap 
were sent to Gov. Ogle, representing the ar- 
rest to have been made with great violence. 
In Cressap' s affidavit it is represented that 
Patterson had said he would let them know 
that they were prisoners of Pennsylvania. 
Cressap said that if Lord Baltimore would 
not protect them in their rights and land, 
they, the inhabitants of the west side of the 
river, must appeal to the King. To which 
Patterson answered "that they had no busi- 
ness with the King, or the King with them, 
for Penn was their King." Such were the 
representations sent for the grave considera 
tion of the proprietary and authorities of 
Maryland. John Lowe, in his affidavit, rep- 
resented that the party came in the dead of 
night and arrested him in bed, and violently 
dragged him on the ground and over the river 
on the ice and kept him in custody the re- 
maining part of the night. The consequent 
struggle arising from the resistance to the 
arrest was made the ground of complaint for 

«I Archives, 333. 
fl Archives, 338. 



riot in Maryland. The affair was communi- 
cated to the Lord Baltimore, and' a letter was 
received from him by Gov. Gordon. As 
this letter came from a person of such dig- 
nity, and aa it contains his own opinion of 
liis- rights, and his claim to obedience in 
this particular, it is given in full: 

Annapolis, Deer, ye lotb, 1733. 

Sir: — Bv the enclosed precept, founded upon In- 
formation given upon Oath to a Magistrate here, you 
will see that a most outrageous Riot hath lately lieen 
committed in my Province, by a great number of 
People calling themselves Pennsylvanians. It 
appears by the same Information that some of your 
Magistrates, instead of preventing or discouraging 
these violences. Countenance and abet the Authors 
of them ; whether with or without the approbation 
of your Government, you best know. For my own 
part, I think myself in Honor and Justice obliged, 
and I am determined, to protect such of his Maj- 
esty's subjects who are ray own Tenants, in all their 
Rights, and therefore, to the End the Persons com- 
plained of may be punished, if upon a fair tryal 
they shall be found guilty. I desire that they-or 
such of them as can be found in your Province, may 
be sent without loss of time into this, as the Onlj' 
and proper place, where the fact with which they 
are charged is cognizable, and where my Officers 
will be ready to receive them, particularly the Sher- 
ifEs and Justices of my Counties of Baltimore and 
Cecil. I also desire that such of your Magistrates 
as shall appear to have Encouraged the commission 
of these or any other violences in my Province by 
the people of Pennsylvania, may be punished for 
their abuse of Authority, and that you'll favor me 
with a Categorical answer to these my just demands 
by this bearer. 

Your Humble Servant, 

Addressed thus: To his Excellency Patrick Gor- 
don. Esq., at Philadelphia.* 

The letter enclosed a precept for the arrest 
of the persons concerned in the alleged riot. 
Lord Baltimore was then at Annapolis, and 
was of course acquainted with the location of 
the scene of this affair. In a subsequent let- 
ter, he speaks of it as having taken place in 
the province of Maryland. 

At a meeting of the Provincial Council 
held at Philadelpia on the 9th of January, 
1733. the Governor acquainted the Board with 
the letter of Lord Baltimore, together with a 
report of the atfair from Messrs. Wright and 
Blunston. The btatements of this report are 
material to the consideration of the qttestion 
regarding the claims of the respective prov- 
inces, to allow settlements within the ter- 
ritory west of the river Susquehanna, and 
north of Philadelphia, The substance of it 
is as follows : 

In the year 1729, when the county of Lan- 
caster was formed, the southern boundary was, 
by the order, to be Octoraroe Creek and the 
province of Maryland, and including the in- 
habitants, to lie open to the westward. But 
as the line between the provinces was never 

ruU; nor the exact boundaries known, no ati- 
thority was claimed over those few families 
settled to the northward of Octoraroe, by or 
under pretense of Maryland rights. They" 
remained undisturbed, thotigh many inhabit- 
ants of Pennsylvania lived some miles to the 
soutjiward of them. At. that time there were 
no English inhabitants on the west side of 
the Suscpehanna River, in those parts, for, 
about two years before, Edward Parnell and 
several other families who were settled on the 
west side of the river near the same, at a 
place called by the Indians Gonejohela, were 
at the request of the Conestogoe Indians re- 
moved by the Governor — the Indians insist 
ing upon the same to be vacant for them. But 
about two years since, Thomas Cressap and 
some other people of loose morals and turbu- 
lent spirits came and disturbed the. Indians 
who were jaeaceably settled on those lands 
from whence Parnell and the others had been 
removed — burnt their cabins, and destroyed 
their goods and drove them away. The for- 
mer settlers were good citizens of Pennsyl- 
vania, and before Cressap and his company 
none had settled by a Maryland claim, so far 
to the northward by nearly thirty miles. 
These men would fly to our laws for redress 
against their own party, and they who had 
fled from their creditors into this province, 
when creditors would pursue them hither, 
would cry Maryland. They disturbed the 
peace of the government, carried people out 
of the province by violence, took away guns 
from friendly Indians, tied and made them 
, prisoners without any offense given, and 
threatened all who should oppose them. They 
killed the horses of such of our people whose 
trade with the Indians made it necessary to 
keep them on that side of the river for carry- 
ing their goods and skins, and assaulted and 
threatened to look after them. That this 
usage obliged James Patterson to apply' to 
them for a warrant to apprehend and bind to 
the peace the two young men who had been 
most active, Daniel and "William Lowe, and 
they were dismissed on security for their good 
behavior and appearance at court. They then 
say, that if they had sapposed the issuing of 
their warrants would have given the least of- 
fense to Lord Baltimore, or that he would 
have looked upon those persons as his sub- 
jects and under his protection, they would 
have represented the case to the Governor 
and waited his direction.* "With this re- 
port they sent affidavits which were read 
• before the Board. The affidavits showed that 
Patterson was informed that his horses were 
killed near Lowe's plantation and that his 

*III Col. Eec, 470 et. seq. 


sons said they would kill all the horses that 
came upon that land, and would tie and whip 
all he should send over thither. The consta- 
ble, Charles Jones, to whom the precept was 
directed, having formerly met with resistance 
from these people and fearing new insults, i 
for Thomas Cressap and his associates had 
threatened to shoot any officer who should 
come into those parts to do his duty, though 
he only took his staif himself, yet he thought 
it necessary to have a suitable strength, took 
in all nine men with him. Amongst them 
were only three guns, and these not loaded, 
serving only as an appearance of defense. 
They went quietly to the house of Lowe, the ! 
father, and the door being opened appre 
hended Daniel and William Lowe, his two 
sons. They made no disturbance but what 
was occasioned by the resistance of the pris- 
oners, and those who came to their relief. 
That Lowe's house, where his sons were taken, 
is several miles more northerly than Philadel- 
phia (which appears by a well known line 
that had been ran about forty years since on 
a due west course from the city to the Susque- 
hanna, in order to a more certain discovery ' 
of the country) and that there are about 
400 people living more southerly than 
Lowe's house who pay taxes in the county of 
Lancaster, and have always acknowledged 
themselves inhabitants of Pennsylvania. The 
Council having fully considered the said let- 
ters and affidavits and remarking on the style 
!ind manner of Lord Baltimore's letter, 
which they conceived too peremptory, were 
inclinable to think that his lordship had left , 
room for no other answer than barely to ac- 
quaint him that the supposed riot was com- 
mitted within the reputed and known bounds i 
of Pennsylvania; and consequently not cogniz- ' 
able by him. Lord Baltimore, in a letter of 
the 15th of February, 1733, says " that it is 
the first instance in His Majesty's plantations, 
when rioters and people levying war against 
any of his subjects, have been denied 
to be delivered up to the government in 
which the offense was committed, on proper 
application, and such I make no doubt 
mine will appear to have been indue time." 
These facts appear upon the records of the 
Provincial Council, and are of no importance ' 
historically, except so far as they bear upon 
the conduct of the government in relation to 
them. The excited state of the parties im- 
mediately concerned in these quarrels is man- 
ifested by their violence of language. Con- 
sequently we find the depositions on either 
side laying stress on words used. Several > 
witnesses deposed that they heard Cressap 
say, that if the sheriff of Pennsylvania or 

any other officer from thence, came to take 
any person on the west side of the Susque- 
hanna Eiver he would shoot them, for they 
had pistols and guns and would use them in 
their own defense. And with regard to a 
higher person in authority it was deposed, 
that Cressap said he had been at Annapolis, 
and in council Lord Baltimore assured 
him that as hehad received money for the land 
on which Cressap lived, he would defend him 
from the proprietor of Pennsylvania, although 
Lord Baltimore did believe that when the di- 
vision line between the provinces was run, 
Cressap's lands would fall in Pennsylvania. 
But until that line was run, he would protect 
him, and thereuj)on gave him a commission 
of the peace, as a magistrate for the county 
of Baltimore, and with it gave him a strict 
charge to apprehend any person coming out 
of Pennsylvania, bearing arms, or commit- 
ting the least offense whatsoever, and be sure 
to take no security of them but such as were 
freeholders in Maryland. * 

On another occasion Cressap said he had 
been at Annapolis since the arrival of Lord 
Baltimore, had been very kindly received 
by his Lordship, and had got his com- 
mission to be a Justice of the Peace, and 
added that his Lordship would never 
execute the agreement made between him 
and the proprietors of Pennsylvania, be- 
cause they had cheated his Lordship by im- 
posing a false map of the country upon him, 
and that his Lordship would rather choose 
to pay the £5,000 forfeiture, mentioned in 
the agreement, than comply with the terms 
of it. And that he, Cressap, had heard this 
at Annapolis from gentlemen of note there. f 

At a meeting of the Provincial Council, 
held at Philadelphia on the 14th of Febru- 
ary, 1733, the Governor informed the Board 
that he had received a letter from the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Maryland, enclosing one 
from Lord Baltimore, by which it appeared 
that his Lordship, notwithstanding what 
had been written to him, continued to insist 
on the demands made in his former letter, of 
delivering up those persons concerned in the 
execution of the warrant issued against the 
sons of John Lowe. In this commmiioation 
Gov. Ogle says : " His Lordship cannot but 
be surprised to find your magistrates are jus- 
itfied in issuing warrants for the apprehen- 
sion of persons in his Lordship's province, 
before the lines are run and bounds settled, 
which are stipulated by the articles to lie 
done, and that probably such may fall with- 
in the government of Maryland, when the 



lines are run. If this is the case, his Lord- 
ship thinks it should not be so useful and 
necessary to name commissioners or to run 
the line intended by the articles, since every 
magistrate may, on the one hand, take upon 
them, though no lines are run, to distinguish 
the bounds and each government protect 

The Council expressing their surprise that 
Lord Baltimore should, without taking the 
least notice of what the Governor had writ- 
ten to him, have thought tit to insist on the 
former demands in so peremptory a manner, 
came to the unanimous resolution that for the 
reasons contained in the said letter, his 
Lordship's demand is by no means to be com- 
plied with, and that the same should be sig- ^ 
nified to his Lordship in very plain terms. | 
And they directed, among other things, the 
Governor to say, in his letter to Lord Balti- 
more, that the offense was only cognizable in 
Pennsylvania, the place where it was done, 
and that his Lordship may be assured that 
this government shall have such a strict 
regard to do impartial justice between all its 
inhabitants, that John Lowe, if the case be 
as he represents it, on a proper application, 
may depend on being redressed in due course 
of law. That the demand of his Lordship 
was not a sufficient reason for delivering up 
a freeman of Pennsylvania to be tried in 
Maryland. That those persons were as inde- 
pendent of Maryland as were his of Pennsyl- 
vania, and though his principles and those of 
the greatest part of the inhabitants of Penn- 
sylvania, allowed of no force, except that of 
the civil magistrates, yet, being protected by 
his Majesty's wisdom and justice, we appre- 
hend no danger from the different principles 
and superior strength of Mary land. f 
'"" We have now come to a tragic incident, in 
these unfortunate disturbances, which had 
the effect of prolonging the unpleasant atti- 
tude of the rulers of the rival provinces to- 
ward each other, and after a continued 
voluminous and acrimonious correspondence, 
and further distui-bances, resulted in the 
arrest of Cressap and his being held for trial. 
According to a letter from Mr. Blunston to 
Thomas Penn, proprietary, on the 30th of 
January, 1734, on information that Cressap 
and several hands were to be at John Hend- 
ricks' to square logs for a house and build a 
float for the ferry, John Wright, with Sheriff 
Emei'son and others, went over the river with 
intent to proceed against Cressap and his 
party for forcible entry. The workmen were 
arrested and committed to jail. An attempt 

was made to arrest Cressap at his house, and 
one of the Sheriff's men was shot in the leg, 
from the effects of which wound he died. 
The unfortunate man who was shot was 
Knowles Daunt, and it appeared from the 
affidavits that he was killed by Cressap. Mr. 
Blunston wrote that they were extremely con- 
cerned at this rash and indiscreet procedure, 
and not knowing what use might be made 
of it, for they heard that Cressap had 
set out for Maryland, and would doubtless 
give a relation far beyond the truth, and that 
it was possible the government of Maryland 
might write to our government about it. 
"Pray don't fail to let us hear from thee at 
our court, for we seem to be much at loss 
^ how to proceed against them we have taken, 
j as well as what to say oE the madness of the 
other." * A letter came from the government 
of Maryland, as was expected, and some 
extracts may not be uninteresting from the 
ensuing correspondence, bearing on the con- 
troversy. Governor Ogle, February 2-1, 
1734: "It has always been my constant aim 
and view to prevent all disturbances as much 
as possible, having always hopes that the 
quiet and peaceable behaviour of our people, 
would, at least, induce those under your 
government to follow their example, and for 
this reason, notwithstanding the repeated 
violences committed against his Lordship's 
tenants on the borders, I have given them 
frequent orders not to offer the least injury 
to any person whatsoever, but when defending 
themselves against any unjust attack, which 
I may be made upon them. What gives me 
I the greatest concern is that these people 
were headed when they came over the river 
by two persons acting as magistrates under 
your commission, Mr. Wright and Mr. Smout. 
For now that things are come to that pass 
that magistrates, at the head of a parcel of 
desperate fellows, come out of one jsrovince 
and attack in the night time a magistrate in 
another, where blood is shed. Nobody can 
tell what dismal consequences may follow it, 
if not prevented in time. Therefore, I hoj^e 
you will show that discountenance to your 
magistrates which may effectually discourage 
others from committing the like offenses. I 
do assure you I have ordered Mr. Cressap, 
(by whose hand the death of the person is 
supposed to have happened) into the custody 
of the Sheriff of Baltimoi-e County, that he 
may be forthcoming at the next assizes to be 
held for that county, on the 1st Tuesday of 
next April, in order for his trial, and I hope 
,for the satisfaction of justice you will give 
ofiScial orders to compel any witnesses under 

*I Archives, 410. 



your protection to be at the assizes for the 
discovery of truth. . . I am afraid we should 
but ill answer His Majesty's gracious appro- 
bation of us, if we neglect to take the most 
proper steps in laying before His .Majesty the 
unsettled condition of our confines — making 
application to our proprietors on this head, 
and pressing them to procure His Majesty's 
directions herein." * 

Gov. Gordon, March 8, 1734 : "It is with 
a very deep concern that I observe complaints 
arising and multiplying, and that you seem 
to charge this province with a prevailing 

humor to rioting John Hendricks 

had for several years past, and I think for 
some years before any settlement was 
attempted in these parts by any parties from 
Maryland, been seated on the west side of 
the Susquehanna,^ about four or five miles 
higher up the river above those since made 
by Cressap and his associates, and had ob- 
tained a grant and survey for the land on 
which he now dwells, and where he has lived 
peaceably until Cressap took it into his head, 
with divers others, to enter upon the posses- 
sion of Hendricks, and when they were 
desired to leave the place, and desist from 
their unlawful attempts, the owner of the 
lands was insulted and menaced by Cressap, 
and such as he thought fit from time to time 
to encourage in their proceedings. This oc- 
casioned complaint to our magistrates, who 
took care to have the best council and advice 
how to proceed. . . . Accordingly, the 
magistrates went over, and when they came 
to Hendricks' land, they found eight men at 
work, whom I am sorry you call his Lord- 
ship's tenants, felling and squaring his tim- 
ber, and building a house within 100 yards of 
Hendricks' door. ... I am really troubled 
to find you saying in your letter that I know 
that Cressap is one of your magistrates. I 
assure you, sir, that I did not. I know that 
he has generally been said to be. From our 
knowledge of him we have no reason to con- 
sider him other than an incendiary or public 
disturber of the peace of both governments, 
and the main cause and prompter of all late 
contentions that have happened between us, 
and indeed the first placing of him there has 
always appeared to us not easy to be ac- 
counted for. I cannot comprehend in what 
sense their (the magistrates) going out of 
one province into another is to be understood, 
for I never yet heard it alleged that Susque- 
hanna Kiver was a boundary between Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania. Nothing can be 
more certain than that their boundary on the 
north of the one and south of the other, 

must be a due east and west line, and there- 
fore the opposite parts of the shore of that 
river must necessarily be both in the same 

"To my great trouble I am to observe that 
I received a melancholy letter from John 
Hendricks and Joshua Minshall, dated from 
the gaol at Annapolis, with copies signed by 
your Sheriff of their commitment by yourself 
and some members of your Council, dated the 
second day of last month, that is three daj's 
before the date of your letter, and in this 
commitment I find the true allegations 
against them are for having disparaged his 
Lordship's title, that is, in other terms, as 
may well be supposed, that they assertet 
their right to their own settlement under 
Pennsylvania, about ten miles by our compu- 
tation more northerly than Philadelphia, 
where neither his Lordship nor any for him 
then made, unless it be now done, any claim 
whatsoever. We have also heard of the 
manner of taking them, viz. : that the Sheriff 
o£ Baltimore County, with above twenty 
men, armed with guns, pistols, swords and 
cutlasses, traveled up thither to apprehend 
two men, who were quietly following their 
business on their plantations. 'Tis said also, 
that this is done by way of reprisal, and to 
intimidate, that is because our magistrates, 
in a most peaceable and legal manner, re- 
moved a forced and most unjust entry, you 
must make a prisoner of the man lapon whom 
that force was committed, and over whom you 
can claim no manner of right. . . . There 
must be some certain known limits for the 
exercise of powers of governmeat, without 
which his Majesty's subjects cannot possibly 
be secured in their persons or estates, such 
known limits as we always had till now with- 
in these two years, for the proprietors had 
by mutual agreement concluded an absolute 
determination of all disputes and differences 
on these heads, without any regard to which 
one Cressap has been authorized, or at least 
countenanced, with a pocket dial, as divers 
persons of credit have affirmed, to scatter 
and plant pieces of Maryland and his Lord- 
ship's tenants, as they are called, where he 
and they please, and the removal of these 
abuses, in a legal wa}^ is called rioting. His 
Majesty's peaceable subjects are hurried off 
their rightful settlements into distant pris- 
ons to the danger of their health and lives, 
and now in the springtime, to the irreparable 
injury of their families, who depend for 
their bread on their labor and care. This fur- 
ther shows the absolute necessity of applying 
to his Majesty, without any delay. ... In 
the first place calling for a reparation of this 


last injury to Hendricks and Minshall, and 
that Cressap may be delivered to receive his 
trial in this province, in which he perpe- 
trated the murder. I must earnestly beseech 
you that we may concert some certain, just 
and equitable measures for preserving peace 
between his Majesty's subjects in both gov- 


Thomas Penu, proprietary, on the 14th of 
May, 1734, informed the Council that the 
business then to be considered by them re- 
lated to some very unneighborly proceedings 
of the province of Maryland, in not only 
harrassing some of the inhabitants of this 
province who live on the border, but likewise 
extending their claims much fiu-ther than 
had heretofore been pretended to be Mary- 
land, and carrying off several persons and 
imprisoning them. That some time since 
they carried off John Hendricks and Joshua 
Minshall from their settlements on Susque- 
hanna, and still detain them in the goal 
at Annapolis. The proprietor said he in- 
tended to make use of the opportu- 
nity of Mr. Hamilton's going to Annapo- 
lis, (Andrew Hamilton, Esq., who was 
to appear for the prisoners), to press the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Maryland to enter into 
such measures as should be most advisable 
for preventing such irregular proceedings for 
the future, and as he designed that his secre-. 
tary, Mr. John Georges, should accompany 
Mr. Hamilton, he had drawn up instructions 
for them. Whereupon the Council desired 
that credentials be granted for the purpose 
mentioned, f 

Messrs. Hamilton and Georges made their 
visit to Maryland, and on their return made 
a full report to the proprietor.]: Mr. Hamil- 
ton attended the Council, and made a narra- 
tive verbally of the proceedings had in the 
Provincial Coui-t of Maryland against those 
who were carried off j^risoners from this gov- 
ernment, and the arguments he had advanced 
for obtaining their discharge. Messrs. Ham- 
ilton and Georges reported that they arrived 
at Annapolis on the 20th of May about sun- 
set. Soon after coming to their lodgings 
they went to speak with John Hendricks and 
Joshua Minshall in prison, but were not suf- 
fered to see them until the next morning, 
when, going again, they were after some time 
admitted to the speech of the prisoners, who 
gave an account of their uneasiness in a most 
unwholesome prison; as likewise the best ac- 

*r Archives, 417. 
tin Col. Bee, 542. 
tin Col. Eeo., 547. 

i count they could of the several charges al- 
leged against them. They waited upon Gov. 
Ogle, and delivered him a letter from 
the Lieutenant-Governor of Pennsylvania, 
and acquainted him that they were sent to 

* concert proper measures for the peace and 
good neighborhood between the two govern- 
ments, and to desire a discharge of four of 

! our inhabitants who were imprisoned at An- 

, napolis. To which he was pleased to answer 
that he was mighty ready to cultivate any 
measures with the government of Pennsyl- 
vania which would answer that purpose; and 
at the same time took occasion to say that our 

i inhabitants were imprisoned for much greater 

I offenses than probably they were aware of. 
To which they answered that they had' no 

I other way of coming at the knowledge of the 

^ cause of their imprisonment but by their sev- 
eral commitments, and by those, as they con- 
ceived, there seemed scarce a color for such 

I proceedings as had been taken against them. 

; They added, further, that supposing the of- 
fenses were really committed, and as great as 
his Excellency was pleased to allege, yet the 
place where they were committed, as well as 
the place where the men were taken, was 
clearly beyond all the former claims of Mary- 
land, and therefore it was their opinion the 
men were very hardly dealt by. Gov. Ogle 
began to enumerate the many abuses the in- 
habitants of Maryland had suffered from 

; those of Pennsylvania, and that since his ac- 
cession to the government of Maryland, he 
had taken all possible care to be entirely on 
the defensive side, and was resolved to con- 
tinue 80, but at the same time he could not suf- 

j fer Lord Baltimore's right to be so violently 
encroached upon, and his character so pub- 
licly affronted within his Lordship's own gov- 
ernment. "For," added he, "we claim no 
bounds but what are given to his Lordship by 
the express words of his charter." However, 
he expressed his willingness to enter into 
any reasonable measures for preserving the 
imaoe; and to show his readiness, proposed 

' their meeting him in council, the next day, 
about ten of the clock, at his own house, to 
which they readily agreed. And then he was 
pleased to invite them to dine with him, 
which they did accordingly. They reduced 
to writing the heads of what they were to 
propose, and on the day appointed they met 
Gov. Ogle, and he said to them that he was 
glad to find our government seemed at last 

I to agree to what he had long ago proposed in 
his letters to the Governor of Pennsylvania, 
to lay their unhappy misunderstandings be- 
fore his Majesty, and in the meantime for- 
bear making any encroachments upon one 


another, which he thought was the most like- ; 
ly way for preserving peace among the peo- i 
pie; yet he fixed upon nothing certain by 
which the jurisdiction of the respective gov- 
ernments could be known. The Governor 
proposed that tbey ought to join without de- 
lay in representing to the King the unsettled ! 
state of the two provinces, and the necessity j 
of his Majesty's interposition. ! 

They finding this method of treaty was not 
likely to produce any certain conclusion, de- ' 
livered to his Excellency a written represen- 
tation, which set out the complaints on the 
part of Pennsylvania : That under the agree- 
ment of 1724: and that made in 1732, most 
careful provision was made for the ease and 
quiet of all his Majesty's subjects, whose es- 
tates or possessions should be affected by the 
same, and that the description of the south- 
ern boundaries of Pennsylvania might be 
very nearly discovered without new actual 
surveys, notwithstanding which two of his 
Majesty's subjects, to wit, John Hendricks 
and Joshua Minshall, inhabitants of Lancas- 
ter County, settled upon lands legally sur- 
veyed and patented to them under the pro- 
prietors of Pennsylvania, on the west side of 
the river Susquehanna, had been taken at 
their homes, which were at least eight miles 
to the northward of Philadelphia, and about 
twenty-three miles to the northward of the 
line agreed upon by the aforesaid articles to 
be the northern bounds of Maryland, which 
line runs near the mouth of Octoraroe Creek, 
to the northward of which Maryland has never 
exercised any jurisdiction, except over thir- 
teen families, that is known to Pennsylvania, 
till within two or three years, about the time 
when an absolute boundary was agreed upon 
by the proprietors, though Pennsylvania has 
maintained its government as far southward 
as the mouth of the said creek for above 
these thirty years. 

In the afternoon they endeavored to 
speak privately with Hendricks and Min- 
shall and the two Rothwells, who were 
in prison. The jail was so noisome they 
could not go near it, but taking with them 
gentlemen of Maryland, they prevailed 
with the Sheriff to speak with them at his 
own house. They inquired particularly into 
the manner and cause of their commitment. 
They all gave the greatest assurances that 
they had never spoken any time of Lord 
Baltimore or his government that they could 
remember ; that they never had any conver- 
sation with any one about Lord Baltimore or 
his government but upon their own planta- 
tions, and Hendricks and Minshall insisted 
that no person could swear any such thing 

against them, unless Cressap should be so 
wicked, who had threatened to ruin tbem. 
They applied themselves how they should get 
Hendricks and Minshall into court, who had 
been committed by the government and Coun- 
cil. They attempted to get a habeas corpus 
and consulted on the law Mr. Calder, who 
gave his opinion of the difficulties he appre- 
hended they might meet with in the defense 
of the prisoners, which led them into thoughts 
of employing some other eminent gentleman 
of the law, who by his credit with the people 
and acquaintance with the practice of the 
court might be able to do the prisoners some 
service. But to their great disappointment 
they found them all engaged on the side of 
Lord Baltimore. At least there was none 
could be prevailed on against him. When 
their paper was presented, Gov. Ogle went 
on to enumerate all the differences that had 
happened upon the' borders of the two govern- 
ments since his coming to Maryland. He 
alluded to the affair of Patterson 'and Lowe, 
and the great abuses he said had been com- 
mitted in manifest contempt of Lord Balti- 
more'-s government upon Crejssap. All these 
he aggravated in such manner as if he had 
been speaking to men who had never heard 
of them before. They thought it necessary 
to show that they were no strangers to these 
facts, and were not to be imposed upon by 
such a representation, and answered him as 
had been represented by Gov. Gordon. 

Gov. Ogle declared that Hendricks and 
Minshall were under prosecution in the Pro 
vincial Court, which was then sitting, and 
that he would not interpose but let the law 
take its course. So they parted that day, 
after which time Gov. Ogle troubled himself 
no more about the formality of a Council. 
The Governor delivered to them an answer 
in writing to their representations, in which 
he desired them immediately to join with 
him in an application to his most gracious 
Majesty. In considering this paper they 
were not satisfied that it was proper for 
them to agree to join in such representa- 
tion, but rather that the proprietors them- 
selves or their lieutenant-governor should 
do so, and they concluded upon a paper 
which they delivered Gov. Ogle at his own 
ho'ise on the 24th of May. The Governor 
received them without any form and with 
civility, as if nothing had passed the day be 
fore, and promised them an answer by the 
next morning. In this paper they said they 
were now ready to agree upon any bounds 
that should be judged reasonable for limiting 
the present jurisdiction of the two govern- 
without prejudice to the rights of the 


proprietor thereof, and that proclamation 
should be issued to forbid all persons within 
the respective governments from making any 
new settlements near the borders under the 
severest penalties. And that they were ready 
further to agree to remove any new settle- 
ments that had been made upon such bounds 
as should be agreed upon, lest the same 
may disturb the quiet of their governments, 
until the boundaries be actually settled be- 
tween the proprietors themselves or until his 
Majesty's pleasure be known therein. And 
as they were well assured that a representa- 
tion to his Majesty would be most agreeable 
to their government, they did not in the least 
doabt but that their proprietors, or their 
Lieutenant-Governor, would readily join 
with the Eight Honorable, the Lord Propri- 
etor of Maryland, or himself, in such a one 
as may best conduce to put an end to the 
misunderstandings which have arisen between 
the governments by reason of the present 
uncertainty of the respective boundaries. To 
this Gov. Ogle answered that he had believed 
that they were invested with a sufficient 
power to agree to any reasonable proposals 
for the accommodating the present disputes, 
and preventing any of a like kind for the 
future, and upon that hope had offered the 
particular methods mentioned in his letter of 
the 23d inst. as very reasonable and the most 
proper for those desirable ends. But since 
he perceived by their paper that they thought 
themselves not sufficiently authorized to join 
with him in his just and reasonable proposi- 
tions, he hoped that on their return they 
would receive more ample powers for their 
agreement with him. 

Messrs. Hamilton and Georges then say, in 
their report, that they saw from their first 
waiting on Gov. Ogle, they had no reason to 
expect any success in the business they were 
sent to prosecute, and that they saw plainly 
by his last paper that Gov. Ogle was resolved 
to avoid doing everything that might pre- 
vent any further differences upon the bound- 
aries, and observing the ill use that he 
made of their saying that their proprietors 
or lieutenant-governor would readily join 
in a representation to his Majesty, and that 
he had construed those words into their 
thinking themselves not sufficiently qualified 
to join with him in what he calls his just 
and reasonable propositions ; in order to re- 
move that objection, they drew up a paper 
and delivered the same to him on the 27th 
of May, which would have been delivered 
sooner but they were obliged to give their 
attendance at court when the case of the 
prisoners was under consideration. That 

paper said they were ready on the part of 

I Pennsylvania, at the same time that they 
agree upon some reasonable boundaries for 

I limiting the jurisdiction of the two govern- 
ments, to join with his Excellency in a just 
representation to his Majesty of the uncer 
tainty of the present boundaries between the 
two governments, occasioned by not execut- 
ing ihe articles of agreement solemnly 
entered into and concluded between the Right 
Honorable, the Lord Proprietor of Maryland 
and the Honorable the Proprietor of Penn- 
sylvania, in May, 1732, and to pray his 
Majesty that he would be graciously pleased 
to interpose and enjoin the execution of the 
said agreement according to the true intent 
and meaning thereof, in such manner as his 

! Majesty should please to direct. After this 
they heard no more from Gov. Ogle, though 
they stayed till the 30th of the month. 
In the meantime they made the most press- 
ing instances to the Provincial Court to have 
our people discharged. i5ut that could not 
be granted lest it should be understood as 
giving up bis Lordship's right to the lands 
in question, as appears by the minutes of 
these men's case taken at the hearing. 
Though being denied any relief for the pris- 
oners by the Provincial Court, and Gov. Ogle 
having taken no notice of what they said or 
proposed in their paper of the 27th, they 
thought a longer stay could be of no purpose 
and thereupon they resolved to represent to 
Gov. Ogle a just reason our government had 
to comjjlain of the unreasonable proceedings 
of JNtaryland, and the absolute necessity they 
were under to take proper measures for the 
protection of his Majesty's subjects under 
the government of Pennsylvania, and accord- 
ingly on the 30th of the month they drew up 
a memorial. But the Governor, Ogle, being 
said to be indisposed that day, they waited 
on him the next morning and delivered it to 
him, which he received, and. without reading 
it, desired his compliments might be made 
to Mr. Gordon and to those that he knew at 
Philadelphia, and wished them a safe return. 

j In this memorial they enumerated the refusal 
of the court to discharge the prisoners and 
that they had used all means in their power 
to be in some measure relieved from those 
injuries and violences done to the inhab- 
itants of Pennsylvania, and to procure the 
concurrence of the government of Maryland 
in measures to preserve the peace. It was 
therefos'e hoped that none who entertain any 
just notions of the rights of mankind will 
blame the government of Pennsylvania, if 
they take proper measures for protecting his 
Majesty's subjects under their jurisdiction, 


from tue outrajres frequently committed upon 
them by the people of Maryland, and by du- 
tiful representation of their great patience 
under those public abuses imploring his 
Majesty's most gracious interposition, and 
for the meantime should the government of 
Pennsylvania, whose principles are well 
known to be against all force, and who next 
to his Majesty's protection have no means to 
defend themselves but the authority of the 
several magistrates, to be laid under a neces- 
sity for their own safety to avoid what may 
be deemed unneighborly or to give trouble or 
uneasiness to his Majesty's subjects, pretend- 
ing themselves to be under the government 
of Maryland. "We do declare that it will 
be entirely to your Excellency's not joining 
with us in some reasonable and equitable 
measures for preserving the peace amongst 
his Majesty's subjects inhabiting near the 
boundaries of the two governments, and the 
unreasonable confinement and prosecution of 
our inhabitants who were without all question 
taken by your officers within our government 
of Pennsylvania, and for that reason had 
they really been guilty of any offense ought 
to have been discharged." 

Gov. Ogle, May 30, 1734 : " It is to be 
wished there had never been a distinction 
made in your province between the power 
you have as Governor in other respects, and 
that in affairs relating to your land office. 
For the managers of that office not being 
restrained by the Governor, they themselves 
had liberty to make what encroachments they 
pleased, from which alone, I will venture to 
say, all the riots and disturbances have arisen 
amongst the borderers of the two provinces. 
I had the most sensible pleasure when I re- 
ceived your letter of the 14th of this month, 
wherein you require me to receive Mr. 
Hamilton and Mr. Georges, as duly authorized 
on behalf of your government to concert 
with us such measures as might effectually- 
secure peace till such time as the division 
lines shall be run, and oar boundaries indis- 
putably fixed, the ultimate and only certain 
means of putting an end to all these most 
disagreeable contentions, or at least till such 
a time as his Majesty's pleasure is known 
therein, but to my great surprise I found these 
two gentlemen so far from agreeing to any ' 
settlement whatever for preserving peace 
upon the border till such time as the division ' 
lines be run and his Majesty's pleasui-e known 
therein, nothing would content them but the 
actual running of them directly contrary to the 
very purport of your letter, and to our duty as 
Governors, which obliges us to join heartily 
and sincerely in preserving peace in the 

meantime that the dispute as to oar lines is 
laid before his Majesty, from whose known 
wisdom and justice we have all the reason in 
the world to expect a just and equitable de- 
termination. As to that humble and dutiful 
application, I proposed to be made jointly to 
His Majesty to bring all our disputes to 
a speedy hearing, their behaviour was so ex- 
traordinary, that I shall not take it upon 
me to set it forth in any words of my 
own but refer you to their own papers for 

On the 17th of August, 1734, the House 
of Representatives made a representa- 
tion to Gov. Gordon that they had been 
cruelly disappointed in reasonable hopes 
that all disputes about the bounds of the 
provinces of Pennsylvania and Maryland 
were at an end. They hoped that people 
who had settled and improved lands under 
the grants of the proprietor of Pennsylvania 
and within the constant reputed bounds of 
this province, and who have never owned any 
other authority but the government of Penn- 
sylvania, ought to be protected in the pos- 
session of their freeholds until it shall appear 
by some legal decision or determination by 
some other authority, and as this province 
knows no other force but the lawful power 
of the civil magistrate, they requested that 
the Governor would be pleased to give direc- 
tions to the Magistrates and other officers of 
the government that will exert themselves in 
the protection of the people of this province 
by a diligent execution of the laws against 
riots and tumults and for the preservation of 
the peace within their respective jurisdic- 
tions. This was accordingly done by the 
Governor, f 

During the year 1735 there were many 
outrages perpetrated under the lead of 
Cressap, who had been commissioned a Jus- 
tice of the Peace for Baltimore County, and 
made a captain of the Maryland militia. 
On the 1st of July, 1735, he, with men, 
women and boys, advanced, and with drums 
beating invaded the premises of John Wright, 
one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace, 
and although Cressap declared his intention 
to be to fight Pennsylvanians who had come 
over the river, Wright as a Justice com- 
manded them to keep the peace at their peril, 
and that he would proceed upon his lawful 
business unless prevented by force, and by his 
firmness deterred them from proceeding to 
hostilities. The deposition of Mr. Wright 
to the foregoing facts was~ taken in the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, on the 24th 


of September, 1735, Daniel Dulaney, Esq., 
Attorney- General o£ Maryland, being present. 
Mr. Dulaney asked whether Thomas Cressap 
and his people did not assist Mr. Wright in 
carrying off his grain, to which he answered 
that Gressap, with those who were armed, 
being gone out of the field, the persons to 
whom the wagons belonged offered readily 
to assist in carrying it to the side of the river, 
since they said they were disappointed in 
carrying it where it was first intended.* On 
the same occasion there was taken before the 
Supreme Court, a deposition to the following 
facts : That on the 23d of September, a 
party of Marylanders had set upon Eobert 
Buchanan, Sheriff of Lancaster County, and 
rescued some debtors under arrest, beat him 
and took him prisoner. This was brought 
before the council, who expressed their resent- 
ment, and a demand was made on the Gov- 
ernor of MarylancV to set him at liberty, a 
reward was offered and a warrant issued for 
the arrest of the rioters, f 

Another aggression was an attempt to sur- 
vey lands, bv one Franklin, along the river 
side, on the" 6th of May, 1736. He took a 
course up the river with an instrument, and 
there were men carrying a chain. Cressap 
accompanied them with twenty men armed. 
Robert Barber, a Quaker, who was at the 
house of John Wright, demanded by what 
authority the land was surveyed, and was 
answered by that of Lord Baltimore. Mr. 
Barber said that the land had long ago been 
surveyed and returned to the land oflSce at 
Philadelphia. Cressap said he had orders 
from Gov. Ogle in person to raise the militia 
and guard the surveyor from Pennsylvanians. 
Franklin said, "My business is to follow the 
orders of the Governor of Maryland, to sur- 
vey all the lands from the Susquehanna to 
the Codorus."^; The affidavits of several Ger- 
mans show the wrongs to which they were 
subjected by reason of these surveys. Balt- 
zer Springier, in the beginning of the year 
1733, by virtue of a grant from the proprie- 
taries of Pennsylvania, built a house on a 
tract of land lying on Codorus Creek about 
twelve miles westward from John Hendricks. 
He refused to have his land surveyed by 
Cressap, who yiretended to have an order 
from the Governor of Maryland. But Cres- 
sap surveyed it to one John Keller, who 
came and settled thereon. Afterward the 
Governor of Marj-land and the surveyor of 
Baltimore County told Springier, in the 
hearing of many people, that Cressap had no 

»I Archives, 465-70. 
fill Col. Eec, 612-14. 
JI Archives, 489. 

authority to survey lands, yet he was de- 
prived of his land and improvements. Fred 
erick Ebert removed from the east side of the 
river, and took up a tract of land near Codo- 
rus Creek, cleared and improved it and sowed 
a field of wheat with intent to build a house 
and settle thereon. In May, ]736. the sur- 
veyor Franklin, with Cressap and others, 
came and surveyed the land to one Ffelty 
Shultz, and threw down the fence and de- 
stroyed the corn, and deprived Ebert of his 
settlement. Michael Tanner, by virtue of a 
proprietary grant, dated September 17, 173-t, 
settled on a tract of 200 acres of land, six 
miles southwesterly from John Hendricks, 
and built and improved upon the satue. 
Thomas Cressap, pretending to have an order 
from the Governor of Maryland, came into 
the neighborhood and surveyed upward of 
forty tracts of land for Germans living in 
those parts. Tanner refused to have his laud 
surveyed by Cressap, who thereupon conveyed 
the land, with buildings and improvements, 
to Daniel Lowe, who, with his family, came 
and dwelt in the house, although about the 
month of September, ] 735, the Governor of 
Maryland and the Surveyor-General told 
Tanner that Cressap had no authority to sur- 
vey lands.* Many Germans, however, were 
induced to accept of the Maryland warrants 
and surveys, bttt not finding things as agree- 
able as they anticipated under the new pro 
prietary, they revolted and acknowledged 
allegiance to Pennsylvania. 


At a meeting of the Provincial Council 
held at Philadelphia, August 24, 1736, the 
President, James Logan, acquainted the 
Board that he had been informed by Samuel 
Blunston that the Dutch people, or Germaos, 
who, with others had gone over from this 
side of the Susquehanna River to the west of 
it, had been prevailed on by some agents from 
Maryland to acknowledge the authority of 
that province, and had through a consciousness' 
of their mistake, voluntarily and unanimously' 
signified to him and other magistrates of that 
county, their fixed resolution of returning tc; 
their obedience to this government, and 
acknowledging its just jurisdiction in thosf 
parts where they are settled, for that they were - 
become truly sensible they of right belonged 
to Pennsylvania. Mr. Blunston related that 
immediately after the County Court at Lan 
caster, which was held the first week of th( 
month, some of the most principal note 
amongst those Germans came over to hiii 

•I Archives, 622-5. 


and told him that the whole body of the peo- 
ple, except Cressap, and his relations, who 
were but three or four men, wei-e come to an 
unanimous resolution of acknowledging their 
obedience to this governaient, and returning 
to their true proprietors. He advised them 
to act openly and above board, and that if 
they wei-e thus resolved, they should directly 
and in plain terms make it known to the gov 
ernment of Maryland with their reasons for 
their proceedings; that thereupon a letter 
was prepared for that purpose, which was 
signed by about sixty hands and dispatched to 
an officer in Baltimore County to be for- 
warded to the Governor of Maryland. At 
the desire of those Germans, the magistrates 
of Lancaster had two constables amongst 
them for the better preservation of the peace. 
The four men who adhered to Cressap 
I seized Charles Joues, one of the constables, 
, and were hurrying him away with an inten- 
tion to carry him off, but, being warmly pur- 
j sued, they ded and left him. It was given 
I out that the Sheriff of Baltimore County was 
i to be up with a number of men on Mou- 
[ day (the '23d), and that the Sheriff of Lancas- 
j ter had apprised him of some other motions 
I on the west of the Susquehanna, and was 
I taking horse to meet him to concert proper 
j measures on the occasion. The Council 
1 were of the opinion that those people becom- 
I ing sensible of their past mistake, in being 
i induced to own the authority of Maryland 
' over those pai-ts which lie so very far, viz. : 
about twenty miles to the northward of the 
1 limits of this province, ought to be taken 
notice of, and on their making proper sub- 
I missions should be again received. On Sep- 
tember 7. 1736, a letter was laid before the 
I Board from the Lieutenant-Governor of Mary- 
( land in regard to this revolt.* 

Gov. Ogle: "This trouble is occasioned 
by the inclosed, the original whereof came 
to my hands a few days ago, subscribed 
with the names of fifty or sixty per- 
sons, who some years since importuned 
me for the grant of lands under the author- 
; ity and government of the lord propri- 
etary of Maryland. They were so successful 
in their applications that I directed and 
! empowered them to settle and improve the 
' lands under the government of this province, 
: and which they have from that time held and 
enjoyed subject to his Lordship's dominion 
and authority. But now they seem to think fit 
i and resolve, by a most extraordinary kind of 
illegal combination or association, to disown 
[ their obedience to the government from whom 
I they received their possessions, and to trans- 

fer it to the government of Pennsylvania. 
Whatever reasons I may have to be assured 
of this proceeding taking its rise and accom- 
plishment from the encourageu-ient and pre- 
valency of some magistrates of your govern- 
ment, and others pretending to act under the 
countenance and authority thereof, yet I must 
own my unwillingness to believe those who 
have the honor of the administration of the 
government of Pennsylvania, would permit or 
support a behaviour so contrary to all good 
order and rule of the English Constitution, as 
must necessarily involve the subjects of his 
Majesty in struggles and contentions, incon- 
sistent with that peace and happiness his 
Majesty so gloriously endeavors to maintain 
and preserve amongst others, as well as his 

The paper transmitted with this letter is as 
follows: " Sir: The oppression and ill usage 
we have met with from the government of 
Maryland, or at least from such persons who 
have been impowered thereby and their pro- 
ceedings connived at, has been a treatment 
(as we are well informed) very different from 
that which the tenants of your government 
have generally met with, which, with many 
other cogent reasons, give us good cause to 
conclude the Governor and magistrates of 
that province do not themselves believe us to 
be settled within the real bounds of his 
Lordship's dominions, but we have been se- 
duced and made use of, first by fair promises 
and afterward by threats and punishments, 
to answer purposes which are at present un- 
justifiable and will, if pursued, tend to our 
utter ruin. We, therefore, the subscribers, 
with many others, our neighbors, being be- 
come at last truly sensible of the wrong we 
have done the proin-ietors of Pennsylvania in 
settling on their lands without paying obedi- 
ence to their government, do resolve to re- 
turn to our duty, and live under the laws and 
government of Pennsylvania, in which 
province we believe ourselves seated. To 
this we unanimously resolve to adhere, till 
the contrary shall be determined by a legal 
decision of the disputed bounds, and our 
honest and just intentions we desire may be 
communicated to the Governor of Maryland, 
or whom else it may concern. Signed with 
our hands this eleventh day of August, Anno 
Domini, 1736."t 


There was read at the meeting of the Coun- 
cil on the 7th of September, the examination 
of Francis Kipps of Maryland, master of a 

*IV Col. Eec, 60. 
tibid, 62. 



sloop then lying in Susquehanna River, taken 
September 4, 1736. That on Thursday last, 
the 2d instant, in the evening, being in 
Baltimore County, he saw Col. Hall, a 
gentleman of that county; at the head of a 
considerable number of men on horseback 
armed with guns, marching toward the upper 
part of the said county, that passing near to 
Col. Hall, he asked him familiarly if he was 
going to fight, to which Mr. Hall answered 
he was going on peaceable terms. That 
crossing Susquehanna, near the Northeast 
Iron Works, he came the same evening into 
Cecil County, where he understood by com- 
mon report that the march of these men, un- 
der Col. Hall, was to give possession to one 
Cressap of a plantation of one Wright; that 
if the same could not be done peaceably they 
were to use force. That he heard the militia 
of Cecil County were summoned to meet to- 
gether. On the 8th of September, the Gov- 
ernor laid before the Board a letter, written 
by the direction of Mr. Blunstoa, giving the 
Jollowing account: 

That after the Sheriff of Lancaster, and 
some people with him, who were gathered 
together on the report that an armed force 
from Maryland was coming up into those 
parts, bad waited some time and were dis- 
persed, the Sheriff of Baltimore County, 
with upward of 200 men, under the com- 
mand of several military officers, arrived on 
Saturday night last, the -tth of this month, at 
Thomas Cressap" s, and on Sunday, about 
noon, came in arms on horseback, with beat 
of drum and sound of trumpet, to the planta- 
tion of John Hendricks. The Sheriff of Bal- 
timore, and several of those officers went that 
afternoon to the house of John Wright, Jr., 
where about thirty inhabitants of Lancaster 
were assembled and demanded the Dutch, of 
whom some were then in that house. The 
Sheriff' of Lancaster had sent a written mes- 
sage desiring to know the reason of their 
coming in that hostile manner to threaten 
the peace of the province, to which they had 
returned answer that they were not come to 
disturb the peace of the province of Penn- 
sylvania but to suppress riots, and keep the 
peace of Baltimore County. Justice Guest, 
one of the number from Maryland, appointed 
10 o'clock next day to speak with some of 
our people, but about b o'clock on Sunday 
evening, the multitude from Maryland left 
Hendricks with great precipitation, and 
returned to Cressap' s. On Monday the 
Sheriff of Lancaster sent another message in 
writing, requiring them to peaceably depart, j 
and off'ering. if any of them would meet the 
magistrates of the county with some other 1 

' persons, who were on this occasion assembled 
with him, and endeavor amicably to settle 
the unhappy differences at present subsisting, 
that they should be received civilly. To this 
message the Sheriff' of Lancaster had returned 
to him a threateniog and insolent answer. 
Soon after this one John Wilkins, an inhab- 
itant of Lancaster County, who had gone 
down toward Cressap's, was taken prisoner on 
pretense of his having been in a former riot, 
and sent under a guard to Maryland. The 
magistrates of Lancaster sent a letter to 
reclaim him, but they refused to receive the 
letter. It was reported that the Governor of 
Maryland was waiting in Baltimore County, 
and was expected up in those parts, on Sus- 
quehanna, with considerable more force. 
The Sheriff" of Lancaster had got about , 
150 people together at John Wright's. Jr., 
where they had continued since Sunday 
evening. No hostilities had been yet 
committed, except in taking Wilkins; but , 
the Marylanders had sent word to our i, 
people to take care of their buff's. The •] 
inhabitants, though unprovided with arms ■ 
and ammunition, yet endeavored to defend I 
themselves and such of his Majesty's peace , 
able subjects as fled from their houses to J 
them for refuge.* j 

Benjamin Chambersf deposed that some- j 
time in the month of September, 1736, prep- i 
arations were making by training and ; 
mustering the militia of Baltimore County, 
Md,, in order for their marching into Lan- ; 
caster County to disposses of their settlements ■ 
sundry families. He was employed by the ' 
magistrates to go into Baltimore County to . 
discover what was intended by the extraor- 
dinary motion of their troops. When he 
came to the borders of Maryland, he was 
informed that the place of their muster was 
near the plantation of Col, Nathaniel Rigby, 
at the upper part of Baltimore County, and 
repaired thither. He was taken into custody 
and kept during the time of the muster, and 
held twelve hours, in which he observed a 
general discontent among the common sol- 
diers. Col. Rigby called for the muster roll, 
and upbraided the men with want of duty to 
the Governor's orders, and thereupon picked 
off" a number of them out of his company, 
and commanded them, on the penalty of £"iO, 
to meet at the same place next Friday with 
arms and twenty charges of powder and balls 
each man, to march up Susquehanna 

*IV Col. Eec, 63. 

tBenjainin Chambers was the founder of Chambershurg, 
then being twenty-three years of age. These depositions were 
taken under the authority of the Provincial Council, and were 
jfansmitted to the agent of the province in London, in support 
to the petition to his Majesty. 


Eiver to a place called Conejohela. Col. 
Rigby said it was very strange that a Quaker 
government should offer to resist or oppose 
Lord Baltimore, for that his Lordship's 
province of Maryland extended six miles 
higher or more northward than the plantation 
of John Hendricks, which lies on the west 
side of the said river, where on the Sunday 
following he saw the several troops or com- 
panies which came up from Maryland, with 
drums beating and trumpets sounding, were 
mustering or exercising in the held of the 
same plantation, from whence, upon the 
appearance of some men in flats coming ()ver 
the river from the other side, the troops re- 
turned to Thomas Cressap's.* 

Robert Barber, one of the people called 
Quakers, affii-med on the 11th of September, 
that on Sunday last several of the inhabitants 
of the Province of Maryland, to the number 
of about 30U. .all armed in a hostile manner, 
under the command of several officers of the 
militia of Maryland, with beat of drum and 
sound of ti'umpet, marched up to the house 
of John Hendricks. Some of the magistrates 
of the county of Lancaster, being at the 
house of John Wright, Jr., a small distance 
from the said Hendrick's house, demanded of 
Col. Edward Hall, who was said to be the 
commanding officer, the reason of his and the 
said company's coming up there in so hostile 
a manner. Col. Hall told the magistrates 
that they had no orders to treat with any of 
the magistrates of Lancaster County; that 
it was by the Governor of Maiyland's order 
they came up there, and that thirteen com- 
panies of the militia of Maryland were mus- 
tered, and that twenty men with officers were 
talien out of each company, and he refused to 
give any further account. That several of 
the inhabitants came to the magistrates very 
much terrified and complained that some of 
the aforesaid company of armed men had 
forcibly broken into their houses and threat- 
ened to bm-n them, and took from them 
several pieces of linen. 

John Ross deposed that he was dispatched 
with a written message to the Sherifl' of Bal- 
timore County, who was said to have come 
up with the militia, to know the meaning of 
this extraordinary procedure of the people 
of Maryland, and setting forward, with 
James Pattison for his guide, he met, within 
a mile and a half of Wright's house, a body 
of men on horseback to the number of about 
300, armed with guns, cutlasses, and some 
with pistols, marching with beat of drum 
and sound of trumpet. He saw several per- 
sons, who were called officers of this militia, 

or commanders, whose names he afterward 
learned were Edward Hall and Nathaniel 
Rigby, called Colonels, and Peca and Guest, 
called Captains. William Hammond, Sheriff 
of Baltimore County, was with them. He 
delivered his message to Col. Rigby, who ap- 
peared to be the. principal person ; Rigby 
told him thej^ were marching forward to the 
house of John Wright. Thomas Cressap, 
who was with the militia, seized Pattison. 
telling the Sheriff of Baltimore that he was 
a £50 chap, and bid the sheriff look in the 
proclamation and he would find Pattison' s 
name there. The militia, marching on with 
beat of drum and sound of trumpet in a war- 
like manner, came to the plantation of John 
Hendricks, and sent a message in writing to 
the Sheriff of Lancaster. Some of the mili- 
tia officers came to Wright's house and de- 
sired to speak with some Dutch men, Michael 
Tanner and Peter Gardner. But these people, 
declaring their apprehensions that the Mary- 
lauders were come to carry them away, be- 
cause they would not acknowledge the juris- 
diction of Maryland in those parts where 
they were settled, the officers were told they 
could not see them. But the Dutch sent a 
message to them in ■writing. Ross went to 
the house of Hendricks after the militia was 
come there, and saw several of them with 
their swords drawn at the door of the house. 
Toward evening a considerable number of 
people, of Lancaster County, came over the 
river in three fiats, whereupon the militia of 
Maryland beat their drum, and, as he believed, 
intended to stand to their arms, for they 
marched toward the river in a body, but 
after firing a blunderbuss, they thought fit 
to retreat to the house of Thomas Cressap. 
The Sheriff and Col. Rigby refused to meet 
the magistrates of Lancaster in conference. 
Ross saw several of the militia cutting bars 
of lead and making bullets, and, enqoiring 
what use they intended for them, he was told 
they were to shoot Pennsylvanians. The 
militia of Maryland marched about noon to 
the houses of .Joshua Minshall, Mark Evans, 
and Bernard Weymont. One John Hendricks, 
who was with the militia, found means to 
decoy one John Wilkins, an inhabitant of 
Lancaster County, who was seized and car- 
ried to Cressap's, from whence they sent him, 
bound, under a guard, to Maryland. It was 
pretended Wilkins was one of those for ■ 
whom a reward was offered by proclamation. 
The people of Lancaster County, who were 
met at Wright's house, being gi-own numer- 
ous, and resolving to stand upon their de- 
fense, the militia of Maryland did not think 
fit to attack them, but separated in two bod- 


iea, one of which went with the sheriff to 
the houses of some Dutch men, where they 
took some linen and pewter on pretense of 
public dues owing to the government of 
Maryland. The other body went toward 
Maryland.* Daniel Southerland deposed 
tbat he was at the house of Thomas Cressap, 
when the 300 men who came up from Mary- 
land were there. That the men who were 
called the soldiers blamed Cressap very much 
for the disturbances that had happened in 
those parts, and they did not think they were 
obliged to go fight with the people of Penn- 
sylvania in Oressap's behalf. To which 
Cressap swore, and said that they were only 
afraid of their mothers' calf skins, and that 
it was Lord Baltimore's right he was main- 
taining, and he disregarded all of them, for 
he had the Governor of Maryland's orders 
for what he did. Cressap called Col. Hall, 
vho commanded the 300 militia from Mary- 
land, a coward for not suffering him to tire 
with a blunderbuss upon the people of Penn- 
sylvania, who were coming over the river in 
a flat toward the Marylanders, who were in 
arms. He affirmed that Lord Baltimore 
would soon be over in Maryland, and then 
he would drive all the Pennsylvanians to the 
devil, and the court in Philadelphia would 
be called in Lord Baltimore's name. 

The invasion of the 300 of the Maryland 
militia is a remarkable incident of the bor- 
der troubles. It was made after consider- 
able preparation. vWilliam Hammond, the 
Sheriff of Baltimore County, declared " that 
the people of Baltimore County are not come 
to disturb the peace of the inhabitants of 
Pennsylvania, but to assist and support me in 
preserving his Lordship's peace, and our fel- 
low tenants, his Majesty's subjects, in their 
possessions. " Yet, before leaving, they des- 
poiled the houses of the Germans on pretense 
of public dues. They also threatened to 
burn them. Michael Tanner talked with 
them, and they promised, if the Germans 
would return, a remission of their taxes till 
they were grown better able to pay, and that 
they should be better used for the future. 
Tanner was to give an answer for his country- 
men in two weeks, " but, at the end thereof, 
it was threatened, if they did not comply, the 
Governor would come up with a greater num- 
ber of armed men, turn them out of doors, 
and bring up others with him, such as would 
be true to him, whom he would put into their 
possessions, "f 

In the course of the proceedings there was 
an answer of the Germans to the Governor of 

Maryland, in which, among other things, it 
is said: "that being greatly opjwessed in 
their native country, principally on account 
of their religion, they resolved, as many 
others had done before, to fly from it. That, 
hearing much of the justice and mildness of 
the government of Pennsylvania, they em- 
barked in Holland for Philadelphia, where, 
on their arrival, they swore allegiance to 
King George, and fidelity to the proprietors 
of Pennsylvania, and their government. 
That, repairing to the great body of their 
countrymen settled in the county of Lancas- 
ter, on the east side of the Susquehanna, 
they found the lands there generally taken 
up and possessed, and therefore some of 
them, by licenses from the proprietors of 
Pennsylvania, went over that river, and 
settled there under their authority, and 
others, according to a common practice then 
obtaining, sate down with a resolution to 
comply as others should with the terms of 
the government when called on, but they had 
not been long there till some pretending au- 
thority from the government of Maryland, 
insisted on it, that that country was in that 
province, and partly by threats of actual 
force, and partly by very large promises, they 
had been led to submit to the commands of 
that government. That first one Morris 
Roberts, pretending to be a deputy surveyor 
under Maryland, came and run out lands for 
them, after which Cressap told them those 
surveys were not valid, but that he had au- 
thority to lay them out. Then one Franklin 
(who took pay of them, but it proved all a 
sham, for he understood nothing of the sur- 
veyor's art.) Yet, notwithstanding all these 
impositions, they had neither grant nor war- 
rant, nor would any of those surveyors, real 
or pretended, give them one line of a certifi- 
cate, plot or draught, nor had they anything 
whatever from Maryland more than the bare 
possession to claim by, and as any of those 
who came to survey were obliged or other 
wise they, at their own will and pleasure, 
turned the possessors off and put others in 
their place." . . . "Now, this being 
our case, that on the one hand we are pei-- 
suaded in our consciences we are clearly with- 
in the Province of Pennsylvania, and there- 
fore cannot but expect to lose our possessions 
and improvements, if we now pretend to hold 
them under the Lord Baltimore, and, on the 
other hand, from the military force lately 
sent against us from Maryland, we are 
threatened to be treated by that government 
like rebels and enemies to our Gracious 
Sovereign, King George, to whom we have 
sworn allegiance, if we do not, against those 


manifest convictions ot our consciences dis- 
own the right of the proprietors of Pennsyl- 
vania to what we truly believe belongs to 
them, and resist the authority of that govern- 
ment, which, were we resolved to do, yet we 
should not be able. We offer it to the Gov- 
ernor's consideration whether the treating of 
a parcel of conscientious, industrious, and 
peaceable people, like rebels, for no other 
reason than because we cannot own a jurisdic- 
tion within the limits of which we very well 
know we cannot, where we now are, possibly 
be seated, and because we are convinced of 
the mistakes we had been fully led into by 
the false assertions of persons of no credit." * 
A petition, signed by forty-eight Germans, 
was transmitted to the President and Council 
at Philadelphia, asking that their errors in 
settling under the government of Maryland 
be imputed to want of better information, 
and praying to be received under the pro- 
tection of our laws and government, where- 
upon the Board unanimously declared that 
those Dutch people be received under the 
proiectiou of this government, and encour- 
aged in their fidelity to it by all proper and 
prudent measures. And on the 17th of 
September, 1736, they issued a proclama- 
tion setting forth the late invasion from 
Maryland, in violation of his Majesty's 
peace, and just rights of the proprietors and 
people of this province, to the great terror 
of the inhabitants, and directing the sheriffs 
of the respective counties of the province, 
and particularly of Lancaster, where these late 
commotions had happened, to hold them- 
selves in readiness with the posse of their 
respective counties for the preservation of 
his Majesty's peace and the defense of the 
just rights and possessions of his subjects 
within the same.f 

The following paper was also presented: 
Whereas, we. the subscribers, are informed if 
has been asserted that the late resolutions of the 
Dutch inhabitants on the west side of Susquehanna 
Biver, to put themselves under the protection of the 
government of Pennsylvania and submit to the laws 
thereof, was occasioned by the prevalency and influ- 
ence of the magistrates of Lancaster County, Do 
voluntarily & solemnly declare that we were chos- 
en & appointed by the afs'd Dutch inhabitants 
on the west side of Susquehanna River, Opposite to 
Hempfield, to apply in our own and their Behalf to 
the magistrates of the said county, that we might 
be received as subjects of this Government, as we Be- 
lieved in our Consciences it was our Duty; and we do 
further Solemnly declare & Afiirm that this Asso- 
ciation & Return was made of theirs and Our Own 
meer motion and free will, without any previous 
persuasion, threatening or compulsion from the 
Magistrates of the said County, or any other per- 
son in their Behalf, so far as we know; and that the 

letter signed by tiie bihal)itants afs'd to be Cotninu- 
nicated to the Governor of Maryland, was wrote at 
their own Request & according to the instructions 
Subscribed the Henry Hendrichs,* 

13th day of Sept. 1736. Michael Tanner. 
In the letter from President Logan, writ- 
ten by direction of the Council, September 
18, 1736, to Gov. Ogle, it is said: "And lirst 
we must observe you are pleased to say, 
these people importuned you for the grant 
of lands, under the authority and govern- 
ment of the Lord Proprietor of Maryland, 
but the sttccess you mention they were fa- 
vored with consisted, not, it seems, from 
your words, in any grant of lands, but iu 
your directions only that they should settle 
and improve the lands under the government 
of that province, so that all they obtained by 
this was that they should acknowledge the 
jurisdiction of Maryland over lands on 
which we find divers of them had entered 
by authority of the Land OfBce of Pennsyl- 
vania, and as subject to its government, paid 
their levies to the county of Lancaster, 
wherein they had been seated, and to which 
it is impossible Lord Baltimore either can or 
ever could justly pretend any manner of 
right. The real merit, therefore, of this it 
seems, consists in putting them on transfer- 
ring their obedience from their rightful 
landlord to another, to whom they stood in 
no relation. That we might be the bettej' 
able to answer yottr letter we have waited 
not only till we could hear of the event of 
the military expedition of your forces of 
about 300 men in arms, sent up, 'tis 
said, against those people, and for some 
other unjustifiable purposes, but also that 
we might with more certainty be informeii 
from whence these settlers were, and how 
and when their settlements had been made. 
On the last of which we find that they are 
generally of those Palatines, who a very few 
years since transported themselves from Hol- 
land to Philadelphia, and made themselves 
subjects to his Majesty, King George II, 
under this government; and 'tis atKrmed, 
they were so far from importuning you for 
any grant of lands that they were, by very 
iudirect practices of some emissaries or 
agents, pretending authority from Maryland, 
sedu<!ed from their duty, and imposed on to 
believe they were situated within the limits 
of the Lord Baltimore's jurisdiction, but 
what applications such persons might make 
in their names we know not. . . Your proceed- 
ing, in sending up such -an armed force on 
this occasion and their invading the posses- 
sion of others, where you never had the least 



pretense of claim, either in law or equity, 
must indeed prove astonishing to every man 
who hears of it, and has any just notion of 
the English laws, and the privileges of an 
English subject; but as we shall not here 
enter into any expostulation on that head 
(tho' we might properly ask where five or six 
men going without any manner of arms, or 
so much as a stick, in their hands, into Mary- 
land, to try their challengers' prowess at 
boxing,' was twice in a certain letter called 
levying war, what terms you wovild think 
fit to bestow on this march of such numbers 
so aecoutered?) We think it incumbent on 
us to acquaint you, that as we are assured 
the government of Pennsylvania is vested 
with equal or like powers with that of Mary- 
land, though it has hitherto with great pa- 
tience waited for the decision of the grand 
dispute in Britain, which it is manifest your 
Lord Proprietor endeavors to delay, yet now, 
on so flagrant an insult as this last step of 
yours, we cannot but think ourselves obliged 
to put his Majesty's subjects under our care, 
on measures to prevent the like invasions for 
the future. For this province, especially 
those parts, are filled with people of more 
spirit than to brook such treatment, and if 
any mischief ensue on their opposition to 
your attacks, you cannot but well know who 
must be accountable for it. But further, 
while all these contentions are owing solely 
to your own projections to carry your Lord 
Proprietor's pretentions into lands that not 
only never had been in possession, but can- 
not possibly fall within Maryland, and for 
which, for ending all disputes, he had in the 
most solemn manner renounced all claim to, 
and to set these pretensions first on foot at a 
time when the execution of the agreement 
was in agitation, and to continue them while 
the whole aflair is under the cognizance of 
that high court, the Chancery of Great 
Britain, these we say, carry with them such 
accumulated aggravations and are so far from 
admitting the possibility of a justification by 
colour or varnish of words whatever, that 
none but your enemies can be pleased with 
such conduct."* 


At a meeting of the Provincial Council, 
held at Philadelphia, on the 23d of Novem- 
ber, 1736, "the President acquainted the 
Board, that a discovery had lately been made 
of an association or engagement entered into 
by several persons living in or about New 
Garden, in the county of Chester, who, having 

* IV Col. Eec, 78. 

received some encouragement from the Gov- 
ernor of Maryland, and others in authority 
there, had undertaken to oust by force of 
arms those Dutch families settled on the 
west side of the Susquehanna within this 
province, against whom the late hostile prep- 
arations of Maryland were intended, and_to 
possess themselves of their plantations, 
which they proposed to draw lots for, and, 
acknowledging to hold them in right of the 
proprietary of Maryland, they were to defend 
those possessions against this government. 
For this end arms and ammunition were pro- 
vided and lodged at the house of one Kigby, 
in Baltimore County, and everything was 
in readiness for carrying their design in- 
to execution. On making this discovery, 
a warrant was issued, by one of the provin- 
cial Judges, for apprehending several persons 
concerned in this unlawful association, par- 
ticularly Henry Munday, who from the 
information given, appeared to be one of the 
principal persons in conducting it, and such 
care and diligence had been used in execut- 
ing the said warrant, that Munday was taken 
at his house that very day, when he expected 
a rendezvous of the party, and had sundry 
papers relating to conspiracy lying before 
him, and several letters to persons in Mary- 
land on this subject, just finished and readv 
to be forwarded, all of which were, with him- 
self, secured." Edward Leet, another of 
the persons embarked with him in this 
design, was likewise apprehended, but 
Charles Higginbotham, a principal person in 
it, had escaped. Among the papers found 
with Munday, was an application signed by 
thirty-one persons, stating that "being 
informed that there is some vacant land and 
plantations near Susquehanna River, that 
were settled by some Dutch families, and 
that the said land were by them located by 
warrants issuing from the Land Ofiice in the 
Province of Maryland, as of the right and 
property of the Lord Baltimore; and that 
since the said Dutch families hath disclaimed 
the right and property of the said Lord 
Baltimore, and hath taken umbrage under 
the proprietary s Penns; that we are 
informed that the absolute fee and right to 
the said land is within the limits and bounds 
of the Lord Baltirnore's patent or charter; 
that the lord's chief agent hath and doth 
give encouragement for the resettling the 
said vacant plantations and land. We there- 
fore pray and request, that you will in our 
behalf and stead intercede with the Governor 
and agent to settle us in such vacant land or 
plantations, and we shall all be willing to 
pay such fee or rent charge as His Lordship 


usually demands, and we shall with our lives 
and fortunes defend the same, and be sub- 
ject to the laws of his province, and defend 
his right, for which service. Sir, we shall be 
all your very much obliged. ' ' 

There was a list of names of several per- 
sons ranged in three columns, with the fol- 
lowing certificate signed by Gov. Ogle: 
"Whereas application hath been made me by 
Henry Munday, Edward Leet and Charles 
Higgenbotham, and forty-nine persons by 
them mentioned, I have given instructions 
to Thomas White, Deputy Surveyor, to lay 
out, and in the names of the said persons, 
200 acres for each person. " 

There was a paper signed by Munday 
addressed to Messrs Betties in these words : 
" November ye 14th, 1736. If instructions 
can be sent to Capt. Crissop to return so 
many of the names of the vacant plantations, 
reserving eleven of the best, which is the 
number of the third column, then every per- 
son that appears to draw hath his equal 
chance. " 

" Capt. Crissop send to the parties to come 
to draw their lotts by next Saturday. "* 

Henry Munday voluntarily offered to a 
member of the Council, to make a full decla- 
ration under his hand of all that he knew of 
the affair. His statement was, that in Sep- 
tember, 1736, Rev. Jacob Henderson and 
Squire Tasker, of Maryland, lodged at the 
house of William Miller, where he met with 
Thomas Thompson, brother-in-law of Hen- 
derson. Thompson applied to Henderson for 
advice in settling a plantation. Parson Hen- 
derson referred to Tasker, who wrote to some 
one in Maryland to show some plantations 
near the Susquehanna, and John Starr and 
William Downard joined with Thompson 
and received the land. John Starr went 
back to Annapolis and procured from the 
Governor of Maryland an order to settle for 
himself, and the others concerned. That he 
was informed the plantations of the Dutch 
on the Susquehanna had become vacant by 
their disowning the government of Maryland. 
John Starr had made a visit there and to the 
Governor of Maryland, and was shown by 
Cressap a very large tract of good land, 
which was enough to supply several families, 
and that the Governor would order 200 acres 
to be surveyed for each person at four shil- 
lings quit rent, and costs of survey and pat- 
ent. That he would maintain them in pos- 
session and give them a lawful right, and 
assured them the land was within the limits 
of Lord Baltimore's charter. Munday went 
to Annapolis to see the Governor, where he 

met Edward Leet, and Charles Higgiii 
botham, and joined in procuring an order to 
the surveyor of Baltimore County to survey 
200 acres for them and forty-nine other per- 
sons named. Munday said he never propo.sed 
to settle upon any tract of land settled l)y 
the Dutch, but to seat some uncultivated 
land. The Council were not satisfied with the 
statement of Henry Munday, and examined 
Edward Leet, who related thut Munday came 
to him with a petition signed by several ]ier- 
sons for land which Leet declined to sign; that 
a few days after Charles Higginbotham came 
to him and acquainting him that there were 
to be some lands laid out in Maryland, asked 
him to go with him to Annapolis, to which 
be agreed, wanting to take up some land for 
himself and others. Thej' with others set 
out for Maryland. They went up the east 
side of the Susquehanna to the ferry, late 
John Emmerson's, over against Thomas Cres- 
sap's house on the west, and, crossing the 
river, went to his house. In the morning 
they took a view of the lands in the neigh- 
borhood of Cressap's, and five of them, with 
one Lowe, went to view the lands where the 
Dutch people were settled who were said to 
have revolted from Maryland. They came 
to Annapolis on Saturday, the 30th of Octo- 
ber, and went to Gov. Ogle with Cressap. 
The Governor said he intended to dispossess 
the Dutch who were settled there, and for 
that end he was sending up arms, and would 
very soon give the necessary orders to the 
Sheriff. H'e would give 200 acres to each 
and defend them therein. He gave the names 
of Blunston and Wright, for the apprehen- 
sion of whom the Governor offered a reward 
of £100 for one and £50 for the other. Hig- 
ginbotham said ho knew one of them, and 
made no doubt he could apprehend him. 
Cressap received on board a sloop a consid- 
erable quantity of fire-arms, powder, and 
ball, which were to be carried to Baltimore 
Coianty to be used in dispossessing the Dutch, 
who had revolted from Maryland. Three 
drums and two trumpets were sent by land 
by certaiD Dutch men who were with them. 
When Munday came he appeared to be dis- 
satisfied with Higginbotham for being there 
beforehand. The Governor said, in a month's 
time, he would cause possession to be given. 
Leet, apprehending difficulty, laid aside, he 
said, all thoughts about the matter.* 

In this matter, John Coats deposed that 
Henry Munday invited him to go OTOr the 
Susquehanna about seven miles to settle on 
800 acres of land taken up by Maryland, on 
which eight Dutch families were settled. 


whom the Blarylandet's would dispossess if 
they did not sell their interest and be gone. 
And that Maryland would give arms to all 
such members of the Church of England as 
would settle the said land to defend them- 
selves against the inhabitants of Pennsylva- 
nia. That the land would cost the survey 
only, and Munday was to have a gratuity. 
JereQiiah Starr deposed that Thomas Thomp- 
son told him that Jacob Henderson, Commis 
sary of Maryland, had by letter recommend- 
ed him to Thomas Cressap, to be shown land 
on the west side of the Susquehanna, and 
Thomas Thompson, John Starr and William 
Downer went and were shown the land which 
was settled by Dutch people, and Thompson 
chose for himself a certain piece whereon was 
a settlement and a corn-mill, and that John 
Starr told him that he went with Cressap to 
the G-overnor of Maryland, who granted him 
and his friends the laud, and if they would 
be true subjects to Lord Baltimore, he would 
defend them, and patent the land at four 
shillings an acre, they paying only survey 
fees. Henry Munday proposed a way of 
gaining the lands, and it was resolved that 
the militia of the government should be 
ready about the end of the month to take and 
give the possession to Munday and his friends. 
William Miller deposed that Jacob Hender- 
son and Benjamin Tasker were at his house 
and advised him where persons should settle 
on land west of the Susquehanna which was 
settled by the Dutch, and invited persons in 
Chester County to come and live in Mary- 

On the 29th of November, 1736, a letter 
was addressed to the magistrates of Chester 
County, in behalf of tlie Council: 

'' The seasonable discovery of the late 
wicked design, which from the encourage- 
ment of our unkind neighbors of Maryland 
was sot on foot and upon the point of being 
carried into execution, for ousting by force 
of arms those Dutch families settled on the 
west side of Susquehanna within the un- 
questionable bounds of this province, and 
the apprehending of some of the persons 
who were principally concerned in promoting 
within your county the association for this 
purpose, having for the present, we hope, de- 
feated the evil intentions of those who by 
such practices would have introduced the ut- 
most confusion and disorder among his Maj- 
esty's subjects of this government, we have 
had it under consideration in what manner 
those disturbers of the public peace ought to 
be proceeded against." Thereupon the mag- 
istrates of Chester County were directed by 

the Council to call before them as many of 
the associators as they could, and to take 
their examinations apart, and such as were 
disposed to live for the future in due obedi- 
ence to this government, might, on submis- 
sion, and on being bound by recognizance, be 
discharged without prosecution.* 


On the 25th of September, 1736, the Jus- 
tices of the Supreme Court issued their 
warrant to the Sheriff of the county of Lan- 
caster for the apprehension of Thomas Cres- 
sap, for the murder of Knowles Daunt, and 
divers other high crimes and misdemeanors, 
and under safe conduct convey the said 
Thomas before them, to be dealt with accord- 
ing to law.f 

At a meeting of the Council, held on the 
27th of November, 1736, the President laid 
before the Board a letter from Lancaster 
County, brought by messengers, who gave an 
account, that in pursuance of the warrant 
issued by the provincial Judges for appre- 
hending Thomas Cressap, he had been taken 
with four others who abetted him in resisting 
the Sheriff. One of them was committed to 
the gaol of Lancaster County for a crime 
charged against him there, and Ci-essap and 
the three others were brought to Philadel- 
phia. The letter stated that the magistrates, 
upon considering the danger wherewith those 
parts of that county lying on the west of 
Susquehanna near to Thomas Cressap's set- 
tlement were threatened, if he should be 
joined by those who had lately entered into 
a combination for dispossessing the Dutch 
settled there, and having likewise understood 
that he had applied to Col. Eigby, a Justice 
of Maryland, for more arms and ammiinition, 
they judged it absolutely necessary to appre 
hend Cressap. The Sheriff of Ijancaster had 
called to his assistance twenty-four persons, 
and had gone over the river on Tuesday 
night, the '23d of November, in order to have 
Cressap taken by surprise early the next 
morning. But Cressap, with six men, secured 
himself in his house, and stood on his de- 
fense. He fired on the Sheriff and his com- 
pany. The Sheriff set tire to his house, and 
Cressap, still refusing to surrender, at length 
rushed out, and after some firing, in which 
one of his own men was killed, he was appre- 
hended. The magistrates reported "thatnoth- 
ing but absolute necessity and the preserva- 
tion of so many innocent families, whose 
ruin seemed to be determined on, could have 
obliged the jaeople to proceed to such extrem- 


ities in taking this wicked man; that his be- 
havior has since showed that be will stick at 
nothing to gratify his resentments, and there- 
fore, unless strict care is taken, it may justly 
be apprehended that he will atteiapt either 
firing the prison or any other desperate 
action, that he can find means to compass." * 

[Note. George Aston, of the county of Ches- 
ter, in the province of Pennsylvania, saddler, aged 
about fifty years, being one of the people called 
Quakers, upon his solemn affirmation, according to 
law, did declare and affirm that, upon some conver- 
sation happening between Thomas Cressap, Robert 
Buchanan, and this affirmant on the road, in sight 
of the city of Philadelphia, upon bringing the said 
Cressap down from the county of Lancaster, the 
said Cressap said, " Damn it, Aston, this is one of 
llie prettiest towns in Maryland. I have been a 
troublesome fellow, but by this last job I have made 
a present of the two provinces to the King, and that 
if they found themselves in a better condition by 
the change, they might thank Cressap for it," or 
words to that effect. f 

Philadelphta, December 3, 1736, taken before 
me. Clem Plurasted, Ma3'or. 

On the representations of the magistrates 
the Council ordered that Cressap should be 
put in irons and closely confined in the most 
sectire place, but supplied with what was 
necessary. J It was left to the Judges to pro- 
ceed against him and the others taken with 
him agreeably to law. On the 8th of Decem- 
ber, 1736, a message was brought from the 
Assembly, that finding that the government 
of Maryland had not shown any real dispo- 
sition on their part to enter into amicable 
measirres for preventing further differences 
between the two governments, the House had 
come to a resolution, that an humble address 
should be prepared and transmitted to the 
King, praying his royal interposition for put- 
ting a stop to these disorders. The petition 
of the President and Council, and of the 
General Assembly of the province of Penn- 
sylvania, together with sundry affidavits about 
the apprehending of Cressap and the Asso- 
ciation for dispossessing the Dutch on Sus- 
quehanna, were transmitted to the King, 
after the meeting of the Council on the 11th 
of December, 1736. § 


At a meeting of the Council held at Phil- 
adelphia on the 6th of December, 1736, Mr. 
Bordley, a gentleman of Maryland, attending 
without with a message for the President 
and Council, was called on and acquainted 
the President that he was sent by Mr. Jen- 
nings and Mr. Dulaney, who were just come 
to town from Annapolis with their compli- 

"IV Col. Bee, 109. 
tl Archives, 510. 
:ibi.l, 111. 
bibid, 125. 

to the President and Council, and to 
acquaint them, that, having received some 
commands from the Governor of Maryland. 
they desired to know when they might have 
an opportunity of waiting on the President 
and Council.* Messrs. Jennings and 
Dulaney, on the next day, attending, deliv- 
ered an open letter from the Governor of 
Maryland. This mission was occasioned by 
the burning of Cressap's house, and his arrest 
with other parties, on the "^ith of November, 
as the letter of Gov. Ogle alleged, in Balti- 
more County. Mr. Jennings was the Secre- 
tary and Mr. Dulaney was the Commissary 
and Attorney- General of JIaryland. The 
letter represented the transaction as cruel 
and barbarous, and requested the assistance 
of the government of Pennsylvania to bring 
the actors to punishment. A paper was 
drawn up by them and delivered to the 
Council to the same effect, and demanding 
that Cressap should be released. The answer 
to Messrs. Jennings and Dulaney stated that 
the government of Pennsylvania never 
acknowledged the place of Cressap's settle 
ment to be in Maryland, and recited the 
attempts to oust the Germans; that Cressap 
was arrested on a charge of murder, and that 
unless the government of Maryland thought tit 
to enter into some effectual specific measures 
with them, it be re2:)resented to his Majesty 
to interpose his royal authority. To this 
Messrs. Jennings and Dulaney replied that 
the right and title of Mr. Cressap was founded 
on a grant from Lord Baltimore many years 
before the agreement; that the agreement 
was never carried into execution and the 
validity of it was under the consideration of 
tne High Court of Chancery. They discuss 
the act of the Germans in disowning the 
jurisdiction of the Lord Baltimore, and 
alleged that Cressap acted in self-defense, 
and that to two gentlemen sent from hence 
offers were made which were rejected. 

In consideration of the paper of Messrs. 
Jennings and Dulaney, which referred to 
former pacific overtures on the jiartof Mary- 
land, the Council recurred to the transactions 
at Annapolis with Messrs. Hamilton and 
Georges in May. 1734, by which it 
appeared that, though the Governor of Mai-y- 
land often used the expression of pacific 
measures, what was proposed was dilatory and 
impracticable, and the proposal of this gov- 
ernment of agreeing on some limits, to which. 
for the preservation of peace, jurisdiction 
should extend with a salvo to the right of 
either proprietor, till the dispute between 
them should be fuUv ended, was evaded and 


declined. The answer to the deputies was 
based on this view, December 14, 1736: "If 
your Governor will agree upon some certain 
boundaries to limit the jurisdiction to the 
respective provinces, without prejudice to the 
right of either proprietor, until the whole 
dispute shall be ended, or upon any other 
reasonable measures by which his Majesty's 
subjects may enjoy peace and no longer be 
harassed in their persons and possessions, I 
we shall cheerfully come into any methods 
that can be proposed, consistent with the laws 
and common justice." It was also said ! 
" that the Germans, who yearly arrive here 
in great numbers, wholly ignorant of the 
English language and constitution, were 
obliged, on account of our too near northern 
neighbors, the French, whose language many 
of them understand, not only to swear allegi- 
ance to our Sovereign but as a further tie 
upon' them promised fidelity to our proprie- 
tors and this government, a practice only 
used with them and no others." There 
resulted a very voluminous correspondence, 
but there is in it merely a recapitulation of 
mutual claims and complaints. Messrs. Jen- 
nings and Dulaney informed the President, 
on the 16th of December, that they were just 
setting out on their return and delivered a 
paper to him, in which, in reference to the 
preceding claims, they say: " You are pleased 
to mention that this government obliged the 
Germans only to enter into an engagement 
of fidelity to yom- proprietors; we apprehend 
the allegiance they swear to our Sovereign 
cannot need the force of an engagement to 
your ])roprietors to prevent their desertion 
to the French, and therefore we are at a loss 
to comprehend why the Germans are distin- 
guished from all other nations by the remark- 
able distrust your government has of their 
fidelity." The Maryland Commissioners had 
also charged, President Logan with having 
promised that Cressap's accomplices should 
be bailed, and then not performing it. The 
Council, in considering the last paper deliv- 
ered to the President by Messrs. Jennings 
and Dulaney, were some of them of the 
opinion that the unmannerly and malicious 
reflections in it should receive a proper 
answer, but the nest day, December 21, they 
concluded that what ought to be said should 
be represented to the Governor of Maryland. 
In regard to the question of bail, it appeared 
that it had been referred to the Judges, who 
held them not bailable.* The reply of the 
Council to the letter of Gov. Ogle, crediting 
the mission of Messrs. Jennings and Dulaney, 
after referring to the papers, proposed a 

joinder in effectual measures to preserve the 
peace until the royal pleasure could be 
known. In the meantime, on December 11, 
1736, by the concurring action of the Assem- 
bly, a petition was drawn in the name of the 
President and Council and the General 
Assembly to the King. 

On the 1st of March, 1787, there came a 
letter from the Governor of Maryland, dated 
24th of December, 1736, requesting the Gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania to state precisely what 
were the concessions they were willing to 
come into. This letter was not received for 
ten weeks after its date. The Postmaster, on 
being examined, said "that the letter had 
been received last night, and that three mails 
had come from Annapolis since Christmas." 
The Council were of the opinion that what 
ever reason the Governor had for antedating 
his letter or keeping it back, as he declined 
making any proposals, it was proper on this 
call from Maryland to. make proposals of 
peace.* A letter was, therefore, written to 
Gov. Ogle on the 5th of March, 1737, in 
which reference is made to the committing of 
hostilities since the date of his letter, and since 
continued by his new Captain, Higgenbo- 
tham, and his crew, reciting the injuries, and 
proposing that all those in arms should im- 
mediately retire as a preliminary.! The fix- 
ing of certain limits was proposed for the 
purposes of jurisdiction, and no new settle- 
ments were to be suffered, save by the same 
families that wej'e then in possession on the 
lands they held or claimed before, and no 
person whatever in or near those parts should 
on either side be molested on any cause or 
pretense arising frohi their disputes or the 
proprietary claims. On the 11th of March, 
1737, Gov. Ogle wrote that "the point is. 
which of the two governments is in the wrong 
by refusing to come into reasonable measures, 
to prevent disorders on the border. That 
the proposal to Hamilton and Georges was, 
that the application be made to the King to 
fix the boundaries and new settlements be 
prevented. You seem willing not to oppose; 
•but that all those who first took up their 
lands under this province may be allowed to 
acknowledge this government, only those 
coming into your province to inhabit it, and 
going over Susquehanna to seek for settle- 
ments, were either forced or decoyed by 
Thomas Cressap, or others, to submit to this 
government, ought certainly to be left to those 
to which they first belonged ' . . . . I am 
persuaded you did not intend to include 
within that exception the Germans, who set- 



tied under this government on Susquehanna, 
and who, by a most extraordinary method, 
pretended to become Pennsylvanians."* He 
proposed to meet Mr. Logan anywhere half 
way between Annapolis and Philadelphia. 
In reply to thia a letter was written to Gov. 
Ogle, March 22, 1737, by President Logan, 
under the advice of the Council, showing the 
impracticability of his proposal. Those in- 
habitants who at first entered on their pos- 
sessions undfir Maryland, should, till the 
boundaries were settled, be allowed to ac- 
knowledge that government. And all saoh 
as entered on their possessions under this 
government, should, in the same manner, be 
allowed to acknowledge it. And all the inhab- 
itants subject to the late dispute, should be 
exempt from taxes. Taxes to be assessed 
and acf!ount kept of them, and no further set- 
tlements be made in those parts.f To this 
letter, Gov. Ogle responded on the 29th of 
March, 1737: "You say you will now, in 
full terms, express your meaning, which is, 
that those inhabitants who at first entered 
on their possessions under the government of 
Maryland, should, till such time as the 
boundaries should be settled, or till we shall 
receive orders and directions from a superior 
authority for establishing peace, be allowed 
to acknowledge this government; and all 
such others as entered on their possessions 
nnder your government, should, in the same 
manner, be allowed to acknowledge it. In 
answer to which I can truly say, that I al- 
ways thought this JQst and reasonable, that 
all my endeavors and proposals tended to 
nothing else but to get your government to 
come into this very agreement, which, if you 
had done, I am covinced it would effectually 
have prevented all the mischief that has hap- 
pened since that ineffectual conference we 
had with Messrs. Hamilton and Georges 
.... But, besides that, such an agreement 
as this for the public good can never be too 
plainly and clearly expressed, or disputes 
about it too carefully avoided; let us consid- 
er the persons you propose to be excepted, 
and the reason for so doing. 

" The persons are those who have been the 
subject of the late contentions and disputes 
begun some time in August last, and the only 
reason that I can conceive for- it must be that 
these same persons, not liking our 40% 
poll and other taxes, took it into their heads 
to renounce all obedience to this government 
in a formal mannor by a paper under their 
hands. If they had not made this revolt, as 
they themselves call it, I presume their being 

excepted more than others would not have 
been mentioned; so that this being the (mly 
reason, the best way for you to judge of the 
goodness of it v?ill be to turn the tables, and 
suppose the same case should happen to 
youi'selves. Suppose a number of your in- 
habitants, touched with a tender regard for 
the Church of England and the support of 
its ministers, should all of a sudden re- 
nounce your government in the same formal 
manner that these people did ours for con- 
trary reasons, pray what would your govern- 
ment do in such a case? Would you think 
such a renunciation of any validity, or would 
you proceed against them according to the 
laws of your province? Whatever you would 
think reasonable for yourselves to do in that 
case, we only desire you to grant us the same 
indulgence. To do as one would be done by 
is a maxim so very just and reasonable that 
it is to be presumed that nobody can dispute 
it. And this is all we desire of you in the 
case before us."* 

Reference was made in the letter ot Pres- 
ident Logan to the committing of hostilities 
by Higginbotham and his crew, pending the 
negotiations and correspondence between the 
provinces, but to these Gov. Ogle made no 
response. The letters of Samuel Blunston 
to the Provincial Council contain a full state- 
ment of these transactions, and, therefore, 
must be cited in order to obtain a full un- 
derstanding of the trials of the German set- 
tlers here. 

Charles Higginbotham, one of the ring- 
leaders in the ejectment plot above related, 
having escaped, became more formidable than 
his predecessor, Cressap, in acts of violence. 
He was appointed by Gov. Ogle, a .Justice of 
the Peace and a Captain of Militia. At the 
head of about twenty men he came up to the 
settlements of the Germans, and it appears 
by the letters of Samuel Blunston in Decem- 
ber and January, 1737, "being daily 
strengthened by runaway servants and others 
of desperate circumstances, they threatened 
to attack some of the Dutch people seated 

there," and many outrages were comm 


and forcible arrests made, and they plainly 
intended to oust every person who refused 
to acknowledge the authority of Maryland. 
They broke open the Germans' doors with 
axes and carried persons off. On account of 
these outrages the wives and children of the 
Germans taken and several other families. 
went over the Susqirehanna for refuge, and 
according to Mr. Blunston, all the settle- 
ments on°the west side would be speedily de- 
serted unlessji^&uffioien^Jorcejvou^^ 

« IV Col. Kec, I.?6. 


on foot to protect them and to apprehend 
Higginbotham and his party. So grievous 
were the complaints of injury that he asked 
the advice of the Council on the 9th of Jan- 
uary, 1737, whether it would be more eligible 
to order the removal of all those who were 
seated under Pennsylvania on the west side 
of the Susquehanna, than to use further en- 
deavors for their defense, since it was ap- 
parent these could not be effectual without 
coming to blows, and bloodshed in all prob- 
ability would ensue. The Council, consider- 
ing the distresses and hardships to which 
the Germans, by the cruelty of the Governor 
of Maryland, were at that severe season ex- 
posed, were of opinion that it was not con- 
sistent either with the honor or safety of this 
province to remove those of its inhabitants 
who were seated within its unquestionable 
bounds, since such an act might be construed 
a cession of those parts to Maryland, who 
would not fail thereupon to take possession 
of them; and in all probability, from such 
an encouragement, would endeavor at further 
encroachments in pursuance to their late ex- 
orbitant claims. On the contrarj', it became 
the government, in support of its authority 
and in the just defense of his Majesty's 
peaceable subjects in it, to raise and support 
a force sufficient to oppose those violators of 
the peace and of his people's rights, and to 
seize and secure them that they may be 
brought to justice, the conducting of which 
force ought to be in the sheriff of the county 
and his officers. And on the 20th of Janu- 
ary it was ordered thai the Sheriff of Lan- 
caster be called upon to raise a sufficient num- 
ber of men of his county lo be disposed in 
such places on the west side of the Susque- 
hanna, under proper officers to be by him 
deputed, as may prevent further disorders, 
and that the Sheriff with his officers and as- 
sistants exert their utmost endeavors for pre- 
serving the peace, protecting the inhabitants, 
and use all legal means in their power for 
apprehending Higginbotham and his asso- 
ciates, and all others who have been or here- 
after shall be guilty of committing any acts 
of violence within the said county." * It 
was repeatedly pressed in advices from Lan- 
caster " that some gentlemen of credit and 
authority should be sent up into that coun- 
ty, by whose encouragement and counte- 
nance a greater furtherance might be given 
to such measures as should be found 
necessary to be concerted for the preservation 
of his Majesty's peace and the protection of 
the inhabitants from those outrages to which 
they have of late been exposed." On the 

* IV Col. Eec, 150-1. 

25th of January, 1737, two members of the 
Council, Messrs. Laurence and Assheton, 
were prevailed upon to take that trouble. 
It was recommended to them " to use their 
best endeavors and give such orders as they 
should judge most conducive for carrying 
those measures into execution." 

Mr. Laurence and Mr. Assheton, on their 
return from Lancaster, on the Sth of Febru- 
ary, reported that they met the Justices and 
Sheriff of that county, and that fifteen men 
had been got together to observe the motions 
of Higginbotham and his party, and to pre- 
vent their further attempts on the inhabit- 
ants. That he had gone toward Annapolis 
with his prisoners, and the others kept them- 
selves shut up in their guard house or for- ^ 
tress. That their whole force consisted of ( 
about twenty-live men. The number of men 
to assist the Sheriff had been increased to 
twenty-eight, and Solomon Jennings was 
made deputy, and he and his men were so 
stationed as to be able to prevent any further 
violences. They said the country had con- 
ceived such a resentment that many had 
offered their services to march directly to 
their fortress and take them.* 

At a meeting of the Council on the 1st of 
March, 1737, a letter from Samuel Blunston 
set forth that Higginbotham's garrison was 
then about the number of thirty. That Hig- 
ginbotham had offered to purchase some of 
the Dutch people's improvements, by order, 
as he gave out, of the Governor of Mary- 
land, and that he had also told some of 
them if they would stand neuter and not 
hold by either government, they should 
remain unmolested. That many having been 
obliged to leave their houses, it was not with- 
out the utmost difficulty their families had 
been able to subsist themselves that winter, 
and if on the approaching season, they should 
be prevented by a continuance of such vio- 
lences from putting in a spring crop, they 
must either perish, remove, or submit to 
Maryland. That jDrovisions were extremely 
scarce, and the keeping of the Sheriff's as- 
sistants together on the west side of the Sus- 
quehanna very expensive. They had few or 
no opjDortunities of falling in with Higgin- 
botham's gang, who for the most part kept 
within their guard house, where the Sheriff 
would not consent that they should be at- 
tacked. By a letter a few days before to 
Thomas Penn, it appeared Higginbotham's 
party broke into the house of Joshua Min- 
shall early in the morning of the 12th of 
February, surprised him in bed, and carried 
him off prisoner. They were pursued by 

1 »IV Col. Eec, 1B3. 


some of the Sheriff of Lancaster's people, 
who had no notice of this action till some 
hours after it had happened, bnt the gang 
had got to their guard house before they could 
be overtaken, and there it was not thought 
proper to attack them.* On the 17th of 
March, 1737, some of the people from the 
garrison went to the house of Martin Shultz 
and took by force a cask of eighty gallons of 
rum and two of his horses and conveyed 
them to their place. f A letter written about 
this time by Mr. Blunston gives a graphic 
picture of the unfortunate state of affaiis in 
this portion of the province. J He says: 
"We bad given repeated orders to the Dutch 
to keep together and stand on their defense," 
He then relates the incidents of six men get- 
ting a grave ready for a child. Higgin- 
botham and his company came upon them, 
and seized and carried them through the 
woods, and it was said that they were to be 
conveyed to Annapolis. The persons taken 
were Michael Tanner, Conrade Strickler, 
Henry Bacon, Jacob Welshans, Charles Jones 
and Joseph Evans. He says: "This unhappy 
accident has so terrified the rest that they 
have all left their homes and are come over 
the river, so that there is none left on that 
side but women and children, except Joshua 
Minshall and John Wright, Jr. ; at the house 
of the latter they keep garrison, expecting 
every day and night to be attacked. This is 
the present state of affairs over the river, to 
which, if we add that the ice is in continual 
danger of breaking, so as to render the river 
impassable for some weeks, make things look 
with but an indifferent prospect. Before this 
happened, if the sheriff had gone over, he 
might have had thirty or forty Dutch to assist 
hinj, but now he has none but what he takes 
with him if he can go over." 

At a meeting of the Council on the 4th of 
April. 1737. the President acquainted the 
Board that several of the Germans who had 
suffered outrages from the Maryland gang 
from the west of Susquehanna had come 
hither to represent their great distress. Hig- 
ginbotham and those under his command had 
continued to carry on their violences, and 
would neither suffer the people themselves, 
their children, nor those hired to plow the 
grounds, to raise corn for the sustenance of 
their families. They took away the horses 
employed in this necessary work, and said the 
Governor of Maryland ordered it. They car- 
ried off several young lads from plowing, and 
detained them in their garrison to give secur- 

« IV Col. Eec, 156. 
t Archives, .534, Affidavit. 
i I Arclilves, 316. This letter i 
date of 1732.— IV Col. Eec, 149. 

ity to work no more or be sent to gaol. Some 
of the people carried to Annapolis, let out on 
bail, were told if they did not work for 
others they forfeited their recognizance. No- 
tice was given to the women that three days 
would be allowed them to carry their goods 
out of their houses, otherwise they would be 
turned out. The number of the rioters had 
increased, and infested the neighborhood in 
small detachments. Their insolence and 
cruelties were so great that the inhabitants 
were reduced to deplorable circumstances, it 
being evident that notwithstanding the nego- 
tiations of peace now on foot between the 
two provinces, Higginbotham and those 
with him were resolved to distress the poor 
people to such a degree as to oblige them to 
quit their places that others may enter upon 
them according to the promise and expecta- 
tions given them by the Governor of Mary- 
land. The number of those whom the Sheriff 
of Lancaster had kept on the west side of 
the Susquehanna for a restraint on Higgin- 
botham's gang had lessened, and had not 
been of the service that was expected. The 
Council observed that as both governments 
were then treating on measures for establish- 
ing peace, and the Governor of Maryland 
continuing in his several late letters, to make 
ample professions of his sincere inclination 
to that end, it could scarcely be supposed, 
without highly reflecting on that gentleman's 
honor and candor, that those late violences 
were carried on by his authority or with his 
knowledge. His letter was again read, and 
the essential parts • of it, particularly that 
where he seems to insist that the Germans. 
without any proviso or stipulation for them, 
should be left to his government to be taxed 
or dealt with as they should think proper, 
being largely spoken to, the Pre.sident was 
desired to prepare a draught of an answer to 
Mr. Ogle.* This answer of Mr. Logan reca- 
pitulated the correspondence on the subject, 
and made the proposal that a preliminary, 
namely, the appointment of persons to adjust 
the matter, be at once put in execution, and 
that Commissioners meet on the spot, and de- 
termine by the strictest and most just inquiry, 
who of those inhabitants entered on their 
possessions under the one or under the othei' 
government. It noted the fact that he had 
made no answer to the complaints about 
Higginbotham, and that since the receipt of 
his last letter accounts had been received of 
shocking barbarities committed upon that 
unhappy people. I'pon considering what 
was represented by Mr. Blunston. the Council 
were of the opinion that the people ought hv 

* IV Col. Rec, 1S9. 


all means to maintain possession of their 
houses and plantations. That a proper num- 
ber of people should be lodged in the house 
late of John Hendricks to defend it against 
any attack, and the Sheriff be called upon to 
give all legal assistance. On the 8th of 
April, 1737, as to those Germans who had 
come there to pray advice in their present dis- 
tress, the Council were of opinion that as they 
came tirst into this province to settle, they were 
highly to blame in going over to the other side 
of the Susquehanna, and there, in contempt of 
this government, taking up land under Mary- 
land and acknowledging themselves subjects 
or tenants under it ; that some of them had not 
only enlisted under Cressap, but had assisted 
him on all occasions when called on, and par- 
ticularly that the party who took Mr. Bu- 
chanan, the late Sheriff of Lancaster, was 
mostly made of their people ; that when they 
thought of returning to their obedience under 
this government, if Gov. Ogle's word is to 
be taken for it, who expressly charges them 
with it, and as for encimraging them in it, 
their only inducement was their hopes of 
living more easily under us, in being freed 
from the forty per cent, poll and other 
Maryland tases. That instead of defending 
themselves against the force which had been 
sent to apprehend them, they had thrown that 
charge wholly upon this government, who 
had been put to great expense on that account. 
That if the Marylanders should proceed to 
turn them off their plantations, as there is 
now no possibility of opposing but by open 
^Yar and bloodshed, their families must be 
sure no otherwise to give way to it than as 
they are forced, and if that should prove the 
case, as it is hoped it will not, care will be 
taken to order other places for their settle- 
ment, on theirpaying a reasonable considera- 
tion for the same, and that we must wait for 
a suitable redress from the wisdom and jus- 
tice of our Gracious Sovereign, whose orders 
for putting an end to all these disturbances 
have been long since humbly applied for, 
and may now in a short time be expected.* 

On the 15th of April, 1737, a letter from 
Gov. Ogle retaliates as to violences, by 
charges of cruelty to Cressap and others: "I 
shall put into immediate execution every- 
thing that lies in my power to prevent the 
renewing of your hostilities. I shall leave 
wholly to yourselves, such as first settled un- 
der your government, and shall only look up- 
on such to be Marylanders at present, as set- 
tled and held under this govei'nment."t 

Throughout this curious and voluminous 

discussion, there was, on either side, a plain 
determination to maintain the German element 
of the contention as peculiarly subject to 
their own control. Pennsylvania was willing 
to have an investigation into the settlements 
of each individual, believing that the excep- 
tions were as to an original settlement under 
any other title. Maryland, on the other hand, 
would persist on claiming the whole body of 
the revolted Germans as their tenants and 
subject to taxation as such. Consequently 
the reply to the letter of Gov. Ogle, of the 
15th of April, proposed the appointment of a 
commissioner by each province to ascertain 
who of the settlers ''first entered on their 
lands under the one, and who under the other 
government," when the commotions began, 
before August, 1736. 


On the 29th of April. 1737, the Council 
considered it advisable lo send to Annapolis 
two persons, who should, in a personal con- 
ference with the Governor, press him to an 
explicit and determined answer to the pro- 
posals that accompanied the concession made 
on the part of this province and accejated by 
him. Two members, Mr. Preston and Mr. 
Kinsey, were appointed for the occasion. 
Another letter was prepared and sent to Gov. 
Ogle. It was proposed that the levying of 
taxes be deferred and that the forces on 
either side be withdrawn and that commis- 
sioners be appointed. The House of Repre- 
sentatives was called together and a message 
delivered to them from the President and 
Council, that notwithstanding all legal 
means in their power, and those at a very con- 
siderable expense, had been used to put a 
stop to the violences on the west side of the 
Susquehanna, yet there was a continued 
series of those abuses. The House hoped 
that it would not be long before the King's 
pleasure would be known, and that they 
should always be read}' to do what is neces- 
sary for supporting the government, while 
the measures taken are consistent with the 
peaceable principles of the people they rep- 

A letter of instructions was prepared for 
Samuel Preston and John Kinsey, Esqs., the 
commissioners. A recapitulation of the mat- 
ters in controversy is unnecessary. Accord- 
ing to the report made by Mr. Preston on 
their return, they were received civilly and 
dined with the Governor, and had a personal 
conference with him. They were called before 
the Council and had reduced their offer to 
writing. After correspondence between them, 
articles were acceded to by both governments. 



Objection was made to the appointment of 
commissioners. It was contended, on the ' 
part of Pennsylvania, that this was nec- 
essary to determine who settled under each 
government, but on the part of Maryland 
that it might "be determined by them and 
Messrs. Preston and Kinsey, as by com- 
missioners. The former also contended that 
it was necessary to examine those who were 
settled and others. In the personal confer- 
ence touching the manner of determining 
who settled on the lands in dispute under ! 
each government, Gov. Ogle told them that 
he thought it would be easy to distinguish 
them by name in the articles. He said an 
answer to two or three plain questions would 
determine it, as to whose they took the land ! 
to be at the time of their first entry? To 
whom had they paid their taxes? He further j 
said that the Germans entered on the land 
on which they are under them, but were pre- 
vailed upon by threats and persuasions of 
some of the magistrates of Lancaster to re- 
nounce their government. "He was answered, 
that matter was very differently represented 
to ns; that one of ns had an opportunity since 
our coming there of enquiring of one of 
those Germans, who declared that on their 
first entry on the lands in question, they 
looked upon them as belonging to the pro- 
prietors of Pennsylvania, but that Cressap, 
pretending an authority from the govern- 
ment of Maryland, threatened to dispossess 
them unless they would suffer their plan- ! 
tations to be surveyed by him as belong- 
ing to Maryland. That being strangers, I 
who had the right to avoid being dispossessed, 
they permitted him to make surveys, expect- | 
ing a confirmation of their possessions from 
the government of Maryland. And we un- 
derstood that they,- having been disappointed 
in this respect by the government of Mary- 
land, and their havirg afterward been fully 
assured the lands belonged to our proprietors, j 
occasioned their voluntary application to our i 
magistrates for protection from our govern- [ 
ment, and that they were not induced thereto 
by any threats or persuasions whatsoever. " 
Messrs. Preston and Kinsey proposed that if 
there was difficulty as to the appointment of 
commissioners they might agree upon other 
articles. This Gov. Ogle declined, urging ^ 
that it was necessary first to distinguish the \ 
persons who settled under each government. 
They were called no more to confer with the 
Maryland Council. They dined with Ben- 
jamin Tasker. one of the ("ouneil and Lord 
Baltimore's agent, and on their return to 
their lodging, found a paper for them, and 
being informed the Governor was gone out 

of town, the Council separated, and they left 

As in the former treaties, so in this, the 
Governor of Maryland insisted that the fail 
ure of the negotiations was owing to the 
want of power or information in the com- 
missioners, and that when his just oifers 
would be communicated to the Government 
of Pennsylvania, it would give proper 
powers and instructions for perfecting the 


THE line which was provided for in the 
agreement of 1732, was not run on 
account of the objections of Lord Baltimore, 
and the consequent suit in equity. The active 
and acrimonious correspondence between the 
Governors of the two provinces went on, as we 
have seen, and overtures for fixing a boundary 
were made by Pennsylvania, without effect. 
Gov. Gordon and President Logan, by advice 
of the Council, proposed to have a provisional 
line run, but it was rejected by the Maryland 
authorities. There were mutual appeals to 
the King. The matter was referred to the 
Lords of Committee of Council on Plantation 
Affairs, and before them the proprietors and 
their counsel came to an agreement that the 
peace and tranquility of the province might 
l3e preserved until such time as the bound- 
aries could be finally settled. This agi-ee- 
ment was approved by the King, and His 
Majesty was pleased to order that the respect- 
ive proprietors do cause the said agreement 
to be carried into execution. 


At the court at Kensington, on the 2.5th dav of 
May, 1738. 


The King's Most Excellent Majestj'. 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Earl of Selkirk, 
Lord President, Earl of Islay, 

Lord Steward Earl FitzWalter, 

Lord Chamberlain, Viscount Lonsdale, 

Duke of Bolton, .Viscount Torrington. 

Duke of Devonshire, Lord Harrington, 

Duke of Newcastle, Mr. Chancellor of the 

Earl of Scarborough, Sir Charles Wills. 

Earl of Grantham, Henry Pelham, Esq.. 

Earl of Cholmondeley, Sir Charles Wager. 

Upon reading at the Board a report from the 
Ri"-ht Honorable the Lords of the Committee of 
Council for Plantation Affairs. Dated the -ith of this 
Instant in tlie words following. Viz.: 


Your Majesty having been pleased by your orders 
in Council of tiie 17lh of March, 1736, 1737, and the 
21st of July, 1737, to refer unto this Committee 
several petitions from the President. Council and 
General Assembly of the Province of Pennsylvania, 
and likewise from the Governor and Council, and 
the commissary and clergy of the Province of Mary- 
land, which petitions represent (among other things) 
that great Disorders and Outrages have been com- : 
mitted upon the Borders of the said respective 
Provinces, and humbly Praying your Majesty's 
most Gracious Interposition and commands, for the 
preservation of the Peace, on the said Borders until 
the Boundaries of the said Province shall be finally 
settled and adjusted. The Lords of the Committee 
of Council did, on the 29th of the said Month of 
July, take the matter of the said complaints into 
their consideration. And, therefore. Reported to 
vour Majesty what they thought most advisable 
for your Majesty to Do. in Order to Prevent the 
further Continuance of the said Disorders and to 
preserve Peace and Tranquility on the said Borders, , 
until the Boundaries should be finally settled. And 
Your Majesty having approved of what was Pro- 
posed by the said Report was Pleased, by your order 1 
in Council of the 8th of August, 1737, to" direct as 
follows. Viz.: "That the governors of the respect- 
ive provinces of Maryland and Pennsylvania, for 
the time being, Do not, upon pain of incurring His 
Majesty's Highest Displeastsre, permit or suffer any 
tumult's, riots, or other Outrageous Disorders to be 
committed on the Borders of their respective prov- 
inces. But that they do immediately put a stop 
thereto, and use their utmost endeavours to preserve 
Peace and Good Order amongst all His Majesty's 
subjects under their Government inhabiting the said 
borders. And as a means to preserve peace and 
Tranquility on the said Borders, His Majesty doth 
hereby enjoin the said Governors that they do not 
make Grants of any part of the Lands in Contest 
between the Propi-ietors respectively, nor any part 
of the Three Lower Counties commonly called New- 
castle, Kent and Sussex, nor permit any Person to 
settle there, or even to a'ttempt to make a settle- 
ment thereon, till His Majesty's Pleasure shall be 
further signified. And His Majesty is further 
pleased to Direct that this Order, together with 
Duplicates thereof, be delivered to the proprietors of 
the said Provinces, who are hereby required to 
transmit the same forthwith to the governors of the 
said respective Provinces accordingly. That since 
the issuing of the said order Your Majesty hath been 
plciised to refer unto this Committee an address of 
the Deputy Governor, and of the Upper and Luwer 
Houses of Assembly of the Province of Maryland, 
relating to a Continuance of the said Disorders, and 
also two Petitions, the one in the name of John, 
Thomas and Richard Penn, Esqrs., Proprietors of 
the Province of Pennsylvania, Praying Your 
Majesty's further pleasure may be signified relating 
to your Majesty's afore recited Order in Council of 
the 18th of August, 17.37, and the other in the name 
of the Agent of the said Province of Pennsylvania, 
Complaining of fresh Disorders committed by the 
Inhabitants'of Maryland against those of Pennsyl- 
vania, Wherefore the Lords of the Committee did. 
on the 23rd of February last, proceed to take all 
the papers relating to the complaints made by each 
of the said Provinces into their consideration and 
were attended by Counsel on both sides, and likewise 
by the Proprietors of the said Provinces, And the 
Counsel desiring' that some reasonable time might 
be allowed the Proprietors to confer together, in 
Order to come to some Agreement amongst them- 
selves, that so the Peace and Tranquility of both 
Provinces may be preserved until such time as the 
Boundarys can be finally settled. The Lords of the 
Committee thought proper to comply with such, 

their request. And being again this day Attended 
by allPartys, the counsel acquainted the'Committee 
that the proprietors of each Province had accord- 
ingly met and agreed to the following propositions, 
viz. : '■ 1st that so mucli of His ^Majesty's Order in 
Council of the INth of Au-u-^t, IT:!?, as Onlcis the 
Governors of the rc-iiiMiivr I'mviiiM'^ ..!' M:ii-\i:ind 
& Pennsylvania for il.r tiniolMiim. ,1.. nm/upon 
pain of incurring His Miiji ^ly'slliglirst nispluavure, 
Permit or Suffer any Tumult, Riots or any other 
Outrageous Disorders, to be committed "on the 
Borders of their respective Provinces, but that they 
do immediately put a stop thereto, and use their 
utmost endeavors to preserve Peace and Good Order 
among all his Majesty's Subjects under their Gov- 
ernment, Inhabiting the said Borders, Do stand in 
force and be Observed. 2nd, That there being no 
riots that appear to have been committed within 
the Three Lower Counties of Newcastle, Kent and 
Sussex, on Deleware. It is therefore not thouyht 
necessary to continue the latter part of the said 
Order in Council, as to the said three lower Coun- 
ties, but that the same former Order in Council, so 
far as relates to the said three Lower Counties, be 
discharged without prejudice to either of the Pro- 
prietors, as if the same had never been made. 

3d, That all other lands in contest between the 
said proprietors now possessed by or under either 
of them shall remain in the possession as thoy now 
are (although beyond the temporary limits" here- 
after mentioned); and also the jurisdiction of the 
respective proprietors shall continue over such 
lands until the boundarys shall ln' (inallv .'.ciilcd; 
and that the tenants of either sid(' ^liall nni allorn 
to the other, nor shall either of llic |.r(>|M ii l.ns nr 
their officers receive or accept of aflnrnnunls ('rom 
the tenants of the other proprietors. 

4th, That, as to all vacant lands in contest be- 
tween the proprietors, not lying within the three 
lower counties and not now possessed by or under 
either of them, on the east side of the River Susque- 
hanna, down so far as fifteen miles and one ipuirter 
quarter of a mile south of the latitude of the most 
southern part of the City of Philadelphia, and on the 
west side of the said River Susquehanna, down so far 
south as fourteen miles and three-quarters south of 
the latitude of the most southern part of the City 
of Philadelphia, the temporary jurisdiction over 
the same is agreed to be exercised by the proprietors 
of Pennsylvania, and their Governor, courts and 
ofl3cers, and as to all such vacant lands in contest 
between the proprietors and not now possessed by 
or under either of them on both sides of the said 
River Susquehanna, south of the respective south- 
ern limits in this paragraph before mentioned, the 
temporary jurisdiction over the sainr i> aiinid to be 
exercised by the proprietor of Mai \ land, lii- ^^ov- 
ernor, courts and oflScers, wiilmui im iii,li(c io 
either proprietor, and until the houiiiiai\s shall be 
finally settled, ■'ith. That the respective proprietors 
shall be at free liberty to grant out, on the common 
and usual terms all or any vacant lands within the 
said Provinces of Pennsylvania and Maryland in 
contest between the said proprietors ( that'is to sav 
within their own respective sides of the said several 
limits mentioned in the last foregoing paragraph). 
I For the which lands and the profits of the same also 
' each proprietor shall accoont to the other, who may 
be adjudged to be the proprietor thereof, upon the 
final determination of the boundarys between the 
j two . provinces. 6th, That all prisoners on both 
j sides on account of being concerned in any riots or 
j disturbances relating to the bounds, or for any act 
or thing done thereat, or for any other act touching 
j the rightsof either said provinces in relation to their 
i bounds, be forthwith released and discharged on 
I enterins: into their own respective recognizance in 
a reasonable sum to appear and submit to tryal when 



called upon by further order from His Majesty. 
7th. That this be declared to be a provisional and 
temporary order to continue until the boundarys 
shall be finally settled, and be declared to be with- 
out prejudice to either party. 8th, That His Maj- 
esty be most humbly moved to discharge so much 
of the order of the 18th of August, 1 737, as varys 
from the agreement, and that the several other pe- 
titions of complaint now depending before His Maj- 
esty in council, relating to any disturbances, may 
be withdravirn by the respective petitioners. 

To which propositions the proprietors of each 
province signified their consent before the commit- 
tee, and declared their readiness to carry the same 
into execution, if your Majesty shall be pleased to 
approve thereof; and the committee, considering 
that the agreement may be a proper expedient for 
restoring peace and tranquility between tlie said 
provinces, and for preventing any of the like dis- 
tiu'bances for the future, do therefore agree humbly 
to lay the same before your Majesty for your royal 

His Majesty this day took the said report inio 
consideration, and in order to preserve peace & 
tranquility between the said provinces, and to pre- 
vent any like disturbances for the future, is pleased, 
with the advice of his Privy Council, to approve of 
the said agreement entered into between the pro- 
prietors of the said respective provinces; and His 
Majesty is hereby pleased to order that the proprie- 
tors of the said respective provinces of Maryland 
and Pennsylvania do cause the said agreement to 
be carried into execution; whereof the said proprie- 
tors, and all others whom it may concern, are to 
lake notice and govern themselves accordingly, 

J. A. Vernon. 

This Royal Order, as wiJl be seen, pro- 
vided that as to all vacant lands iu contest 
the proprietors .... "not now 
by, or tinder, either of them, on 
the east side of the River Susquehanna, down 
so far south as iifteen miles, and one quarter 
of a mile south of the latitude of the most 
southern part of the city of Philadelphia, 
and on the west side of the said River Sus- 
quehanna, down so far south as fourteen 
miles and three quarters of a mile south of 
the latitude of the most southern part of the 
city of Philadelphia, the temporary jurisdic- 
tion of the same is agreed to be exercised by 
the proprietors of Pennsylvania, and their 
Governor, Courts and oflScers, until the 
boundaries shall be finally settled." The 
agreement of 1732 fixed the boundary on the 
line of latitude fifteen miles south of the 
southern part of Philadelphia, and provided 
that titles to lands granted by either, and 
which were "cleared, occupied and pos- 
sessed" before the fifteenth of May, 1724 
should be protected. The date of the?e set- 
tlements appears to have been fixed by the 
date of the agreement made in London be- 
tween the proprietors on the 17th of May, 
1724, " that no smrveys should be made on 
either side in the disputed places till the 
boundaries should be fixed, for which a time 
was limited.'' The agreement of 1724, pro- 

tected only occupiers of land at that time, 
and since it prohibited all new grants and 
settlements it was reasonable to expect that 
the agreement of 1732 would not protect 
grants and intrusions in violation of it.* 
And so it was written in the agreement of 
1732. f So the matter was viewed by 
Gov. Gordon in his letter to Gov. Ogle, 
June 15, 1732, " we have always understood 
here and so did your immediate predecessor, 
his Lordship's brother, on our treating on that 
subject, that the same convention should sub- 
sist till the matter was further accommodated, 
all which, notwithstanding the numerous set- 
tlements made by those who forced them- 
selves upon us from Ireland and Germany, 
has been so punctually observed by our office, 
that there has not been one survey made, as 
is affirmed to me, by order of that office, 
within the limits which it is conceived Mary- 
land either could or would claim. "^ This 

i view wasratified by the royal order. In pur- 
suance of this order of his Majesty in coun- 

; cil " provisional and temporary limits" were 

i run between the provinces. 


On the 5th of December, 1738, Gov. 
Thomas acquainted the Council that he had 
received a letter from Gov. Ogle of the 26th 
of November, informing him that he had ap- 
pointed Col. Levin Gale and JMr. Samuel 
Chamberlain to run the line agreed upon, 
and confirmed by his Majesty's order, as pro- 
visional and temporary limits between the two 
provinces. And that he had appointed Law- 
rence Growden, Esq., and Mr. Richard Pete)-s, 
as Commissioners, and Benjamin Eastbiu'n, as 
surveyor, on the part of Pennsylvania, to 
join them in running the said line.g 

From the report it appears that the Com- 
missioners met on the 5th of December, at- 
tended by the Mayor, several Aldermen and 
some of the principal gentlemen of Phila- 
delphia, when the most southern part of the 
city was ascertained, to the satisfaction of the 
Commissioners on both sides, by the declara- 
tion of the Mayor and Aldermen, by the orig- 
inal draft of the city, by the situation .of the 
dock, and other natural marks, and by the 
testimonies of several ancient inhabitants, all 
concurring that a certain post, then showed 
the Commissioners, stood in the most southern 
part of the city. . It was unanimously agreed 

I *II.Harrls, 367. 

tlV Archives, 10. 

JArchives, 331. 

^Authenticated copies of the papers reLiiini; tothistrans- 
actiuii were received fromEnglaud, accuiupanied with a hanil- 
jomely drawn and colored map on parchment See lilhu- 
graphed copy, reduce to hair size of the original. 



to settle the variation of the compass by fix- 
ing a meridian line by au observation to be 
made when the pole star above the pole and 
the first star in the tail of the Great Bear un- 
der the pole should be in the same vertical 
circle, or in a perpendicular line, one above 
the other, and a meridian line was carefully 
fixed according to that rule and being tried 
by a theodolite in the possession of Benja- 
min Eastburn, the variation was found by it 
to be 5° and 25'. They commenced to run 
the line with a westerly variation of 5^ and 
'2')' and the line was run to a fence belong- 
ing to Israel Pemberton, about two miles from 
the place of beginning. 

They met again on the 12th of April, and 
the surveyors and chain carriers were quali- 
fied by oath or aflirmation. They tested in- 
struments at the post where they had begun 
before, and found the theodolite of Mr. East- 
burn to have the same direction and its vari- 
ation no ways changed, and on the next day, 
the 13th of April, met at Israel Pemberton's 
fence, and all parties being satisfied, by the 
marks that were left on that fence and on the 
trees near it, that that was the place where they 
left off on the llthof December, the surveyors 
proceeded on the line. On the 22d of April, 
at a distance of thirty-one miles due west 
from the place of beginning, it was agreed 
that the line was now run enough to the | 
west for avoiding the large waters of Bran- 
dywine and Christiana Creeks, and that the 
surveyors should begin to set off the south 
line of fifteen miles and a quarter. Then a 
dispute arose co^cerning the manner of meas- 
uring the fifteen miles and a quarter. The 
Commissioners of Maryland insisted that the 
line should be run on the surface of the 
earth, without any allowance for the un- 
evenness thereof, and the Commissioners for 
Pennsylvania insisting that the said line j 
should be an horizontal line, that is to say, 
that the altitudes of the hills should be 
taken and a full and just allowance made for 
them. Both parties refused to run the line 
in any other manner than what they had pro- 
posed. The Commissioners of Maryland de- 
clared their resolution to proceed ex ■parte. 
On the next day being of the opinion that a I 
separation of the Commissioners and the run- 
ning of two different lines would be attended 
with all the evil consequences for the pre- 
vention whereof, his Majesty granted his 
royal order, it was at last agreed that the 
line should be run on the surface, and that 
an allowance of twenty-five perches should 
be made for the altitudes of the hills. On 
the 4th of May, 1739, the surveyors pro- 
ceeded on the west line to a field in the pos- 

session of Robert Patterson, at the distance 
of about a mile and a half from the river 
Susquehanna, and on information that there 
was nil place on the western side of that 
river, but what would give great difficulty to 
the surveyors in measuring the half mile 
north, it was judged proper to set it otf, and 
measure it at this place, that there might be 
no delay to the work on that account, and ac- 
cordingly the surveyors set ofif and measured 
160 i^erches due north, and then turned a due 
west line and proceeded thereon to a distance 
of about a quarter of a mile from the river. 
On the next day the surveyors proceeded on 
the west line and ran the same to the western 
bank of Susquehanna, to a hickory tree 
which was ordered to be marked with four 
notches on each side, and it was unanimous- 
ly agreed that the west line down so far 
south as fourteen miles and three-quarters 
of a mile south of the latitude of the most 
southern part of the city of Philadelphia, 
should begin at that hickory tree. On the 
6th of May, Mr. Gale informed the Commis- 
sioners that he had, since he came to Phila- 
delphia, on this line, received an account of 
the death of a son, and that by a special 
messenger, he had just now received a fur- 
ther account that one of his davighters was 
dangerously ill, and his wife and family in 
very great distress on that occasion, and pro- 
posed an adjournment to a further day, for 
that he was rendered incapable to give such 
attention to the proceedings on the tempo 
rary line as his duty required, and therefore 
declared he would proceed thereon no fur- 
ther, and Mr. Chamberlain declared that he 
apprehended he had no authority to proceed 
otherwise than in conjunction with Mr. Gale, 
and likewise declined going further with the 
line. Whereupon the Commissioners of 
Pennsylvania said that, as Col. Gale had on 
Friday, the 27th of April, received the ac- 
count of his son's death, and as they were 
then apprehensive it would affect him so 
much as to render him incapable of proceed 
ing on the line, and might occasion separa- 
tion of the Commissioners, they had at that 
time written an account of it to their Gover- 
nor, requesting his further orders, in case it 
should prove as they feared, and had received 
an answer from his Honor, that he had sent 
them a new commission (in case of a separa- 
tion of the Commissioners) to proceed ex 
parte to finish the temporary line, for that 
the peace of the government absolutely de- 
pended thereon. The.y, the Commissioners 
of Pennsylvania, therefore declared that they 
could not adjourn, but as they judged it ab 
solutely necessary for the peace of both gov- 


erniiieDts, that the line should be forthwith 
completed without any delay, and as they 
had a commission for that purpose, they 
would proceed ex paric and continue the west 
line, so run as aforesaid to the marked hick- 
ory tree, on the western bank of the Susque- 
hanna, and extend it from that tree as far as 
the peace of the government shall make it 

The minutes of the proceedings of the 
Commissioners of both provinces, while in 
conjuQction, show that on the day before the 
separation of Mr. Gale and Mr. Chamberlain 
it was unanimously agreed that the west line 
down so far south as fourteen miles and 
three-quarters of a mile south of the lati- 
tude of the most southern part of the city of 
Philadelphia, as mentioned in the King's 
order of Council to be the temporary limits 
between the two provinces on the other side 
of Susquehanna should begin at a certain 
hickory tree on the western bank of the said 
river, marked for that purpose by order of 
the said Commissioners, with four notches on 
each side. The Pennsylvania Commissioners 
and the surveyors, making that hickory tree 
the place of beginning, did on Tuesday, the 
8th of May, run a due west line toward the 
river Potomac, with the very same instrument 
and variatioQ of 5- and 25' with which the line 
on the east side of the Susquehanna, in con- 
junction with the Maryland Commissioners, 
was run, and causing trees that fell in or near 
the line to be marked and blazed in the very 
same manner as was observed in that line. The 
surveyors proceeded from day to day, and 
extended the line to tlie top of the most west- 
ern hill of a range of hills called the Kit- 
tochtinay Hills distant from the place of be- 
ginning about eighty-eight statute miles. 
And as this hill was one of the boundaries 
of the lands purchased by the honorable pro- 
prietors from the Indians, and no persons 
were permitted to settle beyond that range of 
hills, they judged the line to be run far 
enough to settle the jurisdiction of the two 
provinces, and to answer all the purposes of 
their commission, and therefore ordered the 
surveyors to end there, and several trees to 
be marked with the initial letters of the 
names of the honorable proprietaries, as is 
usual at the close of boundary lines. The 
Commissioners wrote the 6th of May, 1739, 
to Governor Thomas, that the Maryland 
Commissioners, joining with them, ascer- 
tained the line to all intents and purposes, 
and made it impossible for Lord Baltimore 
ever to controvert it so far as it is run, or to 
propose any other method of running the 
remaining part than that which is taken by 

them. They gained 110 perches at the end 
of the west line, so that the line at the dis- 
tance of fourteen miles and three-quarters 
from Philadelphia, on the other side of the 
Susquehanna, was but fifty perches more 
north than the end of the Jersey line. Col. 
Gale, as Chief Justice, had given thern a 
warrant directed to the Sheriff and Constables 
of Baltimore County and Prince George's 
County, to take up any persons that should 
offer to disturb them, and had promised to 
send the Governor's special protection to a 
place at the distance of thirty miles off by a 
special messenger.* 

The point or corner on the western bank of 
the Susquehanna, to which the surveyors ran 
on the 5th of May, 1739, described as a 
hickory tree, and marked with four notches 
on each side, and from which it was unani- 
mously agreed that the west line down so far 
south as fourteen miles and three-quarters of 
a mile south of the latitude of the most 
southerly part of the city of Philadelphia 
should begin, is now in the State of Mary ■ 
land. The Temporary Line at that point 
having been fixed seventy- two perches more 
southerly than the present boundary line. 
This is ascertained from several deeds and 
surveys,f from which it appears that a tract 
of land, called the Paw Paw Bottom, ex- 
tending along the Susquehanna River — -449 
perches — was surveyed on the 25th of De- 
cember, 1753, to Alexander McCandless. and 
for which a patent was granted to him on 
the 31st of May, 17(30, recorded in Philadel- 
phia. This tract of land, after the death of 
McCandless, was conveyed by his executor. 
James McCandless, to Thomas Cooper and 
John Boyd, by deed of the 7th of February. 
1767, containing 111 acres of land, situate 
in Fawn Township. (Peachbottom Township 
has been since erected.) According to the 
patent, the tract began at a marked hickory 
in the Temporary Line on the Susquehanna 
River, and running from thence by the said 
line, north eighty-five degrees west, thirty- 
one perches to a marked hickory corner of 
land, patented under Maryland, called Coop- 
er's Addition, thence by several courses and 
distances north to a marked black oak, a cor- 
ner of land patented under Maryland, called 
Elisha's Lot, thence by several courses and 
distances north to a marked walnut tree, and 
by a tract of land patented under Maryland 
to John Cooper, called the Deserts of .•Arabia: 
thence to two poplars on the Susquehanna 
River, and down the river by the several 

« I.\rchives, -S-diJ-oT.d. 

fKindly furnished b}- Levi Cooper, Esq., of Pcichbotl. 



courses thereof 499 perches to the place of 
beginning — the hickory tree on the temporary 
line. Adjoining this land of McCandless, 
there was surveyed to Robert Gordon, on the 
22d of July, 1771, a tract of land of which 
Walter Robinson was entitled to part. The 
draft of this land thus describes the lines : . 
Beginning at a point corner of lands of Al- 
exander McCandless along the Province Line, 
north eighty-eight degrees, west 133 perches, 
and on the south along the Temporary Line 
north eighty-six degrees, west ninety-three 
perches, and between the Province and Tem- 
porary Lines south ten and a half degrees, 
east seventy-two perches, adjoining the prop- 
erty of Alexander McCandless. By the sur- 
vey of George Stevenson, made the 20th of 
December, 1753, from the Temporary Line, 
which is fixed by the hickory tree corner, 
there is a course north twenty degrees, east 
fifty-eight perches to the supposed Maryland 
line. And in a draft made by Thomas G. 
Cross, Esq., on the 3d and 4th days of April, 
1774, of the land patented' to McCandless, the 
course and distance from the temporary Ipe 
to Mason and Dixon's Line are north twenty- 
one degrees, east fifty eight perches. The 
discrepancy here may be owing to the uncer- 
tainty of the position of the temporary line. 
The older draft is to be preferred, because 
the hickory corner for the beginning of the 
temporary line was then a fixed point, and 
since then the Pennsylvania Canal had been 
constructed along the river, erasing that cor- 

The temporary line, from the course of it, 
as compared with the fixed boundary line, 
would cross the latter before it went beyond 
the limits of York County. The report of 
the Commissioners, as above given, says 
"that they gained 110 perches, so that the 
line on the west side of the Susquehanna was 
but fifty perches more north than the end of 
the Jersey line." 

The Maryland surveys were very early 
made and lands patented. The Deserts of 
Arabia, mentioned in the deeds, was patent- 
ed to John Cooper on the 20th of May, 1724, 
as being situate in Baltimore County. The 
Deserts of Arabia and Elisha's Lot were sit- 
uate one and two miles above the true 
boundary line. 

From the fancy of the early settlers in that 
seotion, or by Maryland eustom, perhaps, 
names were given to the respective tracts of 
land taken up, such as those mentioned, and 
Morgan'." Delight, Noble's Craft, Jones' 
Chance, Walter's Disappointment, Cooper's 
Pleasant Hills, Eager' s Design, Mary Lot, 
Buck's Lodge Right, Stallworth Right, 

Croomay's Intrusion, and other names, as- 
signed possibly by public opinion of the ven- 


Among the earlier tracts of land which had 
been located north of the Temporary Line, 
under Maryland warrant and survey, was that 
known as Digges' Choice. The settlement of 
this piece of land occasioned the first ques- 
tion of title under the provisions of the Roy- 
al Order. It became a source of angry con- 
troversy, resulting in a tragedy, as in the 
other instances of border troubles. "A petty 
nobleman, named John Digges, obtained from 
the proprietor of Maryland a grant of 10, ■ 
000 acres of land; it being left to the option 
of Digges to locate said grant on whatsoever 
unimproved lands he pleased within the juris- 
diction of his Lordship. By the advice and 
under the direction of Tom, a noted Indian 
chief, after whom Tom's Creek is called, Mr. 
Digges took up, by virtue of said grant, 6.822 
acres, contained at present within the town- 
ships of Conewago and Germany, in Adams 
County, and the township of Heidelberg, in 
York County. Hanover, which before its in- 
corporation was a part of Heidelberg Town- 
ship, was situated on the southeastern ex- 
tremity of "Digges' Choice."* 

The original warrant was granted to Mr. 
John Digges, of Prince George's County, Md., 
on the 14th day of October, 1727, for 10,000 
acres of land, and was continued in force by 
sundry renewals. It was last renewed on the 
1st of' April, 1732. On the 18th of April, 
1732, there was surveyed, in virtue of the 
said warrant, by Philip Jones, Deputy Sur- 
veyor, under Charles Calvert, Esq. , Surveyor- 
General of the western shore of the province 
of Maryland, a parcel of land said to lie in 
Prince George's County, called Digges' Choice, 
in the backwoods, the quantity of 6,822 acres, 
and the same was returned into the land of- 
fice, by sundry courses, from one place of be- 
ginning, viz. : At three bounded hickories, 
and one bounded white oak, and one bound- 
ed wild cherry tree, standing at the mouth of 
a branch, which is commonly known by the 
name of Gresses' branch, where it intersects 
with Conewago, and running thence north. 
The remaining courses and distances are not 
given. Jones' certificate and return were ac- 
cepted and recorded, and thereupon a patent 
issued to John Digges, bearing date the 11th 
day of October, 1735, at the annual rent of 
£13, 12s, lid, sterling, payable at Lady Day 
and Michaelmas. The tract fell four miles to 
the northward of the Temporary Liae as run 

*Glo9sbrenner's History of York County. 


and returned in 1739, agreeably to the royal 
order. Mr. Digges remained in quiet and un- 
disturbed possession thereof. But numbers 
of foreigners coming into these parts, and 
lands thereby rising in value, he, by petition 
on the 15th of July, 1745, applied to the of- 
fice at Annapolis, under color of some error 
in the survey, for a warrant to correct those 
errors, and take up the contiguous vacancy, 
and he obtained a warrant requiring the sur- 
veyor of Prince George's County to add any 
vacant land he could find contiguous to the 
patented tract. In pursuance of this war- 
rant, there was surveyed on the 1st day of 
August, 1745, a parcel of vacant land contig- 
uous to the patented tract, containing 3,679 
acres, for which he paid a new consideration. 
And on the 18th of October, 1745, a patent 
issued for the same.* 

.It appears, however, that Mr. Digges had 
applied for a warrant to the land office of 
-Pennsylvania. On the 18th of July, 1743, 
Secretary Peters wrote to Mr. Cookson, that 
Mr. Digges had an irregular piece of land at 
Conewago, by a Maryland survey, and had 
applied for such a quantity, all around it, as 1 
might bring it within straight lines, but upon 
such terms as the Secretary was not willing i 
to grant a warrant. However, Mr. Cookson , 
might, at Digges' request, survey for the use j 
of the proprietaries so much as he required — 
the price to be left to them. On the 20th of 
April, 1744, Mr. Digges wrote to the Secretary, 
from Little Conewago, that he had waited at 
that place to have his lands run round that 
the vacancy might be reserved for the pro- 
prietor's own use — and Mr. Cookson pro- 
posed it now in a different manner, but 
assured him he should have the preference 
of any vacancy adjoining, with a request not 
to grant to any other person until he marked 
and made known his lines. The further 
correspondence, in relation to this matter, 
shows that the Germans settled about Cone- 
wago Creek, on the lands claimed by Digges, 
had contracted with him for the purchase of 
their plantations and given bonds for the 
consideration money. They had ascertained, 
by computation, that the extent of his claim 
was more than his patent contained, and 
they requested him to have his lines marked, 
which he refused to do. They procured an 
attested copy of the courses of his tract from 
the land office at Annapolis, and, though 
opposed by him, a surveyor ran the lines 
sufficiently' to show that several plantations 
he had sold were without the bounds of his 
patent. His application to the Pennsylvania 
office was in 1743, which seems not to have 

«IArohives, 713—14. 

succeeded. He then, in 1745, obtained a 
warrant of resurvey from the Maryland office, 
and took in by it the plantations left out in 
the original survey, including several tracts 
for which warrants had been granted by the 
proprietaries of Pennsylvania, some of which 
had been patented. Mr. Digges, however, 
contended that he had only marked the true 
courses of the land that had been granted to 
him, and he proposed the sale of the lands 
included in his lesurvey. The people com- 
plained, and wanted a Pennsylvania surveyor 
to ascertain and mark the lines. Mr. Cook 
son wrote that it would pay the proprietarie- 
to have this done. There was no doubt about 
the resurvey taking in lands not included in 
his first survey, but Mr. Digges contended 
that his original warrant was for lO.dOli 
acres of land and he had located it. and 
that the mistakes of the surveyor, in not 
including all his settlements, and giving him 
his full quantity, should not deprive him of 
his original right of claim and possession 
by virtue of his warrant. The facts were 
these (as appeared afterward in a judicial 
determination of the question in the case of 
the lessee of Thomas Lilly against George 
Kitzmiller, before Justices Shippen and 
Yeates, tried at York in May, 1791|*: The 
instructions of Lord Baltimore to Charles 
Carroll, Esq., his agent, dated September 12, 
1712, showed the mode of assigning war- 
r.ants, wherein he directed that in each survey 
the boundary alone should be marked, and 
the courses and distances specified in the re- 
turn of survey, as the fairest mode and best 
calculated to'prevent civil suits. It appears 
that Edward Stevenson. Deputy Surveyor of 
Maryland, did not return the survey as 
actually made by him on the ground. The 
quantity of 10,000 acres was really contained 
within the lines of the lands run by him, 
including the lands in question, and upon 
making his plat and finding the figure to be 
very irregular, he got displeased, and swore 
he would°not cast up the contents, or return 
it in that form, and then he reduced a num- 
ber of lines into one, struck off five or six 
angles in different places, and made a new 
plat, differing from the courses and distances 
run ' on the land. Of 270 courses contained 
in the field notes, which were for several 
years in his possession, he left out about 
150 of them, and those notes were afterward 
delivered to John Digges, the patentee. The 
irregularity of the tract, it will be remem- 
bered, is mentioned in the Pennsylvania ap- 
plication, and 'Mr. Digges" claims were not 
without foundation, and all his land would 


have been secured to him under the Penn- 
sylvania system of making proprietary sur- 
veys. That is, trees were marked on the 
ground, and where there were no trees or 
natural boundaries, artificial marks were set 
up to distinguish the survey. " The Mary- 
land surveys," as the court said, "were 
merely ideal, precisely fixed on paper alone. 
No trees were marked except the beginning 

'■' Lord Baltimore's instructions of 1712, to 
his agent, Mr. Carroll, showed what his 
intentions were, and that he was concluded 
only by the courses and distances returned. 
The survey was ambulatory, not confined to 
a certain spot of land, but was governed by 
the variation of the compass and was con- 
tinually shifting. The courses and distances 
returned formed the survey, and determined, 
on an exact admeasurement, the particular 
lands granted as often as they were ran. Those 
courses and distances were alone binding on 
the proprietor and consequently on the pat- 
entee. Any circumstances shown could not 
establish a title to lands without the limits 
of the original suiwey as returned. " Persons 
may have bought lands from Digges even 
within the resurvey and acquired title by 
possession and improvements. But all this 
has been judicially determined since. There- 
fore, unfortunately for Mr. Digges. his re- 
survey was made after the Royal Order, and 
was ineffectual as against the Pennsylvania 
settlers. There were other facts that gave 
color to his claim at the time. John Leman, 
Sr. , first settled on the lands in controversy 
under John Digges, who declared to Digges, 
in 1752, that he had settled on the same 
lander a Pennsylvania right. But in the year 
1735 or 1736, he had agreed with Digges 
for 100 acres of land and had received 
orders from him to his agent to survey the 
same to him. John Leman, Sr., continued 
there some time, and had a son born on the 
laud; ■ and afterward sold his improvements 
to Martin Kitzmiller, who, in 1737 or 1738, 
came to live on the land. In 1732 or 1733 
Robert Owings was directed by John Digges 
to lay out and dispose of sundry parcels of 
land, which he did. The lines run did 
not extend beyond the limits of the first i 
survey, and the lands laid out for John 
Leman and others were really in the 
original survey, except a few corners, and 
Edward Stevenson actually omitted part of 
the lines run by him. Thomas Prather, exe- 
cuted the warrant of resurvey, and the orders 
from Digges were to run the old lines as 
nearly as possible, and to survey the 10,000 I 
cr es which were actually included in the ! 

lines run by Stevenson. In fact, then, the 
land had been located under the warrant by 
a proper survey, and therefore, John Digges 
addi-essed to the Governor of Maryland a 
remonstrance on complaint of disturbances 
made by him on the border, contending that 
the surveyor omitted lines actually run by 
him and settlements made within his tract. 
In this remonstrance he complained that 
Nicholas Forney and Martin Ullery had tres- 
passed on part of his land, and destroyed the 
growing timber, for which he had sued tbem. 
These men, at Digges' suit, were arrested 
by the Sheriff of Baltimore County, and 
were rescued by Adam Forney, father of 
Nicholas. It appears by a letter of Adam 
Forney's, on the 25th of April, 1746, that the 
Sheriff took his two prisoners to Adam's 
house, who asked him by what authority he 
arrested these men, and offered to be bound 
for their appearance at court if they owed 
any money. The reply was that they should 
give their bond to Mr. Digges tor the land or 
depart from it. Adam said that the men had 
taken up their land five years before from the 
proprietaries at Philadelphia and it had been 
surveyed for them. He ordered the two men 
to return to their habitation. The Sheriff 
drew his sword and Forney's party drew 
theirs, whereupon the Sheriff and Digges 
fled.* Subsequently in the month of Febru- 
ary, 1747, Adam Forney was arrested at his 
house by an under-sheriff and posse from 
Maryland, armed with clubs, aad was carried 
off to the Baltimore jail, for resisting officers 
of the law. This raised a question of juris- 
diction. Secretary Peters wrote to Mr. 
Cookson to go to Adam Forney, with papers 
directed to Mr. Calder, who was to defend 
him "at the Supreme Court on a writ served 
upon him manifestly within this province, 
and as the affair may greatly affect our Prop- 
rietor, the whole will turn on this single 
point — whether the place where Adam Forney 
was arrested, be or be not within our prov- 
ince." He then says, that Forney must take 
along with him two witnesses, at least, to 
Annapolis, who could swear that the place 
where he was arrested was within our prov- 
ince, and at some distance from Digges' tract. 
The expenses were to be paid by the govern- 
ment, which also undertook to pay the law- 
yers. He further wrote that our Attorney- 
General could not go to Annapolis, as it was 
our Supreme Court then, but he had given 
all necessary directions to Mr. Calder. The 
letter to Mr. Calder stated that as Mr. Digges 
had thought proper to execute a writ of the 
Supreme Court of Maryland against Adam 

*I Archives, 688. 


Forney, within the jurisdiction of this prov- 
ince, Mr. Peters desired to retain Mr. Calder 
for Adam Forney, and would send him by 
the iirst good hand t\TO pistoles. Mr. Tilgh- 
man was also to be retained. These counsel 
were to defend Mr. Forney in such manner 
as that there might be an appeal to the King 
in council. It turned out, however, by the 
witnesses who were secured for Mr. Forney, 
and who were reported to be "clear, intellig-' 
ibie men and spoke English well," that 
the spot where Adam Forney and his son 
were arrested was actually within Digges' 
old survey and patented land. The engage- 
ment of Mr. Calder, therefore, on behalf of 
the proprietaries of Pennsylvania, was res- 
cinded, and Forney, after a rebuke, was left 
to defend his own case. Another incident 
in this case may be noticed. At a meeting 
of the Provincial Council, held at Philadel- 
phia, on the 17th of March, il4S, it was 
reported by an express from Mr. Cookson 
that Adam Forney was shot dead by an 
Indian in liquor, as he stood at his own door. 
The Indian was immediately seized and 
carried before Justice Swope, at York, and 
there detained till the Governor should give 
orders what should be done with him. The 
trouble arose from the fact occurring within 
the lines of Digges' patent, and the Attorney- 
General had to be consulted on the question 
of jurisdiction. In the meantime the report 
was contradicted. Forney had been shot, but 
recovered, so nothing further was done. 

In 1749, a petition was presented to Gov. 
Hamilton, signed by Ilendrich Seller and 
thirteen others, praying for relief. They 
were inhabitants of Little Conewago Town- 
ship, and Digges had threatened to sue them, 
unless they would pay him £100, Mary- 
land currency. He had mortgaged the 
property to Squire Carroll and Squire Dula- 
ney, and they repi'esented themselves in dan- 
ger of being carried to Maryland, and there 
confined and be obliged to quit their planta- 

These troubles continued to disturb the set- 
tlers in that section, and claim the attention 
of the Governor and Council, without any 
result, until the killing of Dudley Digges, 
which occurred on the 26th of February, 
1752. In consequence of this disaster John 
Digges presented a petition to Benjamin 
Tasker, President of Maryland, representing 
that his son had been murdered within the 
limits of that province by Martin Kifzmiller, 
his son Jacob, and others of his family, and 
that the 27th of April was appointed for the 
trial, at York Town. This was communicated 

to Gov. Hamilton, who answered, "that he 
had carefully examined into the unhappy af- 
fair, and had found that Jacob Kitzmiller had 
killed the deceased, Mr. Digges, to the north- 
ward of the Temporary Line" and "that he is 
now imprisoned at York to receive his trial as 
for an offense committed within that county. 
That there was a mistake as to the time of 
trial, and that on the claim of jurisdiction, 
the trial should be delayed a reasonable 
time." The reply of President Tasker con- 
tains an elaborate argument in behalf of 
the Maryland claim to jurisdiction, 
and enclosed affidavits as to the facts already 
mentioned about the settlement of John 
Leman and the surveyor, Robert Owings. 
The Council, on the 27th of September, 1752, 
after hearing, debating and maturely consid- 
ering the premises, were unanimously of 
opinion that the possession of Digges or his 
tenants, at the time of the Royal Order, of 
the land where the crime was committed, was 
not held by any warrant or patent, and notice 
was given to President Tasker that the court 
for the trial of the case would beheld at York 
Town, on the 30th day of October, where 
persons authorized by the Maryland Govern- 
ment may lay before the grand and petit ju- 
ries all legal proof of jurisdiction. Oq the 
30th of October, 1752, the Attorney-Genera! 
of Maryland, H. Darnall, Esq., appeared and 
made a petition to the Judges of Oyer and 
Terminer and Jail Delivery, then sitting at 
York Town, in York County, stating 
that, by the authority of the President 
of Maryland in Council, he attended 
the court and was expressly charged to 
insist that the trial of Jacob Kitzmiller be 
had in Maryland, where the fact was com- 
mitted and not in Pennsylvania. With this 
argument — that the aforesaid Dudley Digges 
was killed at a place surveyed under a Mary- 
laud warrant before the date of the said Royal 
Order of 1738, and possessed under a Mary- 
land right, and that no attornment or other 
pretest of Martin Kitzmiller, or of any other 
person or persons after the date of said 
Order, will prevent or take away the right of 
the said Proprietor of Maryland, or can in 
the least hinder the force, effect and opera- 
tion of his Majesty's most gracious inten- 

Gov. Hamilton had been furnished by Pres- 
ident Tasker with exemplified copies of the 
warrants, surveys and patents which had been 
granted to John Digges? and it appeared thai, 
the place where Jacob Kitzmiller killed Dud- 
ley Digges was in a tract of vacant land that 
lav to the northward of the Temporary Line 


and which had been granted to Mr. Digges in 
the year, 1745, in express violation of the 
Royal Order. These exemplilied copies were 
by order of the Governor produced at the 
court of Oyer and Terminer, held by the Su- 
preme Judges, at York, at the trial of Jacob 
Kitzmiller and his father, who were there- 
upon acquitted. It appeared from the evi- 
dence that the killing of Dudley Digges was 
an accident. At least the doubt as to willful 
homicide was sufficient to acquit. It was oc- 
casioned by an attempt to arrest Martin Kitz- 
miller at the suit of John Digges in a Mary- 
land affair. This was resisted, and in a strug- 
gle for a gun, held by Jacob Kitzmiller, it 
was discharged and fatally wounded Dudley 
Digges.* By the admitted construction of 
the Eoyal Order, the territory within the lim- 
its of Digges' patent, although four miles 
north of the Temporary Line, was under the 
jurisdiction of Maryland. Hence, in this 
case, the fact committed being in territory 
outside of his patent was under the jurisdic- 
tion of Pennsylvania. 

The Town of Hanover was within the lim- 
its of Digges' patent, and consequently all 
delinquents escaping from justice found a 
refuge in Hanover and were free from arrest. 
The officers of justice of the County of York 
could only come within half a mile of that 
town to execute their warrants. On the 18th 
of February, ]757, the grand jury took such 
action as compelled all persons to obey the 
Koyal Order, by showing allegiance to the 
province from which they had received titles 
to their land. 


Nicholas Perie was one of the Germans 
who had been confirmed in the possession of 
his land by a grant from Thomas Penn, in 
the year 1736. This grant recited that sun- 
dry Germans had seated themselves by leave 
of the proprietor on lands west of the Sus- 
quehanna River, within the bounds of the 
manor of Springetsbury, and that a conlir- 
mation of the persons seated on the same for 
their several tracts had been delayed by rea- 
son of the claim of the Five Nations, which 
had been released by deed of the 11th of 
October, 1736, and Nicholas Perie had 
applied for a confirmation of 200 acres; 
Thomas Penn certified under hand, that he 
would cause a patent to be drawn for the 
land, on the common terms, so soon as the 
quantity should be surveyed and returned. 
Perie had been arrested by a writ issued out 
of the Supreme Coitrt of Maryland, for refus- 

ing to hold this land under Lord Baltimore, 
and on the arrival of the Royal Order, was 
discharged on his recognizance, at the same 
time that Cressap was set at liberty at Phila 
delphia, by virtue ut' the said order. 

Charles Higginbotham, in the year 1748, 
made claim to the land in possession of Nich- 
olas Perie: that on the 2d of May, 1737, there 
had been surveyed to him, by order from the 
land office of Maryland, a tract of land on 
the north side of Codorus Creek, bj^ metes and 
bounds containing 172 acres. On the 5th of 
May, Lord Baltimore confirmed by patent the 
land to Higginbotham. At the hearing be- 
fore the Provincial Council, it appeared that 
Higginbotham had never been in possession, 
nor any under him. and that he had never seen 
the land, but tliat Perie was arrested on the 
tract and carried to Annapolis jail for refus- 
ing to hold under Lord Baltimore, though 
his land was surveyed by a Maryland war- 
rant. Col. White testified to having 
made surveys at the instance of some Ger- 
mans who had obtained warrants from 
the land office at Annapolis, but did not 
remember ever to have seen Perie. The 
Germans, he said, after the survey of their 
lands refused to pay for them, being as 
they pretended within the province of Penn- 
sylvania, and Lord Baltimore gave him 
directions to return the surveys of those lands 
to any person who would apply for them. 
Capt. Higginbotham applied, and Col. 
White returned the survey of this land to 
his use, and the patent issued. The Council 
on the 11th of April, 1748. were unanimously 
of the opinion that the Royal Order abso- 
lutely, under the facts of the case, restrained 
them from dispossessing Perie, and so Gov. 
Ogle was informed by letter.* 


The provisional arrangement under the 
order in 1738, was simply for the preserva- 
tion of the peace between the provinces. 
The pending proceedings in chancery resulted, 
May 17, 1850, in the decree of the Lord 
Chancellor, that the agreement of 1732, 
should be carried into specific execution. 
The Commissioners appointed by each party 
under this decree, met on the 13th of Novem- 
ber. 1750, and agreed on a center in New- 
castle, from whence the twelve- miles radii 
were to proceed. But a dispute arose con- 
cerning the mensuration of these twelve 
miles. The Commissioners of Lord Baltimore 
alleged that the miles ought to be measured 
icially. The Penn's Commissioners 


alleged that considering the various ineqali- 
ties of the ground, such radii could not 
extend equally, consequently from them no 
irue arc of a circle could be found, and 
insisted upon geometrical and astronomical 
mensuration. Thus the proceediiigs of the 
Commissioners stopped and they wrote to their 
respective principals for further instructions 
relating to that point.* 

In the meantime Charles, Lord Baltimore, 
died, and was succeeded by his son, Fred- 
erick, and there were further proceedings in 
chancery, bill of review and supplemented 
bill. At length, ou the 4th of July, 1760, 
the final agreement betvpeen the proprietaries 
was executed. It recites the original charters 
to Lord Baltimore and William Penn, and 
refers to the very long litigation and contests 
which had siibsisted from 1683, and the 
many orders in Council pronounced relative 
thereto. The agreement of the 10th of May, 
1732, is given at length, and the decree of 
the Lord Chancellor and other proceedings. 
And after its long recitals says: 

"Whereas the parties to these presents, 
Frederick, Lord Baltimore and Thomas and 
Kichard Penn, have come to an amicable 
agreement in manner as hereinafter men- 
tioned," and then proceeds to describe and 
make provisions for fixing the circle and 
running the line, and provides for the 
attornment of the tenants and occupiers of 
the lands under the respective proprietaries. 
This agreement, of 1760, was enrolled in 
Chancery in England. The original is now 
deposited with the Secretary of the Com- 


tit appears in full in the fourth volume of the Pennsylvania 
Archives, old series. This original agreement was produced in 
evidence at Bedford, October, 1806,on the trial of Ross' lessee vs. 
Cutshall, reported in 1 Biuney, 39U, and admitted after, argu- 
ment, and decided to be proper evidence by the Supreme 
Court on an appeal, because it was an ancient deed, ascertaiu- 
ing the boundaries of the then provinces of PennsylvHuia and 
Maryland, and may be considered in the light of a State paper, 
well known to the courts of justice,'and which had been ad- 
mitted in evidence on former occasions. (2 Sm. 135). And also in 
the case of lessee of Thomas Lilly vs. George Kitzmiller, at York, 
in May, 1791), (1 Yeates. 28), a case of title arising out of the Mary- 
land patent called Digges' Choice. And in the case of Thomas vs. 
StiEars, in ]846(5Barr, 480), where it was held that the court 
will take notice of the agreement between Lord Baltimore and 
Penn relating to the boundary between the two provinces, and 
that the true interpretation to be put upon the agreement was 
the one adopted by the State of Maryland, lo-wit; that the 
agreement embraced all cases, the inception of title whereof 
commenced prior to 1760, and which were completed or consum- 
mated before the final designation of boundary in 1768. And in 
the case between the same parties in 1854, (11 Harris, 367), m 
which it was held that the agreement of July 4, 1760, between 
the Pen ns and Lord Baltimore, construed under the light of 
the other agreements and documents concerning that contro- 
versy does not confirm any Maryland titles to land in Penn- 
sylvania west of the Susquehanna, except those that e.xisted by 
grant and occupation at the date of that agreement, and that 
are not more than one-fourth of a mile north of Mason and 
DLvon's Line— the starting point for temporary, line on the 
west side of the Susquehanna having been marked one-half a 
mile further north than on the east side of the river. This 
last mentioned litigation, concerning valuable lands in Fulton 
County, continued until 1861 (3 Wright, 486), in which the 
case was finally decided by affirming the decision in the last 
preceding case. 


The Commissioners appointed under this 
last agreement met at Newcastle the 19th of 
November, 1760, and entered upon their du 
ties. From November, 1760, to the latter 
part of October, 1763, the Commissioners 
and surveyors were laboring in attempts to 
trace out the radius of twelve miles, and the 
tangent line from the middle point of the 
west line across the peninsula. As late as 
the 21st of October, 1763, no practical solu- 
tion of this problem had been effected, 
though there was a clos« approximation to 
the true tangent. On the 22d of October, 
1763, the Pennsylvania Commissioners in- ' 
formed the Maryland Commissioners that 
they had lately received a letter from the pro- 
prietors of Pennsylvania, dated the 10th of 
August last, acquainting them that they and 
Lord Baltimore had agreed with two mathe- 
maticians, or surveyors, to come over and 
assist in running the lines agreed on in the 
original articles, who were to embark for 
Philadelphia the latter end of August, and 
that their arrival might soon be expected. 
On the 1st of December, 1763, the articles 
of agreement were read between Lord Balti- 
more, and Thomas and Richard Penn, and 
Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, who su- 
perseded the former surveyors in the marking 
out of the boundary lines. They immediately 
entered upon their duties, and were employed 
in tracing and marking the lines until the 
26th of December, 1767, when they were 
honorably discharged. 

To ascertain the most southern point of 
the city of Philadelphia, the Mayor and 
Recorder, and two of the city regulators, on 
the 3d of December, 1763, went with the 
Commissioners and Messrs. Mason and Dixon 
to the street called Cedar or South Street, the 
south side of which street the Mayor, Re- 
corder, and Regulators informed the Com- 
missioners to be the southern boundary of 
the limit of the city. By which information 
and a view of some old deeds of lots bound- 
ing on Cedar Street, and of a plat of the 
city, the Commissioners were satisfied that 
the north wall of a house, then occupied by 
Thomas Plumstead and Joseph Huddle, was 
the most southern part of the city of Phila- 
delphia. The latitude of the north wall of 
this house was determined by Mason and 
Dixim from astronomical observations, in 
1763-64, with a zenith sector, to be 39°, 56', 
29.1". The point, fifteen English statute 
miles due south of that parallel, was^ com- 
puted by them to be in latitude 39°, 43', 18". 
This was computed by Col. Graham, in 1850, 


from knowledge of the dimensions and figure 
of the earth to be in latitude 39°, 43', 26.3". 
From the northern extremity of the said due 
north line, a line was to be run due west, 
continuing upon a parallel of latitude until 
the western limits of Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania should respectively be reached, which, 
in the case of Pennsylvania, was defined to 
be five degrees of longitude west of the river 
Delaware. On the 24th of November, 1764, 
the Commissioners agreed that the post set 
up by Messrs. Mason and Dixon, and by 
them marked west, shall be deemed and ac- 
counted fifteen miles south of the parallel of 
the most southern bounds of the city of 
Philadelphia, and that Messrs. Mason and 
Dixon shall be instructed immediately to pro- 
ceed in running the west line directed by the 
articles from the said post till it reaches the 
river Susquehanna, where an observation 
shall be made by them. And stones shall be 
set up and marked with the arms of Lord 
Baltimore on the one side and the arms of 
the proprietors of Pennsylvania on the other, 
as the articles require and direct. On the 
17th of June, 1765, the surveyors produced 
their minute books, and it appeared that they 
had extended the west line to the west side 
of the river Susquehanna. On the 18th of 
June, 1765, the Commissioners gave Messrs. 
Mason and Dixon instructions to proceed 
with the running of the west line westward 
of the Susquehanna as far as the provinces 
of Maryland and Pennsylvania were settled 
and inhabited.* The consent of the Indians 
had to be obtained to the line being contin- 
ued. On the 16th of June, 1767, Sir Will- 
iam Johnson, his Majesty's agent for Indian 
affairs, had obtained the consent of the In- 
dians to the tracing of the west line to its 
western extremity, that is to say, till it should 
reach to a distance of five degrees of longi- 
tude west from the river Delaware. On the 
18th of June, 1767, the Commissioners, in 
giving the surveyors instructions for contin- 
uing the west line, cautioned them in regard 
to a conciliatory and jsroper conduct toward 
the Indians. On December 25, 1767, the 
surveyors had extended the parallel of lati- 
tude to the distance of 230 miles, 18 chains, 
21 links from the beginning of said line, 
and 244 miles, 38 chains, 36 links from the 
river Delaware near to a path called the In- 
dian war-path, on the borders of a stream 
called Dunham's Creek, but that they were 
prevented by the Indians deputed to attend 
them by Sir William Johnson from continu- 

; is a tradition that the surveyors had with them a 
h, however, was tame, but excited much curiosity 
inhabitants along the line. 

ing the said line to the end of five degrees of 
longitude (the western limits of the province 
of Pennsylvania), which in the latitude of 
the said line they found to be 267 miles. 58 
chains, and 90 links — the said Indians alleg- 
ing that they were instructed by their chiefs 
in council, not to suffer the said line to be 
run to the we.^tward of the said war-path. 
Col. Graham notes that, from our better 
knowledge of the dimensions and figure of 
the earth, we should compute the five degrees 
of longitude to be equal to 266.31 miles, 
or 266 miles, 24 chains, and SO links. On 
the 26th, the Commissioners approved the 
conduct of he surveyors in desisting from 
running the parallel upon the opposition 
made by the Indians; and they agreed to 
discharge Messrs. Mason and Dixon from 
their service, they having finished the lines 
they had been sent over by the proprietors to 
run. The final report of the Commissioners 
was made to the proprietaries of the two 
provinces on the 9th of November, 1768, in 
which, among other things, in reference to 
the due east and west line fifteen miles due 
sonth of Philadelphia, they reported that 
they had extended the same 230 miles, 18 
chains, and 21 links due west from the place 
of beginning, and 244 miles, 38 chains, and 
36 links due west from the river Delaware, 
and should have continued the same to the 
western bounds of the province of Pennsyl- 
vania, but the Indians would not permit it 
They marked, described, and perpetuated the 
said west line, by setting up and erecting 
therein posts of cut stone about four feet 
long and ten or twelve inches square, at the 
end of every mile, from the place of begin- 
ning to the distance of 132 miles, near the 
foot of a hill called and known by the name 
of Sideling Hill, every five-mile stone having 
on the side facing the north the arms of the 
said Thomas Penn and Richard Penn graved 
thereon, and on the side facing the south, 
the arms of Frederick, Lord Baltimore, 
graved thereon ; and the other intermediate 
stones are graved with the letter P on the 
north side and the letter Mon the south side. 
These stones were prepared in England, and 
sent over as the line progressed. Thirty-nine 
of them were placed along the southern 
boundary of York County, and are mostly 
well preserved. They were of that species 
of limestone known as oolite The country 
to the westward of Sideling Hill being so 
very mountainous as to render it in most 
places extremely difScult and expensive, and 
in some impracticable, to convey stones or 
boundaries, they had marked and described 
the line to the top of the Allegheny ridge, 


which divides the waters running into the 
rivers Potomac and Ohio; they raised and 
erected thereon, on the tops and ridges of 
mountains, heaps or piles of stones or earth 
from about three and a half to four yards in 
diameter at bottom, and from six to seven 
feet in height ; and that from the top of the 
said Allegheny ridge, westward, as far as 
they continued the line, they set up posts at 
the end of every mile, and raised around each i 
post heaps or piles of stones or earth. 

During the administration of William F. 
Johnston, Commissioners were appointed by 
the Governors of the States of Pennsylvania, 
Delaware and Maryland, to ascertain and 
relix the boundaries where those States join 
each other. Joshua P. Eyre, Esq., was ap- 
pointed on the part of Pennsylvania ; George 
Read Riddle, Esq., on the part of Delaware; 
Henry G. S. Key, Esq., on the part of 
Maryland, and Lieut. -Col. James D. Gra- 
ham, of the United States Topographical 
Engineers, was detailed by the War Depart 
ment at the request of those States for that 
particular service. In their report they say 
that they saw that much science and many 
intricate mathematical problems were in- 
volved, that not only required the talents of 
men as Commissioners distinguished in the 
annals of our country, and su.rveyors to carry 
out the agreement of the proprietary govern- 
ments of 1760, but finally enlisted the ser- 
vices of those distinguished mathematicians, 
Messrs. Mason and Dixon. The report of 
Col. Graham, from which the preceding 
account is gathered, presented a general 
view of the scientific operations of Messrs. 
Mason and Dixon, and of their predecessors, 
in tracing the various lines which constitute 
important portions of the boundaries of the 
States. He investigated the notes of Mason 
and Dixon, which were in the archives of the 
State of Maryland. The following informa- 
tion, taken from his report, is interesting to 
us as Pennsylvauians. The Boundary Com- 
missioners and Col. Graham, proceeded to 
the northeast corner of Maryland, or point of 
intersection of the due north line with the 
parallel of latitude fifteen miles south of the 
parallel of the most southern limit of Phila- 
delphia. This point is in a deep ravine, on 
the margin of a small brook and near its 
source. The stone monument, with the arms 
of Lord Baltimore and Thomas and Richard 
Penn graven thereon, which had been placed 
by Commissioner Ewing, by order of the 
Board of Commissioners in 1768 to designate 
this point, was missing. From the tradition 
of the neighborhood, it appeared, that some 
years ago after it had fallen nearly prostrate 

! from its place, owing to the encroachment of 
the stream, upon whose margin it stood, some 
individual had taken it away for a chimney 
piece. A stake was found firmly planted in 
the ground, which they were informed by the 

I neighbors near by, occupied its place. In 
examining the taagent and curve the report 
says : "With a radius of twelve miles, 
such a curve is so flat that it is difficult iu 

< walking over ground intersected with forest 
timber, fences and other obstructions, to dis- 
tinguish without the aid of instruments the 
deflections of the lines connecting monuments 
on its circumference nearly a third of a mile 
apart." An impression prevailed in the neigh- 
borhood, that the stone originally planted at 
the point of intersection of the due north line 
with the arc of the circle of twelve miles 
radius, corresponding with the true point of 
junctioQ of the three States of Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and Delaware, was also missing. 
The true position of the lost monument was 
found, and they maried and perpetuated it 
by planting a new monument. In making 
the excavation at the depth of about three feet 
below the surface a cut stone unmarked, was 
found, of precisely the same form, dimen- 
sions and quality as the unmarked stones on 
the arc of the circle, and at the intersection 
of the circle with the due north line. Iu 
turning to the proceedings of the Commis- 
sioners under the dates of the 17th and 18th 
of June, 1765, it was found that such a stone 
was placed by them to 'mark that point. It 
was not until the year, -1768, that a second 
stone, marked with the arms of the proprie- 
taries, was also placed at that point. It was 
within the memory of the neighboring inhab- 
itants that the stone which stood at this 
point in a tottering posture, to within a few 
years of 1849, bore the arms, so often de- 
scribed, upon it. The unmarked stone of 
1765 had, says the report, probably been 
buried at the base of the one bearing the 
arms, when the latter was placed attlie same 
point by Commissioner Ewing in 1768. The 
evidence afforded by the disinterment of the 
old stone showed that the point fixed upon 
was the northeast corner of Maryland, cor- 
responding with that originally ostiiblished by 
Mason and Dixon. The new stone re-mark- 
ing this important point was planted with its 
base resting on each, about Hve feet below 
the surface of the ground, and its top rising 
about two feet above the ground. It is of 
cut granite and of the following dimensions, 
viz: "about seven feet long, andsquares'sixteen 
by eighteen inches. It is marked with the 
letter M on the south and west sides, and the 
letter P on the north and east sides. Under 


this letter, on the north side, the date 1849 
is engi-aved in deep cut figures. 

There were striking discrepancies between 
some of the measured distances in 1849, and 
those of Mason and Dixon. In regard to 
Delaware, an impression prevailed among 
her citizens that a considerable portion of 
her territory had been abstracted by the cur- 
tailment of her rightful radius of twelve 
miles around Newcastle. It was determined 
that the actual length of the radius or dis- 
tance from the spire of the court house at 
Newcastle (the center of the town), to the 
same point on the curve as marked by the old 
monuments, should be accurately ascertained 
by triangulation. The records of the U. S. 
Coast SLirvey office aiforded distances, and 
the accuracy of the Mason and Dixon survey 
was closely tested. The radius of twelve 
miles had' been determined by the simple 
method of measuring over the surface of the 
ground with a siurveyor's chain, for which 
purpose a vista was opened through the for- 
est as the work progressed.* It was a surprise 
that the length of the radius should have 
been so correctly obtained by such a method. 
The report says: "There must have been, by 
mere chance, a compensation of the errors in- 
cident to such a measurement over so great a 
distance." For it appears that the angle 
formed by the north line and the radius from 
Newcastle was so near a right angle, that 
the mark or post was declared the true tan- 
gent point, but the angle was never actually 
measured. The report further says : ' ' The 
tangent stone stands on low ground, very 
near the margin of a morass, known by the 
name of Cat Swamp. Looking from thence 
to the east, the ground is pretty Hat for half 
a mile, and then it rises by a rapid ascent to 
the ridge running northward from the sum- 
mit of Chestnut Hill, distant one mile. This 
ridge entirely shuts out ^he view of the whole 
country to the east of it from the tangent stone 
and must, at least, have limited the view of 
the radius when the angles it formed with 
the tangent and north lines were measured 
by Messrs. Mason and Dixon. These angles 
were then probably affected by whatever er- 
rors in direction may have arisen in running 
eleven miles from Newcastle." It was then 
ascertained that the tangent line did not form 
a right angle with the radius of twelve miles 
drawn from the spire of Newcastle Court 
House to the point occupied by the tangent 
stone. The angle, at the tangent stone formed 

*The line is stated to have been measured horizontally— the 
hills and mountains with a sixteen and a half-foot level ; and 
the vista cut through the forest, eight yards wide, was '* seen 
about two miles, beautifully terminating to the eye in a point." 

by these two lines, differs 8' 32.9" from a 
right angle. It was found by computation 
that the small deviation of 46*" in direction, 
or thirteen feet, one and one-half inch from a 
straight line at the end of eleven miles in 
running this radius from Newcastle Court 
house, would be sufficient to produce the dif- 
ference in the measurement of the angle at 
the tangent post, supposing the view to the 
east to have been limited to the distance of 
one mile, as it evidently must have been from 
the nature of the ground. "Even this is in- 
dicative of a very small error in direction in 
tracing this radius, when we reflect that it 
was prolonged through the forest by ranging 
staves or poles in line one beyond another, 
as the surveyors advanced with their work ; 
a method, so inaccurate for tracing a straight 
line that we are surprised it should have been 
resorted to in so important an undertaking. 
This was not, however, the work of Messrs. 
Mason and Dixon, but of their precedessors, 
who were less versed in science and in the 
use of the higher order of geodetic instru- 
ments than were Messrs. Mason and Dixon. 
The arc of the circle west of the due north 
line and the radius terminating in the tan- 
gent stone, were traced and determined cor- 
respondent with one and the same center, by 
the surveyors under the agreement of 1760 
and those of 1849, that is to say, the spire 
of "the court house at New Castle. The de- 
cree of Lord Hardwicke of 1750, toilches 
these two points, and the position of Cape 
Henlopen. The discrepancies in regard to 
the arc of the circle west of the due north 
line and the angle formed between the radius 
and the peninsular or tangent line, at the 
tangent stone, cannot be attributed to any 
difference respecting the center of the circle. 
The radius run out by the surveyors, in 1761. 
indicated by a line drawn from the spire of 
the court house in New Castle, to the posi- 
tion of the tangent stone, should be revolved 
about the center of its circle (the spire afore- 
said), through an arc of 8' and 34" and 
one-tenth of a second to the south, and then 
produced two feet four inches westward, and 
the line called the tangent line, should be 
revolved westward about its southern ex- 
tremity, at the "Middle Point" of the 
Cape of Henlopen line through the inappre- 
ciable angle of 1.2", and then these two lines 
would meet at right angles, at the distance 
of 157.6 feet southward from the present 
position of the tangent stone. The slight 
variation thus required in the azimuth of the 
tangent line, proves the surprising accuracy 
of its direction as determined by Messrs. 
Mason and Dixon, and how truly it divided 


the provinces, in accordance with the articles 
of the ancient agreement, as far as it ex- 
tended, which is given by Mason and Dixon 
in their notes of survey to be 81 miles, 78 
chains and 31 links, or 17.2 yards less than 
82 miles. The chord of the arc of the 
circle west of the north line should have 
begun at a point 157.6 feet southward of the 
present position of the tangent stone, and 
have ended at a point 14:3.7 feet north of the 
present position of the stone set by Mason 
and Dixon, and the Commissioners of their 
day. to mark its termination, and constituting 
now the point of junction of the three States. 
The report says : " It is our opinion that the 
stones on the arc, west of the north line, 
stand as originally placed." The tangent 
stone could never have been moved from its 
original position, and that stone and the in- 
tersection stone remain in the positions given 
to them by the surveyors in 1765 . They both 
stand upon their proper lines of direction, 
which would have been scarcely preserved had 
they been moved by mischievous interference. 
The tangent stone stands precisely upon the 
same right line, with the three monuments to 
the southward of it on the tangent line, aiid 
the intersection stone stands as truly on the 
north line. Those who believed that the 
tangent stone had been disturbed in its posi- 
tion because of the fragments of stone of a 
similar character which for some time la}- 
strewed at its base, were not carried so far 
back by tradition as the period when this 
point was marked by two similar stones, en- 
graved alike by the arms of the proprieta- 
ries, and placed side by side, '" the better to 
distinguish and ascertain the tangent point." 
'• The fragments, which we were told of while 
engaged in the reconnoisance, were the re- 
mains, no doubt, of the missing companion 
of the one we found a little inclined in pos- 
ture, but firmly planted in the ground, it 
was, when taken up, unbroken and perfect 
in form." In 1764-65, from the tangent point, 
Mason and Dixon ran a meridian line north- 
ward until it intersected the said parallel of 
latitude at the distance of five miles, 1 chain 
and 50 links, thus and there determi*uing and 
fixing the northeast corner of Maryland. 

In 1765 Mason and Dixon described such 
portion of the semicircle around Newcastle, 
as fell westward of the said meridian or due 
north line from the tangent point. "'This 
I'lttle bow or arc " reaching into Maryland, 
'lis about a mile and a half long, and its 
middle width about one hundred and sixteen 
feet ; from its upper end, where the three 
States join, to the fifteen mile point, where 
the great Mason and Dixon's Line begins, is j 

a little over three and a half miles ; and from 
the fifteen mile corner due east to the circle 
is a little over three-quarters of a mile — 
room enough for three or four good farms."* 
This was the only part of the circle Mason 
and Dixon ran". The report of Col. Gra- 
ham says the error in the curve of Mason 
and Dixon is not one of moment as regards 
extent of territory, as it abstracts from Del- 
aware and gives to Maryland only about 18.78 
of an acre. Their long west line or paral- 
lel of latitude we have had no occasion to 
test, except for a short distance, but the great 
care with which their astronomical observa- 
tions, contained in the old manuscript at 
Annapolis, were made, leaves no doubt of 
the accuracy of that part of their work. 
" The want of a proper demarcation of the 
boundaries between States is always a source 
of great inconvenience and often of trouble 
to the border inhabitants ; and it is worthy 
of remark, that as our survey progressed and 
while making the necessary offsets to houses 
on the east of the north line, we discovered 
that there was an impression among many, 
that the boundary of Delaware extended up 
to the north line, from the junction to the 
northeast corner of Maryland. Mr. W. Smith, 
a gentlemen who has once served as a mem- 
ber of the Legislature of Delaware, resides 
a full half mile within the State of Penn- 
sylvania, measured in the shortest direction 
from his dwelling-house to the circular 
boundary. We find also, by careful measure- 
ment, that Christiana- Church is in Penn 
sylvania, full one hundred yards west of the 
circular, boundary. The dwelling-houses of 
Messrs. J. -Jones, Thomas Gibson. Thomas 
Steel and J. McCowan, are all within the 
boitnds af Pennsylvania, according to our 
trace of the circle from computed elements." 
Under the auspices of the Royal Societj' of 
London, in the year 1768, the length of a 
degree of .latitude was determined by the 
measurements of Mason and Dixon, and 
astromomical observations made by them. 
The degree measured 363,763 feet — about 
68.9 miles. The difference of latitude of 
the stone planted in the forks of Brandywine 
and the middle post in the west peninsular 
line, or the amplitude of the celestial arch 
answering to that distance, baa been found 
to be 1°. 28'. 45". "f Messrs. Mason and 
Dixon were allowed 21 shillings each per 
day for one month, from June 21, of the last 
year, and the residue of the time. 10 shillings 
and 6 pence each per day. for the expenses, 
etc., and no more until they embarked 

*Kgle's History of Pennsylvania, 128. 
fEgle's History of Penniylvania, 129. 


for England, and then the allowance of 
10 shillings and 6 pence sterling per day 
was again to take place, and continue until 
their arrival in England. The amount paid 
by the Penns under these proceedings, from 
1760 to 1768 was £34.200, Pennsylvania cur- 
rency.* The compass used by these distin- 
guished surveyors is in the land office at 

The proceedings had for fixing the bound- 
ary line were approved and ratified by the 
King, by his order in Council on the 11th 
day of January, 1769. A proclamation to 
quiet the settlers on the part of Pennsylvania, 
bears date the loth day September, 1774.")" 
The Provincial Council had for some time 
represented to the Governor the absolute 
necessity of establishing by an ex parte proc- 
lamation, the lines of jurisdiction between 
the province of Maryland, and the province 
of Pennsj'lvania, according to the lines and 
boundaries agreed upon, run and marked by 
the Commissioners. But this proclamation 
was met with opposition, on the ground of 
the minority of the then Lord Baltimore, and 
by order of the King the proclamation 
was withdrawn. Gov. Penn represented 
in a letter to the British Secretary of State, 
that the people living between the ancient 
temporary line of jurisdiction, and that 
lately settled and marked by the Commis- 
sioners were in a lawless State, and that 
his partial extension of jurisdiction had 
quieted disturbances and given satisfaction to 
the people. 

On the 7th of January, 1775, a letter was 
received from the Earl of Dartmouth, Secre- 
tary of State, which says that "the letter of 
Gov. Penn stated the case respecting the 
boundary line between Pennsylvania and 
Maryland, in a very different light from that , 
in which it was represented to me and the 
King; confiding in your assertion, that the ex- 
tension of the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania 
up to line settled and marked by the Com- 
missioners, had been so far from having the 
effect to disturb the peace of his subjects and 
occasioning violence and bloodshed, that it 
had quite a contrary tendency, and given 
universal satisfaction, is graciously pleased 
to approve the arrangement made by your 
proclamation of the 1 5th of September, and I 
to permit you to recall that issued on the 2d of 
November.;}; Proclamation was accordingly 
issued on the 8th of April, 1775, extending 
jurisdiction to these boundaries. In 1781, 
Commissioners and surveyors were appointed 

*Egle's History of Pennsylvania, 129. 
+X Col.Ecc, 208. 
tX Col. Rec, 240. 

to run the boundary line between this State 
and Virginia. They were directed to con- 
tinue the line from the extremity of Masou 
and Dixon's line twenty-three miles west, 
that is due west five degrees of longtitude 
from the Delaware Kiver, and then run a 
meridian line till it strikes the Ohio. This 
line was extended in 1782. Thomas Jefferson 
was then Govenor of Virginia, and James 
Madison was one of the Commissioners. 
David Eittenhouse was a Commissioner on 
the part of Pennsylvania. Ai-chibald Mc- 
Clean, of York County, was a surveyor in 
these proceedings. Very careful astronomi- 
cal observations had to be made. The line 
was not completed and permanently marked 
till 1784. 


AFTER the controversy with Maryland was 
settled, by the final agreement between 
the proprietaries, James Hamilton, Governor 
of Pennsylvania, on the 21st of May, 1762, 
issued his warrant for the survey of the 
Manor of Springetsb"Liiy, which was duly 
returned into the land office in 1768, where 
it has since remained. By this survey the 
manor was found to contain 64,250 acres. It 
extended westward from the Susquehanna 
nearly fifteen miles, bounded by a north and 
south line west of the dwelling plantation of 
Christian Eyster, and east and west lines about 
four miles distant north and south of York. 
The town had been laid out for the propri- 
etor's use in 1741, as within the limits of a 
manor, and licenses to settle had been issued 
as early as 1734, and grants confirming titles 
within it had been given by the proprietary, 
Thomas Penn, in 1736. It had been recog- 
nized as a manor, but there was no record of 
the same. It acquired the name in 1768, if 
not before. The lines to be surveyed by the 
warrant then issued, were specially directed. 
It was in the year 1722, when the Maryland- 
ers were encroaching, surveying their warrants 
and pushing their settlements along the Sus- 
quehanna and the Codorus, and within a 
short distance of the after site of the town of 
York, that Sir William Keith, Governor of 
the province, issued an order to survey a 
manor, after a treaty with the Indians at 
Conestogoe, for the use of Springet Penn, 
who was then supposed to be the heir-at-law 
of his grandfather, William Penn, as the son 
of his eldest son, who had deceased. This, 
as has already been explained, was a mistake 

nliudwuj S//fVfv 


O'eore/e Ch'ster 


l/'tt/i iM^t/^///// < 


IN PURSUANCE of a warrant o£ re-survey under the hand o 
and requii'lug me to re-survey or cause to be re-surveyed tl 
re-survev the said Manor agreeable to the annexed Draft cont; 
the said'Warrant I did on the 1st & 2d days of July 17GS re-sui- 
Codorus Creek and within the aforesaid Manor of Springetsbi 
nlui at a White Oak Tree marked lor a cnrncr of land late Ba 
dred seventy lour perches and a half to a Post and stone set fo 
six degrees and a half West one hundred and thirteen perclies 
for a corner near the side of Codonis creek a little above a hig 
of a perch to a hickory tree marked for a coruer thence by Ir 
by land of John k James Wright North forty three degree 
degrees East one hundred and thirteen perches to a White 0: 
and four tenths of a perch to a stone set for a comer (note- 
seven perches and one tenth of a perch to the first mentione 
perches and the allovs'anoe of six acres p cent tor roads &c. 
& behoof this 12th day of July Anno Dom. 1768 







as to the proprietorship of the province. The 
original documents, that is those relating to 
the treaty with the Indians and the warrant 
of survey, are here given. 

At a council with the Indians held at Con- 
estogoe, June 15, 1722. 

present: ' 

Sir William Keith, Bart., Govr. Colo., 

John French & Francis Worley, Esqxs. 

The Chiefs of the Conestogoe, Shawana & 6an- 
away Indians; Smith, the Ganaway Indian, 
& James Le Tort, Interpreters. 
The Govr. spoke as follows: 

Friends and Brothers— Yoa say j'ou love me be- 
cause I come from your father. Wm. Peun, to 
follow his peaceable ways, and to fulfill all his kind 
promises to the Indians. You call me Wm. Penn, 
and I am very proud of the name you give me; But 
if we have a true love for the memory of Wm. 
Penn, WE must shew it to his Family & to his Chil- 
dren that are grown up to be men in England, and 
will soon come over to represent Lim here. Last 
time I was with you at Conestogoe, you shewed me 
a parchment which j'ou had received from Wm. 
Penn, containing many articles of Friendship be- 
tween him & you, and between his Children & 
your Children. You then told me He desired you to 
remember it well for three Generations, but I hope 
you and your Children will never forget it. That 
Parchment fully declared your consent to Wm. 
Penn's purchase & Right to the Lands on both 
sides 'Sasquehanna. But I find both you & we 
are like to be disturbed by idle People from Mary 
Land.and also by others who have presumed to Sur- 
vey Lands on the"^Banks of Susquehanna, without any 
Powers from William Penn or his children to whom 
they belong, and without so much as asking your 

I am therefore now come to hold a Council & 
consult with you how to prevent such unjust prac- 
tices for the future, and hereby we will shew our 
Love & Respect for the Great Wm. Penn's children 
who inherit their father's Estate in this Country, 
and have a just right to the hearty Love & friend- 
ship of all the Indians promised to them in many 
Treaties. I have fully considered this thing, and if 
you approve my thoughts, I will immediately cause 
to ,take up a large Tract of land on the other 
side of Sasquehanna for the Grandson of Wm.Penn, j 
wiio is now a man as tall as I am; For when the 
Land is marked with his name upon the Trees, it 
will keep off the Mary Landers and every other per- 
son whatsoever from coming to settle near you to 
disturb you. And he bearing the same kind heart 
to tlie Indians which his Grandfather did, will be 
glad to give you any part of his Land for your own 
use and Convenience; but if other people take it 
up they will make settlements upon it, and then it 
will not be in his power to give it you as you want 

My Dear Friends & Brotfiers— Those who 
have any wisdom amongst you must see and 
be convinced that what l" now say is entirely for 
your Good, for this will effectually hinder and 
prevent any Person from settling Lands on the 
01 her side of Sasquehannah, according to your own 
desire, and consequently you will be secure from 
being disturbed by ill neighbors, and have all Land 
at the same time in your own power to make use 
of. This will also beget a true hearty Love & friend- 
ship between you, your children, and the Great 
Wm. Penn's Grandson, who is now Lord of all this 
Country in the room of his Grandfather. It is 
tlierefore lit & necessary for you to begin as soon 
as you can to express your Respect & Love to him; 

He expects it from you according to your promi.scs 
m many Treaties, and he will take it very kindly 
Consider then, my Brothers, that I am now giving 
you an opportunity to speak your thoughts lovingly 
& freely unto this brave young man, Mr. Penn's 
Grandson ; And I, whom you know to be your trne 
friend, will take care to Write down your Words 
and to send them to England to this Gentleman' 
who will return you a kind Answer, and so your 
hearts will be made glad to see that the great Wm 
Penn still lives in his Children to love and 
serve the Indians. 

The Council was continued on the next day, 
the following being the minutes of that 
meeting: — 

At a council with the Indians held at Conestogoe 
June 16th. 1T22. 


Sir WILLIAM KEITH, Bart., Governour. 
Colo. John French & Francis Worley, Esqs. 
The Chiefs of the Conestogoe, Shawana & Ga*n- 
away Indians; Smith and James Le Tort, In- 
The Indians spoke in Answer by Tawcnca, as fol- 
lows - 

They have considered of what the Govr. proposed 
to them yesterday, & think it a matter of very 
great importance to them to hinder the Mary Land- 
ers from Settling or taking up Lands so near them 
upon the Susquehanna. They very much approve 
what the Govr. spoke, and like his Council to ihem 
very well, but they are not willing to discourse par- 
ticularly on the Business of Land lest the five Na- 
tions may reproach or blame them. 

They declare again their satisfaction with all that 
the Governour said yesterday to them in Council ; 
And altho they know that the five Nations have not 
yet any right to these Lands, & that four of the 
Towns do not pretend to any, yet the fifth Town, 
viz.: the Cayngoes are allways claiming some Right 
to Lands on the Sasquehanna, even where they 
themselves now live; wherefore, they think it will 
be a very proper time when the Govr. goes to Al- 
bany to settle that matter with the Cayugoes, & 
then all Parties will be satisfied. 

They- ask the Govr. whereabouts & what quantity 
of Land does he propose to survey for Mr. Penn. 
It is ans%vered, from over against the mouth of 
Conestogoe Creek up to the Govrs. new settlement, 
and so far back from the River as no Person can 
come to annoy or disturb them in their Towns on 
this side. 

They proceed and say. That they are at this time 
very apprehensive that People will come when the 
Govr. is gone to Albany & survey this Land, where- 
fore, they earnestly desire that the Govr. will im- 
mediately cause the Surveyor to come lay out the 
Land for Mr. Penn's Grandson to secure them, & 
they doubt not but the Govrs. appearance & con- 
duct afterwards at Albany will make all things 
easy there. 

Copy of warrant for survey of Springetsbur}' 
Mannor Sir Wm. Keith Bart. Governor of the pro- 
vince Pensilvania &c. 

To Colo. John French, Francis Worley & James 
Mitchell, Esqs. Whereas, the three Nations of In- 
dians settled on the North side of the River Sasqua- 
hannah, in his Maties Peace & under the protection 
of this Government, viz.: — The Conestogoes, "The 
Shawanose. & The Cawnoyes, are very much dis- 
turbed, and the Peace of this Colony'is hourly in 
danger of being broken by persons who pursuing 
their own private gain without any regard to Jus- 
tice. Have attempted & others do still threaten to 



Survey and lake up Lands on the South West 
Branch of the sd River, right against the Towns & 
Settlements of tlie said Indians, without any Right 
or pretence of Authority so to do, from the Propri- 
etor of this Province unto whom the Lands unques 
I idnably belong. And whereas, it is reasonable & 
iigreeable to former Treaties with the Indians that 
a' sufficient quantity of Land upon the South West 
side of the River Sasquehannah be reserved in the 
Proprietors hands for accomodating the said Indian 
Nations when it may hereafter be thought proper and 
convenient for them to remove tneir Settlements 
further from the Christian Inhabitants. 

And Lastly, Whereas, at a Treaty held between 
the Indians and me at Conestogoe, the IStti and 
16tb days of this instant They did earnstly desire & 
request me forthwith to Cause a large Tract of Land, 
right against their Towns upon Susquehannah. to j 
be surveyed & located for the Proprietors use only. 
Because, from his Bounty & Goodness, they would 
allways be sure to obtain whatever was necessary & i 
Convenient for them from time to time. 

These are therefore, by VirtueofthePowcrswhere- 
with I am Entrusted for tlie Preservation of his Ma- 
jesties Peace in this Province. & with a due and I 
perfect regard to the Proprietors absolute Title & j 
iinqueslionable Rights To Authorize, Impow^r & 
Command you, the said Colo. John French, Francis ! 
Worlev & James Mitchell, with such of the neigh- j 
boring' inhabitants as you shall think fit to call to 
j'our assistance immediately to cross the River Sac- 
queliannah, and to survey or cause to be surveyed, 
marked and Located, the quantity of 70000 acres or 1 
thereabouts, in the name & for the use of the Rouble 
Springet Penn. Esq.. which shall bear the name 
and be called The Mannor of Springetsbury, Begin- j 
ning your Survey as near as you can upon the 
Souih AVest Bank of the River Susquehannah, over 
against the mouth of Conestogoe Creek ; from ; 
thence by Line W. S. W. Distance Ten miles more 
or less ; from thence by Line N. W. b N. Twelve 
more or less ; thence by Line E. N. E. untill vou 
meet with the uppermost Corner tree of my Settle- 
ment called Newberry ; from thence S. E. b S. along 
my head Line until you come at my Southern Cor- 
ne"r tree in the Wood's ; from thence down the Side 
Line of my Land E. N. E. until you come at the 
River Sasquehannah. & from thence by the said 
Rivers side unto the place where you first begin, 
which Line will be the fourth Side of the taid Sur- 
vey, and when it is done. & finished, You are to 
make a Return thereof upon the back of this War- 
rant into the Govr. & Council of Pennsylvania : For 
which this shall be unto you, the sd. Colo. John 
French. Francis Worley & every of you, a sufficient 
Warrant Power & Authority. Given under my 
hand & seal, at Conestogoe, the 18th day of June, 
in the 8tli year of our Sovereign Lord George, 
Annoq. Dom. 1722. 

Signed, W. KEITH. 


To his Excellency the Governor & the Honble 
Council of Pensilva. 

May it please your E.\cellency : 

In obedience to the within Warrant to us directed, 
We did, upon the nineteenth & twentieth days of 
this instant, June, begin <fe compleat the Survey of 
the Mannor of Springetsbury upon the river Sas- 
quahannah. in manner following, viz : from a 
Red Oak upon the said River, (by a Runs side 
called Penns Run) mark'd S. P. ; West South 
West Ten miles to a chestnut (by a Runs side 
called French's Run) mark'd S. P. : from thence 
North West & by North to a Black Oak mark'd S. 
P. twelve miles; from thence East Nortli East to 
Sir William Kelts western Corner Tree in the Woods 
Eight miles ; from thence along the South East and 

North East lines of the said Sir William Keiths 
Tract called Newberry into the River Sasquahanuah 
again, and from thence along the River Side to the 
place of Beginning. The whole containing sevenly- 
live Thousand five Hundred & twenty acres, accord- 
ing to a Plan thereof hereunto annexed, all which 
is humbly submitted by 

Y'r Excellency's 
Most humble & obedient Servants, 
John French 
Fran. Worle 
Ja. Mitchell. 
At Newberry, June 21, 1722. 

These proceedings were communicated to 
the Provincial Council on the 2d of July, 
17'22. But that body declared that so far as 
they concerned or touched with the proprie- 
tary affairs they were not judged to lie before 
the Board, which acted as a council of state, 
and not as Commissioners of property. 

Col. French, one of the surveyors, who 
executed the warrant, then undertook to vin- 
dicate the conduct of Sir William Keith to 
the Council, stating that "the warrant speci 
fied his true reasons; and that it was, under 
all the circumstances, the only effectual 
measure for quieting the minds of the Indi- 
ans and preserving the public peace." The 
warrant and survey could not be retwrned 
into the land office at that time; for, it was 
said, that the land office continued shut from 
the death of "William Penn m 1718 until the 
arrival of Thomas Penn in 1732. Nor does 
it appear that they were ever tiled in the 
land office at any subsequent period.* But 
it is elsewhere said: "It has generally 
been supposed that the land oifice was 
closed from the year 1718, when "William 
Penn died, itntil the arrival of Thomas 
Penn in the year 1732. It maybe suggested 
that there were other reasons why the survey 
was not returned into the landofSce at that or 
any other time. The warrant itself was not 
issued from the land office, but under the 
private seal of Gov. Keith, at Conestogoe. 
The land had not been purchased from the 
Indians, the office was not open for the sale 
of them, and it was out of the usual course 
to grant warrants for tmpiu-chased lands. 
The Council on the report of the proceedings 
seemed cautious about it, and refused to in- 
terfere further than to permit the warrant, 
and return of survey to be entered on their 
minutes. Although Col. French defended 
the proceedings, because the facts and cir- 
cumstances recited ii3 the warrant were truly 
stated, "and in his opinion of Springet 
Penn, in whose name the warrant issued, was 
the late proprietor's heir-at-law, And what- 
ever turn the affairs of that family might 
take to resettle the property and dominion of 

Kliue, i Dallas, 4u5. 


the province, he did not conceive this meas- 
siire would be interpreted or deemed to the 
predjudice of a family for whose service it 
was so plainly meant and intended. Ent 
although the land was out of the purchases, 
as the Indians consented to the survey, the 
measure itself cannot but be considered as 
having been founded on the soundest and 
wisest policy, and Sir William Keith con- 
ducted himself with great zeal for the pro- 
prietary interest."* 

The grant to William Penn of March 4, 
1681, contained special powers to erect 
manors. On the 11th of July, in the 
same year, he agreed with " the adventurers 
and purchasers" in England, who were in- 
terested in his grant and the settlement of 
the province on certain "conditions and con- 
cessions." The ninth of these was, that "in 
every one hundred thousand acres, the Gov- 
ernor and Proprietary, by lot, reserveth ten 
to himself which shall lie but in one place." 
The name of "manor" was given to these 
portions of reserved land in its genuine legal 
sense. The nineteenth section of the char- 
ter empowered him. "his heirs and alienees, 
to erect manors, with a court baron and view 
of frank pledge (or court leet), to be held by 
themselves, or lords of other manors, and 
every person erecting such manor, shall grant 
lands to any person in fee simple, to be 
held of the said manor so as no further ten- 
ures shall be created, but further alienations 
shall be held of the same lord and his heirs 
of whom the alien did then before hold."t 
And such seems to have been in William 
Penn's own mind when on his last visit he 
gave a paper agreeing to give land on a quit 
rent "holding of the said manor, and under 
the regulations of the court thereof when 
erected. "|; He empowered the Commission- 
ers of property to erect manors, with juris- 
diction thereto annexed. But the Commis- 
sioners declined exercising the power, which 
would have been repugnant to the freemen 
of the province. Afterwards in judical 
opinions, the manors were construed not to 
mean such in a legal sense with its court and 
train of feudal appendages. It was held to 
mean a portion of country, separated from 
the rest, so as to be open to purchasers on 
"common terms," or to settlers. Whatever 
was granted was by special agreement in the 
several manors. It was originally intended 
that title should be given by warrant and 

survey, but titles afterward grew by settle- 
ment and improvement. This practice be- 
came prevalent from 1718 to 1732. They 
were to be consummated by payment of the 
purchase money and issuing of the patent. 
The warrant lixed a price and time of pay- 
ment, and when there was no warrant, the 
price at the time was to be paid, which was 
called "on common terms." The most of 
the country was opened through the land 
office, but this did not include proprietary 
tenths or manors. 

Two principles were early settled, namely, 
that no sales were to be made, nor settlements 
permitted, until the Indian title should be ex- 
tinguished, and that no title could originate 
but by grant from William Penn. He and 
his descendants were trustees by virtue of the 
concessions and agreements for such indi- 
viduals as should acquire equitable rights to 
particular portions of laud. They erected an 
office, reserving the right to appropriate one- 
tenth of the whole to themselves, for their 
private and individual uses. No right could 
be acquired except by agreement with the 
proprietaries. In grants of lands to pur- 
chasers the only distinction was, that the 
lands not reserved were sold at stated prices, 
and those reserved, that is within the man- 
ors, were sold by special contract. Although 
settlements had become notorious within it, 
and licenses were issued and titles conferred 
by grant, the appropriation of the Springets- 
bury Manor was not sufficiently notorious, 
prior to the warrant of survey of 1762, to 
effect with constructive notice subsequent 
purchasers and settlers. The wai'rant of 
1762 affected all persons with notice of the 
existence of the manor. The judicial diffi- 
culties arose from the fact, as alleged, that 
the survey of Sir William Keith, in 1722, 
was without authority, and that survey was 
never returned to the land office. The ques- 
tions involved did not arise until after the 
Revolution, and Pennsylvania had become a 
sovereign State. The cases in which these 
titles are investigated, both arising in the 
County of York, are Penn's Lessee vs. 
Kline, reported in the fourth volume of 
Dallas Eeports, * and in Kirk and Another 
vs. Smith, ex-demise of Penn. reported in 
the ninth volume of Wheaton's Tnited States 
Supreme Court Eeports. f In this last case 
the counsel for the plaintiff were Daniel 
Webster and Henry Clay, and the counsel for 
the defendant were the Attorney-General, 
William Wirt, and John Sergeant, and the 
opinion was delivered by the Chief Justice, 

^Sergeant's Land Laws, 196. 


John Marshall. The following is the war- 
rant in that case : 
Pexnsylvajsia, SS. — By the Proprietaries. 

WHERE.4.S. Bartholemew Sesrang, of the County 
of Lancaster, hath requested that we would grant 
him to take up 200 acres of land, situate between 
Codorus Creek and Little Conewago Creek, adjoin- 
ing the lands of Killian Smith and Philip Heintz, 
on the west side of the Susquehanna River, in the 
said county of Lancaster, for which he agrees to 
pay to our'use the sum of £1.t 10s. current money 
of this province, for every acre thereof. These are, 
therefore, to authorize and require you to survey, or 
cause to be surveyed unto the said Bartholemew, at 
the place aforesaid, according to the method of 
townships appointed, the said quantity of 200 acres, 
if not already surveyed or appropriated ; and make 
return thereof into the secretary's office, in order 
for further confirmation ; for which this shall be 
your sufficient warrant; which survey, in case the 
said Bartholemew fulfil the above agreement with- 
in six months from the date hereof, shall be valid ; 
otherwise void. 

Given under my hand and seal of the land office, 
by virtue of certain powers from the said proprie- 
taries, at Philadelphia, this eighth day of January, 
Anno Domini, one thousand seven "hundred and 
forty-two. George Thomas. 

To William Parsons, 

The warrant of resurvey of Gov. Hamilton 
set forth : " That in pursuance of the prim- 
itive regulations for laying out lands in the 
province, W. Penn had issued a warrant, 
dated the 1st of September, 1700, to Edward 
Pennington, tlie Surveyor-General, to survey 
for the proprietor, 500 acres of every town- 
ship of 5,000 acres ; and generally the pro- 
prietary one-tenth of all the land laid out, 
and to he laid out ; that like warrants, had 
been issued by the successive proprietaries to 
every succeeding Surveyor-General; that the 
tracts surveyed, however, are far short of the 
due proportions of the proprietary ; that 
therefore by order of the then Commis- 
sioners of property, and in virtue of the gen- 
eral warrant aforesaid to the then Surveyor- 
General, there was surveyed for the use of the 
proprietor on the 19th and 20th of June, 
1722, a certain tract of land situate on the 
west side of the river Susciuehanna,then iu the 
county of Chester, afterward of Lancaster, 
and now of York, containing about 70,000 
acres called, and now well known by the , 
Dame of the manor of Springetsbury; that 
sundry Germans and others, afterward 
seated themselves by leave of the proprietor 
on divers parts of the said manor, bttt con- 
firmation of their titles was delayed on I 
account of the Indian claim; that on the 11th 
of October, 1736, the Indians released their 
claims, when (on the 30th of October, 1736), 
a license was given to each settler, (the whole ; 
grant comptited at 12,000 acres), promising 
patents, after surveys should be made; that I 
the survey of the said tract of land, is either i 

I lost or mislaid; but that from the well-known 
! settlements and improvements made by the 
I said licensed settlers therein, and the many 
surveys made around the said manor, and other 
' proofs and circumstances, it appears that the 
said tract is botinded east, by the Susque- 
hanna; west, by a north and south line west 
of the late dwelling plantation of Christian 
Eyster, called Oyster, a licensed settler; 
north by a line nearly east and west, distant 
about three miles north of the present great 
road, leading from Wright's Ferry through 
York Town, by the said Christian Oyster's 
plantation to Monockassey; south, by a line 
near east and west, distant about three miles 
south of the great road aforesaid; that divers 
of the said tracts and settlements within the 
said manor, have been surveyed and confirmed 
: by patents, and many that have been sur- 
vey ed, remained to be confirmed by patents, for 
whichthe settlers have applied; that the pro- 
prietor is desirous, that a complete draft or map 
and return of survey of the said manor, shall be 
replaced and remain for their and his use, in 
the Surveyor-General's office, and also, in the 
Secretary's office; that by special order and 
direction, a survey for the proprietor's ttse 
was made by Thomas Cookson, Deput}' Sur- 
veyor (in 1741), of a tract on. both sides of 
the Codorus, within the said manor, for the 
site of a town, whereon York Town has since 
been laid out and built, but no retiu-nof that 
survey being made, the premises were resur- 
veyed by George Stevenson, Deputy Surveyor 
(in December, 1752), and found to contain 
436| acres." 

After the recital, the warrant directed the 
Surveyor- General "to re-survey the said tract 
for the proprietor's use, as part of his one- 
tenth, in order that the bounds and lines 
thereof, may be certainly known and ascer- 
tained." James Tilghman, Secretary of the 
land office, on the 13th of May, 1768, wrote 
to John Lukens, Surveyor-General, to pro- 
ceed with all expedition on the survey, and 
make return of the outline of the manor at 
least. The survey was accordingly execttted 
from the 12th to the 13th of June, 1768, and 
the plat was returned into the land office, 
and also into the Secretary's office, on the 
12th of July, 1768, containing 6-4,520 acres, 
a part of the original tract of 70,000 acres 
having been cut off, under the agreement 
between Penn and Baltimore, to satisfy the 
claims of Maryland settlers. This is known 
as Hamilton's Survey. 


Between 1736 and 1740 there were early 
settlements made on an immense tract of land 


in the western portion of the county of York 
laid out for the proprietaries' use, and named 
the Manor of Maske. When the provincial 
surveyors arrived for the purpose of run- 
ning its lines, the settlers upon it, not under- 
standing, or not approving the purpose, drove 
them off by force. Some of the settlers had 
taken out regular warrants, others had licen- 
ses, and some were there probably without 
either. As a result, the lines were not run 
till January, 1766, and the return of them 
was made on the 7th of April, 1768, to the 
land office. 

"The manor then surveyed is nearly a 
perfect oblong. The southerly line is 1,887 
perches; the northern, 1,900 perches; the 
western line, 3,842 perches; the eastern 3,- 
954. It is nearly six miles wide, and about 
twelve miles long. The southern line is 
probably a half mile north of Mason and 
Dixon's line, and the northern is about mid- 
way between Mummasburg and Arendtsville, 
skirting a point marked on the county as 
Texas, on the road from Gettysburg to Mid- 
dletown, does not quite reach the Conewago 
Creek. The manor covers the town of Get- 
tysburgh and Mummasburg, the hamlet of 
Seven Stars, and probably McKnightstown, 
all of the township of Cumberland, except a 
small strip of half a mile along the Mary- 
land line, nearly the whole of Freedom, 
about one-third of Highland, the southeast 
corner of Franklin, the southern section of 
Butler, the western fringe of Straban, and a 
smaller fringe on the west side of Mount 
Joy. Gettysburg is situated north of the 
center, and on the eastern edge of the manor, 
and is thus about live and a half miles from 
the northern, and seven and a half from the 
southern. The manor is separated by a nar- 
row strip on the west from Carroll's Tract, 
or "Carrolls Delight," as it was originally 
called, and which was surveyed under Mary- 
land's authority on the 3d of April, 1732. It 
was patented August 8,1735, to Charles, Mary 
and Eleanor Carroll, whose agents made sales 
of warrants for many years, supposing that 
the land lay within the grant of Lord Balti- 
more, and in the county of Frederick. As 
originally surveyed Carroll's Delight con- 
tained 5,000 acres.*" 

A special act of Assembly was passed on 
the 23d of March, 1797, relating to the Manor 
of Maske. It recited that -'certain citizens 
had settled themselves and made improve- 
ments on the lands comprehended within its 
limits antecedently to the warrant issuing for 
the survey of the same; and without notice 
that any such measure was in contempla- 

*A. Sheely, In Egle's Hist, of Penna , pp. 381-82. 

tion," and as doubts had arisen whether the 
said survey was regular, "and the said set- 
tlers and inhabitants in whose favor the said 
exceptions might have been urged, waived 
the same, and had agreed or are in treaty 
with, and ready to conclude a purchase for 
John Penn and Richard Penn, Esqs., There- 
fore, to remove any uneasiness in the minds 
of the said inhabitants that the committee 
may claim the land to encourage agriculture 
and improvement, by sending titles free from 
dispute and remove any prejudice against the 
rights derived from the late proprietaries, the 
lands marked by the survey of the manor in 
the month of January, 1676, shall be free 
and clear of any claim of the Common- 
wealth." But in 1800 all this territory was 
included in the new county of Adams.* 

blumstone's licenses. 
la 1734 a title originated, which in con- 
troversies concerning the Manor of Spring- 
etsbury, became the subject of judicial in- 
vestigation. The land on the west of the 
Susquehanna not having been purchased 
from the Indians, no absolute title, irregular, 
or otherwise, could be given according to the 
established usage and law. But the dispute 
was existing with Lord Baltimore, concerning 
the boundary of William Penn's charter and 
the Marylanders were extending their settle- 
ments up the Susquehanna. On the 11th of 
January, 1733-34,* a special commission 
was given to Samuel Blunston, a gentleman 
resident on the banks of the Susquehanna, 
to encourage the settlement of the country, 
and most of the titles over the Susquehanna 
originated in the licenses issued by him, 
to settle and take up lands on the west 
side of the river. Not because the land 
office was at that time closed as has been 
generally conceived, but because the office 
could not be opened for those lands which 
were not yet purchased of the Indians. He 
issued many licenses from January, 1734. 

*In Day's Annals it is said that the manor was established 
hy warrant from the Penns in 1740. 

About the year 1740 a number of the Scotch-Irish made the 
first settlement on what is now Adams County, among the hills 
near the sources of Marsh Creek. At that time the limestone 
lands inthe lower part of the county (of York), now so valuable 
in Ibe hands of the German farmers, were not held in high 
estimation , on account of the scarcity of water, and the Scotcli- passed them by to select the slate lands, with the pure 
springs and mountain air to which they had been accustomed 

Descendants are still cultivating the farms which their 
fathers opened one hundred years since. Mr. McPherson's an- 
cestors settled about 1741-42, when the patent is dated. Mr. 
William McClellan, the well known and obliging landlord at 

1740. The land still remains in possession of the family, and 
the graves of the deceased members are all there."— XIayj Annals, 
p. 58, (,18U>). 

fThiswas before the beginingof the year was fixed by law 
on the 1st of January instead of the 2oth of March, hence old 
and new style.— .ZJ^rrfmes, OS. 



to October, 1737, by which he promised 
patents on the usual terms, when the pur- 
chases should be made from the Indians. 
The first license issued by Samuel Blunston 
was dated the 24:th of January, 1733-34, and 
the last on the 31st of October, 1737, all of 
which, and they were numerous prior to the 
11th of October, 1736, were for lands out of 
the Indian purchase. These grants the pro- 
prietors were bound tw confirm, being issued 
by their express consent, as soon as they 
purchased the lands from the natives, upon 
the clearest legal principles, as expressed in 
the case of Weiser's Lessee vs. Moody.* 

This title was always recognized, and 
after the purchase made in 1736, the propri- 
etary confirmed the licenses by regular war- 
rants. They were likened by some to loca- 
tions, by others to warrants. They had all 
the essential parts of a warrant, except in the 
single circumstance of the purchase money 
not being previously paid. They contained 
a direction to make a survey, equally with a 
warrant, and it was the constant usage of 
surveyors to make surveys under them, in 
the same manner as under warrants, and 
such surveys were accepted in the office, f 

In the case of Penn's Lessee against 
Kline, J it is said, "In order to resist the 
Maryland intrusions, encouragements were 
ofifered by Sir W. Keith, and accepted 
by a number of Germans, for forming settle- 
ments on the tract, which had been thus 
surveyed; and in October, 1736, Thomas 
Penn having purchased the Indian claim to 
the land, empowered Samuel Blunston to 
grant licenses for 12,000 acres (which were 
sufficient to satisfy the rights of those who 
had settled, perhaps fifty in number) within 
the ti'act of land "commonly called the 
Manor of Springetsbury," under the invita- 
tions of the Governor. But in addition to 
such settlers, not only the population of the 
tract in dispute, but of the neighboring 
county, rapidly increased." In 1736, 
Thomas Penn was in Lancaster, and signed 
warrants taken under Blunston's licenses. 
The number of Germans who had formed 
settlements on the tract is elsewhere men- 
tioned as fifty-two. In Calhoun's Lessee vs. 
Dunning, § the inception of the plantiflf's 
title depended upon an extract from the record 
of licenses or grants by Blunston, dated 
March, 1734-35, which was merely a minute 
in these words: "John Calhoun, 200 acres 
on Dunning's Run, called the Dry Spring, 
between Jacob Dunning and Ezekiel Dun- 

«n Yeates, 27. 

tLessee of Dunning vs. Carruthers, II Yeates, 17. 

IIV Dallas, 405. 

PV Dallas, 120. 

ning." A number of ejectments were 
brought for tracts of land, lying in York 
County, in all of which the general question 
was, whether the land was included in a 
tract called and known by the name of a pro- 
prietary manor duly surveyed and returned 
into the land office, on or before the 4th day 
of July, 1776. The titles of the lessors of the 
plaintiff, to the premises in dispute, were 
regularly deduced from the charter of Charles 
the Second, to William Penn, provided there 
was a manor called and known by the name 
of Springetsbury, duly surveyed and returned, 
according to the terms and meaning of the act 
of the 27th of November, 1779.* On the trial 
of the cause already mentioned, evidence was 
given on each side to maintain the oppo- 
site position respecting the existence or non- 
existence of the Manor of Springetsbury, 
from public instruments, from the sense 
expressed by the proprietaries, before the 
Revolution, in their warrants and patents; 
from the sense expressed by the warrants and 
patents issued since the Revolution; from the 
practice of the land office, and from the 
current of public opinion. The general 
ground taken by the plaintiff's counsel was: 
First, That the 'land mentioned is a part of a 
tract called or known by the name of a Pro- 
prietary Manor. Second, that it was a 
proprietary manor duly surveyed, and Third, 
that the survey was duly made and re- 
turned before the 4th of July, 1776. . . . 
The defendant's counsel contended: 1. That 
Sir William Keith's warrant, being issued in 
1722, without authority, all proceedings on 
it were absolutely void, and that neither 
the warrant nor survey had ever been re- 
turned into the land office. 2, That Gov. 
Hamilton's warrant was issued in 1762, to 
resurvey a manor which had never been 
legally surveyed, and was in that respect to 
be regarded as a superstructure without a 
foundation. 3, That the recitals of Gov. 
Hamilton's warrant are not founded in 
fact, and that considering the survey, in 
pursuance of it, as an original survey, it was 
void as against compact, law and justice, that 
the proprietor should assume, for a manor, 
land settled by individuals. 

The licenses granted by Thomas Penn, in 
1736, to about fifty-two settlers, in different 
parts of the first, as well as second survey, 
in which this is called the Manor of Sprin- 
getsbury was strongly relied upon to show 
that, even at that early period, it had 
acquired this name. The tenor of the war- 
rants afterward granted for lands within 
this manor, varying from the terms of the 

*I Smith's Laws, 480. 


common warrants, marked this manor land. 
There was testimony to show that the weat 
line of this manor was always reputed to go 
considerably beyond York to Oyster's. 

As some of the persons interested in the 
ejectments brought for lands in Springets- 
bury Manor had purchased from the Com- 
monwealth, and it would be entitled to 
all arrears of purchase money if the proprie- 
tary title should not be established, the Leg- 
islature had authorized the Governor to 
employ counsel to assist the counsel of the 
defendants. After the decision of the case of 
Penn's lessee vs. Kline, the Legislature ap- 
pointed James Eoss and James Hopkins, 
Esqs. , to take defense in the next ejectment, 
Penn's lessee vs. Groff,* which was tried 
in the .ipril term, 1806, and upon the 
same charge, the same verdict was given. 
The defendant's counsel, having tendered 
a bill of exceptions to the charge of the 
court, arrangements were made to obtain a 
linal decision of the Supreme Court, upon a 
writ of error. It appears, however from the 
journals, that the Legislature was not dis- 
posed to interfere any further, and terms of 
compromise were proposed and accepted by 
the parties. The resolution appointing 
Messrs. Ross and Hopkins, counsel for the 
inhabitants of Springetsbury Manor, was 
passed March 31, ISOe.f 

The proprietary manors were reserved 
by the Legislature after the Revolution to 
the Penns, while their title to all other 
lands in the province was divested in favor 
of the commonwealth. The royal grant of 
the province of Pennsylvania to William 
Penn was an absolute one, and the quit rents 
reserved by him and his heirs, on the aliena- 
tion of lands therein, became their private 
property. By the Revolution and consequent 
change of government, the proprietaries lost 
the right of pre-emption of unpurchased land, 
in which the Indian title was not extinguished. 
The grant to Penn was in free and com- 
mon socage; but the Revolution and the act 
for vesting the estates of the late proprieta- 
ries in the commonwealth and for the opening 
of the land oeBce, passed in 1779 and 1781, J 
abolished all feudal land tenures, and ren- 
dered them purely allodial in their character, 
even as to lands held by the late proprieta- 
ries in their private capacity. At the com- 
mencement of the war of the American Rev- 
olution, the proprietary went to Great Brit- 
ain, where he remained, and in the year 
1779 the Legislature of Pennsylvania passed 

*IV Dallas, 410. 

tP. L. 682. 8 Bloren, 474. 

t2 Smith's Laws, 532. 

the act ' ' for vesting the estates of the late 
proprietaries of Pennsylvania in this common- 
wealth." It was held, however, in the courts, 
that the lands within the lines of the survey 
of the manor were excepted out of the gen- 
eral operation of the act, and were not vested 
in the commonwealth.* The powern of gov- 
ernment and rights of property were always 
kept distinct, the former being exercised by 
the General Assembly, and the latter by means 
of aa agency, constituting what is called a 
land office. After the Revolution, the pro- 
prietaries had, and still have a land office, to 
receive purchase moneys and grant patents. 
The commonwealth did not receive the pur- 
chase money of lands included within the 
limits of manors, nor grant patents for them. 
There were, in fact, two land offices. The 
act of investiture contained the following: 

"All and every estate of those claim- 
ing to be proprietaries of Pennsylvania, to 
which they were entitled on the 4th day of 
July, 1776, in, or to the soil and land con- 
tained within the limits of said province, 
together with royalties, etc., mentioned or 
granted in the charter of said King Charles; 
the Second shall be, and they are hereby 
vested in the commonwealth of Pennsyl- 

" There was nothing in the act of 1779, 
which would lead to the opinion that the 
legislature was actuated by a spirit of hos- 
tility against the Penn family. The great 
object of the act was to transfer the 
right to the soil of Pennsylvania fi'om the 
proprietary to the commonwealth. This was 
the great and national object. In addition 
to the private estates of the family, to man- 
ors actually surveyed and to the quit rents 
reserved on the lands sold within the manors, 
120,000 pounds sterling are bestowed on the 
family amongst other considerations, in re- 
membrance of the enterprising spirit which 
distinguished the founder of Pennsylvania. 
The line of partition between the common- 
wealth and the Penn family was to be drawn. 
It was proper that the commonwealth, and 
Penn, and the people of Pennsylvania, should 
be able distinctly to discern it.f "To have 
suffered the Penn family to retain those 
rights, which they held strictly in their pro- 
prietary character, would have been incon- 
sistent with the complete political indepen- 
dence of the State. The province was a 
tief held immediately from the Crown, and 
the Revolution would have operated very in- 
efficiently toward complete emancipation, if 
the feudal relation had been suffered to re- 


main. It was therefore necessary to extin- 
guish all foreign interest in the soil, as well as 
foreign jui-isdiction in the matter of govern- 
ment."* "We are then to regard the Revo- 
lution and these Acts of Assembly, as eman- 
cipating every acre of soil in Pennsylvania 
from the grand characteristic of the feudal 
system. Even as to the lands held by the 
proprietaries themselves, they held them as 
other citizens held under the commonwealth, 
and that by a title purely allodial. . . . The 
State became the proprietor of all lands, but 
instead of giving them like a feudal lord to 
an enslaved tenantry, she has sold them for 
the best price she could get, and conferred 
on the purchaser the same absolute estate 
she held herself."! 

Among the proceedings of the Supreme 
Executive Council, January, 25, 1787, ap- 
pears the following: "A letter from Tench 
Francis, Esq., requesting the delivery of a 
number of counterparts of patents for lands 
within the Manor of Springetsbury, granted 
by the late proprietaries of Pennsylvania, 
now in the keeping of the Secretary of the 
land office, was laid before Council; and on 
consideration, an order was taken that the 
Secretary of the land office be authorized 
and instructed to deliver to John Penn 
and John Penn, Jr., or their attorney 
the counterparts of all such patents for 
lots within the Manor of Springetsbury 
as upon examination shall appear to be 
entered : in the Rolls office, taking their re- 
ceipt for the same. And on September 22, 
1788, the following appears: "A memorial 
from John Penn, Jr., an<l John Penn, by 
their agent, Anthony Butler, containing a 
brief of their title to the Manor of Spring- 
etsbury, lying north of the city of Philadel- 
phia, was read together with several inclos- 
ures; the memorial and inclosures were pat 
into the hands of the committee appointed 
upon the petition of Thomas Britain and 


■ The warrant for the survey of Springets- 
bury Manor, "issued by Gov. Hamilton, on 
the 21st of May, 1762, recited: "That by 
special order and direction a survey for the 
proprietor's use was made by Thomas Cook- 

♦Oibson, J., 7 Sergeant and Rawle, 183. 

tWoodward J., 8 Wright, 501. 

tAU the titles of lands In the borough of York are derived 
from the Penns. The quit rents were reserved and paid. The 
agency forthe Penns was inthe hands of Hon. John Cadwala- 
der of Philadelphia, and the local agent here was Hon. Charles 
A. Barnitz, and afterward David G. Barnitz. Esq. The last pur- of lands within the bounds of the Manor of Springets- 


I made by Daniel Keller of Windsor Township in 1!I58, 

I tenants in common. 

son, deputy sui-veyor (in 1741) of a tract of 
land on both sides of the Cordorus, within 
the said manor, for the site of a town, 
whereon York Town has since been laid out 
and built, but no return of that survey being 
made, the premises were resurveyed by 
George Stevenson, deputy surveyor (in De- 
comber, 1752.) and found to contain i'iQ^ 

The original survey was made in the 
month of October, 1741. Glossbrenna's his- 
tory says: 

"The part east of Codorus, was immediately 
laid out into squares, after the manner of 
Philadelphia. For doing this the following 
instructions were originally given: 'The 
squares to be 4S0 feet wide; 520 long; lots 
230 by 65; alleys 20; two streets .80 feet 
wide, to cross each other, and 65 feet square 
to be cut off the corner of each lot to make a 
square for any public building or market of 
110 feet each side; the lots to be let at 7 
shillings sterling or value in coin current ac- 
cording to the exchange; the squares to be 
laid out the length of two squares to the 
eastward of Codonls when any number such 
as 20 houses are built.' On the margin of 
the original draught of the town as then laid 
out, are these words: The above squares 
count in each 480 feet on every side, which in 
lots of 60 feet front, and 240 feet deep, will 
make 15 lots; which multiplied by the num- 
ber of squares, (viz, 16, for the original 
draught contains no more) gives 256 lots; 
which together with the streets, at 60 feet 
wide, will not take up above 102 acres of 
land.' " 

"After the town had been thus laid out, if 
any one wished for a lot therein, he applied 
at the proper office, or in the words of his 
certificate he "entered his name for a lot in 
the town of York, in the county of Lancas- 
ter, No." &c. 

"The first application or entry of names for 
lots in Yorktown was in November, 1741. In 
that month 23 lots were taken up, and no 
more were taken up until the 10th and 11th 
of March, 1746, when 44 lots were dis- 
posed of. In 1748, and the two years follow- 
ing, many applications were made, for York 
had then become a county town. The names 
of the persons who first applied for, and took 
up lots in York, (Nov. 1741,) are as follows, 
viz.: John Bishop, No. 57; Jacob Welsch, No. 
58; Baltzer Spengler, No. 70; Michael Swoope, 
No. 75; Christopher Croll, No. 85; Michael 
Laub, No. 86: George Swoope, No. 87, 104, 
124, & 140; Zachariah Shugart No. 92; Nich- 
olas Stuke, No. 101; Arnold Stuke, No. 102; 
Samuel Hoake, No. 105; Hermanus Bott, No. 



106; George Hoake, No. 107 aud 117; Jacob 
Crebill, No. lOS; Matthias Onvensant, No. 
118; Martin Eichelberger, No. L20; Andrew 
Coaler, No. 121, Henry Hendricks, No. 122; 
and Joseph Hinsman, No. 123. 

"The manner of proceeding to obtain a lot 
was thus : The person wishing for one, ap- 
plied for and requested the proprietors, to 
permit him to " take up a lot. " They then 
received a certificate of having made such 
application ; the lot was then surveyed for 

"The paper given to the applicant certify- 
ing that he had entered his name, and men- 
tioning the conditions, was then usually 
called "a ticket," or else the particular ap- 
plicant was named, as "George Swoope's 
ticket.'' These tickets were transferable; 
the owner of them might sell them, assign 
them, or do what he pleased with them. 
The possession of a ticket was by no means 
the same as owning a lot. It only gave a 
right to build, to obtain a patent, for the 
lots were granted upon particular conditions, 
strenuoixsly enforced, 

"One of the usual conditions was this, viz. : 
"that the applicant build upon the lot, at 
his own proper cost, one substantial dwel- 
ling house, of the dimensions of sixteen feet 
square at least, with a good chimney of 
brick or stone, to be laid in or built with 
lime and sand, within the space of one year 
from the time of his entry for the same. " 
A continual rent was to be paid to the pro- 
prietors, Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, 
for every lot taken up. This was a " yearly 
rent of seven shillings, sterling money of 
Great Britain, or the value thereof in coin 
current according as the exchange should 
be between the province and the city of 
London. " Beside this, the lot was held "in 
free and common socage, by fealty only in 
lieu of all other services. " 

"When the applicant had built, or in some 
cases had begun to build, he received, if he 
so wished, a patent. But this patent most 
explicitly stated the conditions ; and if these 
conditions were not _ fulfilled, he was de- 
prived of his lot, and it was granted to some 
one else. " 

The first lot taken up in Yorktown was 
that on which the tavern stands, now owned 
by John Hartman, and occupied by Daniel 

Then the adjoining lot toward the court 
house, was taken up. 

The next lots were that on which Nes ' 
Brewery stands, in North George Street, and 
another east of it, the latter of which is still 

Then a lot nearly opposite the German 
Reformed Church, and the two lots adjoining 
it on the west. 

Then were chosen at about the same time, 
the lot on which Isaac Baumgardner's dwel- 
ling house stands ; that occupied by the 
house of John Lay, on the corner of Main 
and Water Streets ; that occupied by the 
house of Doll, gunsmith ; those by Judge 
Barnitz, Charles Hayes' store, the New York 
I Bank, William Sayres, and the house on the 
j southwest cornerof Main and Beaver Streets, 
belonging to the estate of David Cassat. Esq., 

"The building of Yorktown proceeded but 
slowly ; for though many took up lots, yet 
few were enabled fully to comply with the 
conditions ; the consequence was, the lots 
were forfeited, and thereby honest industry 
discouraged. And indeed the fear of not 
being able to accomplish, in so short a period, 
what they wished to commence, deterred 
many from beginning what might end in 
folly. It should be remembered that at that 
time the conveniences for house-building 
were few. It appears from a statement made 
by George Stevenson on the 10th of April, 
1851, that at that time there were fifty lots 
built on, agreeably to the tickets. Three of 
these lots were then occupied by churches, 
viz.: two by the German Lutheran and one 
by the German Reformed. Hence there 
could not have been at that time more than 
forty-seven dwelling houses in the town of 
York, and many of them must have been 
truly miserable. 

"At about this period York must have been 
a most desert place, very unlike what she 
now is in the "splendor of her domes," and 
the "richness of her profusion." In an old 
record it is alleged as a heavy offence against 
George Hoak, that "within the very limits 
of York, he had cut down the proprietaries' 
timber in large quantities for burning brick 
and lime." In a letter written in 1750, it is 
said that "sundry persons have cutoff the 
1 wood of the town land to burn brick, and are 
now burning brick on lots not granted, to 
the damage of ^he inhabitants, who ought 
to have the wood for firing, and of the pur- 
chasers of the ungranted lots, which are 
spoiled by clay holes.'' In the first settle- 
ment of York many inconveniences and didi- 
culties arose from persons taking possession 
of lots without having, in the first place, 
secured a legal title. "Some erected small 
houses on different lots "without license or 
entry ;" but for this they were reported to 
the Governor and were obliged to leave their 
tabernacles. Of this many instances are 


found recorded in old jiapers. Thus Jacob 
Billmayer built on lot No. 55, Jacob Falkler 
OD lot No. 60, and Avit Shall on lot No. 74, 
"without the proprietaries' license." Each 
of them was obliged to deliver up possession; ' 
and this they did on the lOth of April, 1751, 
"to Nicholas Scall, Esq., agent for the hon- j 
orable proprietaries." I 

"The early settling of Yorktown was one 
continual scene of disturbance and conten- 
tion ; there were warring rights and clash- 
ing interests. It often happened that differ- 
ent men wanted the same lot, and when the 
lot was granted to one, the others were 
watchful to bring about a forfeiture. The 
loss of lots by not fulfilling conditions was 
for a long time a serious evil, concerning 
which clamors were loud. 

•' We will here insert a letter dated at Lan- i 
caster, the 24th of April, 1750, and addressed j 
by Thomas Cookson, 'to Geo. Stevenson, 
E"sq., at York.' 

" .sVr.-— Christian Oyster in his life time entered 
for a lot in York, No. 82. The time for building 
expired, but no new entry was made till lately, as I 
understood, with you. The widow is since married, 
and her husband has put up logs for a house on the 
lol. He told me that he applied to you, and ac- 
quainted you with his intentions of building, and 
that you had promised him that no advantage sliould 
be taken of the forfeiture of the lot, and that he 
might proceed to build, and that since, through 
neglect, you have suifered another person to enter 
that lot, who insists on a right to it, notwithstand- 
ing the building erected on it. I find that taking 
advantage of the forfeiture of lots is a great spur to 
the people's building. But where there is an intent 
and preparation for building, I would not be too 
strict in insisting on the forfeiture, as the sole intent 
is to have the town improved ; and if the first tak- 
ers up of lots will build and settle, their priority nf 
application should be favored. A few examples 
will be necessary to be made; and they should be 
made of such persons .as take up lots for sale with- 
out improvement. There are some others here 
about their forfeited lots. But I am well satisfied 
that you do everything that is reasonable and equi- 
table to the people, and for the advancement of the 
proprietor's interest. Our court being so near, I 
could not spare time to come to York. Please let 
me know in what forwardness my home is. 
I am your most humble servt., 

Thos. Cookson. 

"Lancaster, April 24, 1750," 

George Stevenson wrote to Eichard Peters, 
York, 2()th of October, 1754. In answer to en- 
quiries about Yorktown, and the lands adjao 

The tract of land whereon the town stands con- 
tains 437J acres, or 412 acres and allowance. On 
the 1st of October, 1749, the town consisted of 
sixty-three dwelling houses of wood, all built on 
High Street and "Water Street (except two), about 
ten of which were not finished, and also a Lutheran 
and a Calvinist Church.* 

All houses had Dutch stoves, but one room in 
town had a fireplace. All the lot holders were Ger- 

•VU Archives, 2d S. 

mans. There were 210 dwellings, three of brick 
and two of stone, thirty not yet finished. The 
Streets were High Street,Duke Street, Water Street, 
Prince Street, Queen Street. 

The following letter is dated at York, the 8th of 
June, 1764, and is addrissed by George Stevenson to 
■William Peters, Secretary of the land office. 

"Yesterday at 6 o'clock P. M., Mr. Hemel and 
myself met the two Doudels together, with sundry 
other inhabitants of the place, to try to settle the 
difference between them about the lots lately 
granted to Michael, on west side of Codorus 
Creek, and south side of High Street continued. 
After many things said on both sides, Michael pro- 
posed to bind himself by any reasonable instrument 
of writing, not to build a tan-yard on the said lots 
for the space of five years next to come; which I 
thousht was reasonable. But nothing would satisfy 
Jacob but the lots, and he offered to give Michael 
the two opposite lots on the other side of High 
Street, and to plough them and fence them (for 
Michael has ploughed and fenced his). This offer 
gave great offence to all the company, ' what,' said 
"they, ' is nobody to have a lot but the two 
Doudels'? ■ For my own part, 1 do acknowledge 
they are industrious men, and deserve a lot as well 
as their neighbors, but at the same time there are 
other people who have paid dear for lots here, and 
have improved them well, and deserve lots as well 
as they. Sundry persons are building on the pro- 
prietors' lots on the east side of the creek, saying 
they deserve and want lots as well as the Doudels. 
I think an immediate stop ought to be put to this, 
otherwise it will be productive of great trouble to 
you. I make free to write this account of these 

j things to put you upon your guard, and beg leave 
to advise you not to grant any other lots until I see 
you, which will be in about two weeks. In the 
meantime, I shall lay out the Parson's lot for his 
pasture, and shall bring down an exact draught of it 
and of all the low bottom lands. Pray let me hear 
from you about these people that will build, and 
have built. Fas aiis nefat, I am, i&c." 

Samuel Johnston wrote to William Peters, 
York Town, January 12, 1765, that James 
Smith had purchased from the people settled 

' thereon, and applied for warrants for lands 
within seven miles of York. One tract from 
Garret Eummell, in Manchester Township. 
Oae place belonged to Michael Kamble and 
a third to one Lichteberger. The letter was 
written to prevent injury to the proprietary. 
People were pressing to know the price of 

I lots or half lots, let otit at twenty shillings 

I yearly. They would all be taken up on the 
Main Street in a short time. 

William Matthews wrote to William Peters, 
York Town, April 15, 1765, that he had made 
drafts on the west side of the Codorus, and 
as Saujuel Johnston was not at home ho had 
got Dr. Jameson to go with him and fix the 
place for the cross streets. And as Newberry 
Street would suit very well to build upon, he 
had laid the lots adjoining it the other way, 
and left a twenty-foot alley at the end of 
them, which happens just in the swamp. " I 
have laid the ground Michael Doudel holds 

I out into half lots, as well as all the rest on High 
Street except Jacob Doudel's two lots. It did 



not suit to go so nigh Botts' land in that 1 
angle, on Higii Street, as what thee mentioned 
ill thy instructions, unless there could be 
some land got of Bott in exchange." That 
people desirous of knowing the terms " should 
likewise be glad to know how many lots old 
Seagler, the briekmaker, has entered for or 
got the grant of, and the numbers, as he is 
digging and improving several. If he is suf- 
fered to go on he will ruin them for anyone 
else taking them, and then leave them, as he 
and some other brickmakers have done, one 
whole square on the creek. If the brick- 
maker was allowed but two instead of four, it 
would more likely secure the quit rent." 

Mr. Secretary Peters wrote to Mr. Johnston 
of York, June 1, 1765, that the Governor and 
the agents insist upon twenty shillings quit 
rent for each inner half lot of thirty-two and 
a half feet front, on the West side of Cod- 
orus, and to reserve a whole sixty-tive foot lot 
at each corner of a street for the proprietor. 
Lots must be taken before the first of July. 

Daniel Dingle applied for the two half 
lots. No, 328, joining Jacob Doudel's two 
patented lots on Codorus, but as Jacob and 
Daniel Doudel had applied for a lot or two 
there, their resolution required whether they 
will take any more there at twenty shillings 
per half lot. 

Samuel Johnston wrote to William Peters, 
York, June 8, 1765, that Daniel Doudel 
thought the terms too high, and would not 
.take up the lots, and Dingle could have them. 
There was a project on foot to alter the 
present road from about Newberry Street 
to Carlisle and toward Lewis Ferry, to 
pass through Wright's land, which would be 
a great hurt to the town, and the jJroprietary 
interest. There should be an application to 
the court to prevent it. 

June 6, 1765, petition by inhabitants of 
Yorktown, from the court house upward, 
for a road to cross the Codorus, at the north 
end of George Street, thence to run until it 
intersects a road which leads from York to 
John Garretsons, at Big Conewago Creek. 

There was another from the inhabitants of 
the lower part of Yoi'ktown, near the bridge, 
and another from the inhabitants of West 
Manchester Township for a road to be laid 
out to the north part of Manchester and New- 
berry Townships, to cross the Codorus oppo- 
site Water Street, and that they had raised a 
subscription for building a bridge and main- 
taining it seven years. The last two peti- 
tions were presented in order to prevent the 
first from taking effect, as the inhabitants in 
the lower part of the town have at present the 
first offer of everything coming to market. 

Mr. Johnston himself desired a lot on the 
north side of the main street, on the rise of 
the hill. 

The Governor's orders to Mr. Johnston, of 
York, on the 9th of September, 1765, were 
to give notice to brickmakers to desist till 
application and its reasonableness were con- 
sidered ; to prevent any waste being com- 
mitted in the timber on any of the proprie- 
tor's land near York. 

At the time of the execution of the warrant 
of survey of Springetsbury Manor, namely, 
from the 12th to the 13th of Juno, 1768, there 
was another survey of " the tract of land sit- 
uated on both sides of the Codorus Creek, 
whereon the town of York stands," returned 
into the land office. The survey was made 
by John Lukens, and it was found to contain 
" the quantity of 421 acres and thirty-seven 
perches, with allowance of six per cent for 
roads and highways, 446^ acres, nea.t meas- 


THE removal of the Indians to the western 
portion of the state, particularly of the 
Delawares and Shawanese, and the hostile 
attitude of these savages towards the English, 
through an alliance with the French, assumed 
a terrible shape when war began for the posses- 
sion of the Ohio Valley. The French claimed 
the right of possession to that territory by 
virtue of the discoveries of La Salle, extending 
to the Allegheny mountains, and of Marquette 
ard Joliet on the Mississippi, with the trib- 
utary claims. The British claimed by virtue 
of their purchases from the Indians and 
through traditionary Indian conquests.* The 
encroachments of the French upon the prov- 
ince, and the building of forts by them 
within the same, occasioned alarm which had 
already roused the neighboring colonies to 
take active measures to displace them. Not- 
withstanding the call of the British govern- 
ment, and of the proprietaries, and appeals 
from the adjoining colonies for means and 
men for the defence of Pennsylvania, the 
General Assembly failed to make the necessary 
preparations. On the one side it was con- 
tended that it was the fault of the Assembly, 
which was composed almost exclusively of 
Quakers, who ostensibly opposed all assistance 
and all measures looking to supplies for the 
purposes of war. Indeed, it was asserted by 
them that they could live amicably with the 

« IrviDg's Life of Washington, Vol. I, Page 44. 



Indians, through the policy of the founder of 
the commonwealth, and appai-ently they 
failed of any apprehension of danger, not- 
withstanding the threatening aspect of the 
French invasions and the Indian outrages. 
On the other hand, it was asserted that the 
object of the Quakers was to maintain their 
power, and that it was their jealoiisy of the 
proprietaries, and of the proprietaries' gov- 
ernment and its military dependents, that 
prompted their refusal. The Assembly con- 
tended that measures of defense were impeded 
by the i^roprietaries themselves, who in 
concert with the board of trade sought con- 
trol of the revenues of the province, and the 
regulation of the paper currency. The 
Assembly were firm in their position. So 
bitter was the controversy, that it was said 
they "would rather the French would conquer 
than they would give up their privileges to 
the proprietaries."* They made money 
redeemable by the excise tax in a limited 
number of years, but these supplies, under 
the terms, the Governor refused to accept. 
Benjamin Franklin, as agent for the province 
in London, presented ou the 20th of August, 
1757, "Heads of Complaint," among which 
was the following: "That the proprietaries 
have enjoined their deputy by instructions to 
refuse his assent to any law for raising money 
by a tax, though ever so necessary for the 
defense of the country, unless the greatest part 
of their estate is exempted from such tax. This 
to the Assembly and people of Pennsylvania 
appears both unjust and cruel." To this the 
answer was given: "The proprietaries conceive 
that the last paragraph of the complaint is 
extremely injurious to them, and very un- 
just, as it insinuates that they would not 
contribute their proportion to the defense of 
the province. It is true they did instruct 
their Lieutenant-Governor not to assent to 
any law by which their quit rents should be 
taxed. This they did because they thought 
it not proper to submit the taxing their chief 
rents due to them, as Lords of the fee, to the 
representatives of their tenants. But that 
there might not be the least shadow of pre- 
tense for accusing them of cruelty and in- 
justice, they ordered five thousand pounds to 
be paid for the public service out of the 
arrears of that very f und.f "It was also said 
at the time, that the Quakers had influenced 
the Germans to take part with them in sup- 
port of the independence of the Assembly, by 
causing them to believe that it was to their 
interest to do so, if they wished to preserve 
their farms; that the intent was to enslave 

them and force their young men to be soldiers 
and make them work upon the fortifications 
and suffer as they did in Germany. That at 
one time nearly 1,800 Germans voted in 
Philadelphia, which threw the balance oti 
the side of the Quakers, though their oppo- 
nents voted 500 more than ever lost an election 
before; and that the French based their 
hopes on the Germans, who thought a large 
farm the greatest benefit in life. Soon after 
the defeat at Great Meadows and the capit- 
ulation of Fort Necessity, July 3, 1754, a 
petition from 1,000 families in the back part 
of the colony, praying that they might be 
furnished with arms and ammunition, was 
rejected, although it was reported that the 
French were within 225 miles of Phila- 
delphia with 6,000 men and a great body 
of Indians. Some Germans, of whom many 
were Mennonites, had the same principles 
as the Quakers, holding it unlawful to 
take an oath or to take ai-ms.* We do not 
know how far this conduct of the Friends 
and Germans affected the jaeople of York 
County, where were settled so many of the 
latter. It appears, however, by the subse- 
quent events of the war, that they were active 
in raising men and means for the defense of 
the province, led by citizens of the then 
already important town of York. Notwith- 
standing the peaceable and friendly policy of 
William Penn, there were things beyond his 
control and that of his successors. The 
abuses committed in the Indian trade, thq 
unjust dispossession of them of their lands, 
as well as the instigations of the French, to- 
gether with other instances of wrongs, caused 
the alienation of the Delawares and Shaw- 
anese, whom we will find foremost in the 
fierce and bloody attacks upon our frontiers. 
The Iroquois, as early as 1744, had warned 
the government of Pennsylvania that these 
tribes would join the enemy. To this it may 
be said, in fact, that it appears the Six 
Nations drove them to desperation. The 
Delawares had to redeem their character 
as men. In 1754, millions of acres, includ- 
ing the hunting grounds of the Delawares 
and other tribes, were sold without consulting 
them, f 

Gen. Braddock arrived in this country in 
February, 1755. and immediately demanded 
supplies from the Pennsylvania Assembly to 
dislodge the French from their fortifica- 
tions in this province. In order to accom- 
plish this purpose, it was necessary to open 
roads from the inhabited parts of it westward 

* Briei accouDt. of the state of the Province from a gentle- 
man in Pennsylvania to a Friend in London, 1 7.55. 
t Day's Annals. Proud. 


towards the Ohio, not ouly for the march of 
troops, but to facilitate the supply of provis- 
ions. Two regiments were sent to America, 
and two were to be raised in the colonies, of 
regulars, and inducements were tendered vol- 
unteers. At this time the province contained 
300, 000 inhabitants and enough provisions 
to supply an army oE 100,000. It was bur- 
dened with no taxes, not only out of debt, 
but had a revenue of =£7,000 a year, and 
£15,000 in bank* The expense of the mil- 
itary roads was to be paid by the Assembly. 
Among the officers who accompanied Gen. 
Braddock was James Ewing, then a citizen 
or York County. On the 26th of April, 1755, 
Benjamin Franklin, under the authority of 
Gen. Braddock, issued an advertisement for 
the hire of wagons and horses for the service 
of his Majesty's forces, with notice that he 
would atttend for that purpose, among other 
places, at York, from Thursday morning till 
Friday evening, stating the terms. Frank- 
lin also issued an address, in which among 
other things, he said, that at the camp at 
Frederick, the General and officers were ex- 
tremely exasperated on account of their not 
being supplied with horses and carriages, ex- 
pected from this province, through dissen- 
sions between the Governor and Assembly, 
and it was proposed to send an armed force 
immediately into Lancaster, York, and Cum- 
berland Counties, to seize as many of the 
best carriages and horses as should be want- 
ed, and compel as many persons into the 
service as would be necessary to drive and 
take care of them. He then refers to a com- 
plaint among the people of the back counties, 
of the want of a sufficient currency, and says 
that the hire of the wagons and horses would 
amount to upwards of £30,000, which 
would be paid in silver and gold of the 
King's money. He proposed that one fur- 
nish the wagon, another one or two horses, 
and another a driver. This wise scheme met 
with success, and the expedition of Gen. 
Braddock began under favorable auspices.f 
The same counties were also called upon for 
laborers, who were employed in the construc- 
tion of a military road at the wages of half a 
crown a day and victuals. J In a letter from 
Gen. Braddock, June 3, 1755, he says: "I 
sent a man into the counties of York, Lan- 
caster and Cumberland to purchase up 1,200 
barrels of flour, " which was obtained. There 
was delay in delivering flour, and in not 
clearing proper roads, and the wagons and 
horses to attend Gen. Braddock over the 

*VI Col. Eec, .336. 
til Archives, 294. 
JVI Col. Eec, 379^07. 

mountains, having been secured, there was 
great inconvenience in not having a road from 
Philadelphia to Mills Creek, the march of 
the wagons being delayed. The history of 
this expedition is familiar to all Americans. 
A letter from Capt. Robert Orme to Gov. 
Morris, dated July 18, 1755, contains the 
following account of the defeat of Braddock: 
"The 9th instant we passed and repassed 
the Monongahela by advancing first a party 
of 300 men, which was immediately followed 
by another 200. The General, with the 
column of artillery, baggage and the main 
body of the army, passed the river for the 
last time about one o'clock. As soon as 
the whole had got on the fort side of the 
Monongahela we heard a very heavy and 
quick fire in our front. We immediately 
advanced in order to sustain them, but the de- 
tachment of the 200 and 300 men gave way and 
fell back upon us, which caused such confu- 
sion and struck so great a panic among our 
men that afterward no military expedient 
could be made use of that had any effect 
upon them. The men were so extremely 
deaf to the exhortations of the General and 
the officers, that they fired away in the most 
irregular manner all their ammunition, and 
then ran off, leaving to the enemy the artil- 
lery, ammunition, provision and baggage; 
nor could they be persuaded to stop until 
they got as far as Guest's plantation, nor 
there, only in part, many of them proceed- 
ing as far as Col. Dunbar's party, who 
lay six miles on this side. The officers were 
absolutely sacrificed by their unparalleled 
good behavior, advancing some times in 
bodies and sometimes separately, hoping by 
such example to engage the soldiers to follow 
them, but to no purpose. The General had 
five horses killed under him, and at last re- 
ceived a wound through his right arm, into 
his lungs, of which he died on the 13th in- 
stant. Poor Shirley was shot through the 
head. Captain Morris was wounded. Mr. 
Washington had two horses shot under him, 
and his clothes shot through in several places, 
behaving the whole time with the greatest 
courage and resolution. Sir Peter Halket 
was killed upon the spot. Col. Burton and 
Sir John Sinclair wounded."* 

After the defeat of General Braddock, the 
Indians fell upon the province and abducted 
and murdered families. People from York 
County fled to the thickly s,ettled parLs of the 
province, some to Wright's Ferry, from 
whence the women and children were re- 
moved as an unsafe place. The Western 
settlements were opened to the horrors of 

*VI Col. Eec, 487. 


Indian invasion, and numbers of people 
from Cumberland passed through York; while 
in the midst of these alarms, arms and am- 
munition were not to be had. 

Marsh Creek, in Adams County, became the 
frontier; the country beyond was deserted. 
Able-bodied men enlisted in companies and 
drilled daily. There was great consternation, 
and reports of outrages grew apace. News 
was recei-ved at Lancaster that the Indians 
had massacred and scalped many of the in- 
habitants not more than forty miles above 
Harris' Ferry. 

A petition from the magistrates of York 
County, Geo. Stevenson, Henry TJpdegraff, 
Thomas Armor, James Smith, John Adlum,* 
to Gov. Morris, dated York, Saturday, 11 
o'clock, P. M., 1st November, 1755, sets 
forth, that a numerous body of Indians and 
some French were in the province, which put 
the inhabitants in great confusion, the prin- 
cipal of whom had met sundry times and 
found that many had neither arras nor amu- 
nition. That the Indians were encamped up 
Susquehanna, within a day or two's march 
of Harris' Ferry. That there were men 
enough to bear arms and go out against the 
enemy, were they supplied with arms, ammu- 
nition and reasonable allowance for their 
time. That a company was going from the 
town and parts adjacent next day, to the as- 
sistance of the inhabitants on the frontiers, 
and will take almost all the arms and ammu- 
nition with them. They therefore pray the 
Governor to order them some arms and am- 
munition, otherwise they must desert their 
habitations. A letter from Geo. Stevenson, 
dated the same day, York, 12 o'clock Satur- 
day night, to Mr. Peters, says: "By the ex- 
presses which came more than daily from 
the frontier parts of the province, you can 
conceive the confusion, horror and distress 
with which every breast is filled. All possi- 
ble attempts have been made to stockade this 
town, but in vain. On receipt of the Gov- 
• ernor's suaimons, the sub-Sheriff was dis- 
patched to David McConaughey's, knowing 
that Mr. Hamilton was over the hills. While 
they where signing the petition sent down, 
they received the express from Harris', "f 

On the ■ 2d of November, 1755, a place 
called Great Cove, in Cumberland County, 
was destroyed by the savages. A letter of 
Mr. Thomas Barton at 3 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, November 2, 1755, says: "Mr. Hans 
Hamilton marches this morning with a party 
of sixty men from Carlisle to Shippens Town. 
Mr. Pope and Mr. McConaughey came over 

with me to raise reinforcements in order to 
join Mr. Hamilton immediately."* A letter 
to Governor Morris from John Armstrong, 
Esq., at Carlisle, 2d of November, 1755, says : 
"At 4 o'clock this afternoon, by expresses 
from Conegachege, we are informed that 
yesterday 100 Indians were seen in the Great 
Cove; among them was Shingas, the Dela- 
ware King. That immediately after the dis- 
covery as many as had notice fled, and look- 
ing back, from an high hill, they beheld 
their houses on fire, heard several guns 
fired and the last shrieks of their dying 
neighbors. Mr. Hamilton was here with 
sixty men from York County when the ex- 
press came, and is to march early to-morrow 
to the upper part of the county. I'm of 
opinion that no other means than a chain of 
block-houses, along or near the south side of 
the Kittatinny Mountains from Susquehanna 
to the Temporary Line, can secure the lives 
and properties even of the old inhabitants of 
this county; the new settlement being all 
fled except Sherman's Valley, whom (if God do 
not preserve) we fear will suffer very 80on."t 

The intelligence from Benjamin Chambers, 
November, 2, was that houses were in flames. 
" They lare Delawares and Shawanese. . 
The part that came against the Cove are 
under the command of Shingas, the Dela- 
ware King. The people of the Cove, that 
came off, saw several lying dead. They 
heard the murder shout, and the firing of 
guns, and saw the Indians going into houses 
that they had come out of. I have sent ex- 
press to Marsh Creek, so I expect there will 
be a good company from there this day, and 
as there is but 100 of the enemy, it is in 
our power to put them to flight if you turn 
out well in your parts. "J 

A letter from George Stevenson, York, 
Monday, Nov. 3, one-half hour past 11 A. M., 
says : ' ' Herewith you have a copy of Ben. 
Chambers' letter, reoeived about an hour ago. 
We have ^formed a council here of the prin- 
cipal inhabitants, who join in begging you to 
deliver the petition, and copy of letter here- 
with sent, to the speaker of the Assembly, 
and pray them, in our names and behalf, for 
God's sake either to send us arms, ammuni; 
tion and blankets, and a letter to encourage 
the people, and assure us of what we may 
expect, or else our country will be deserted. "§ 

And he writes to E. Peters, in a letter dated 
York, 11 o'clock A. M., Wednesday, Novem- 
ber 5: "We have sent fifty -three men, well 
filled, from this town last Monday, 2 o'clock 

«VI Col. Hec, 675. 
tibid, 676. 
tibid, 675. 
Ill Archives, 461. 


P. M., and a doctor, some medicines and 
what ammunition we could spare, to Tob's 
Hendricks' to join the main body of English 
tories on the most needful part of the fron- 
tiers. Mr. Adlem is with them. Mr. Ham- 
ilton is gone toward Conigogeeg last Sunday 
with a company. Mr. Bay yesterday with, 
and at head of another. We are all 
aloft and such as have arms hold themselves 
ready, but also they are few in numbers. 
Forty men came here yesterday willing to 
defend, but had but three guus and no 
ammunition, and could get none here, there- 
fore went home again; we stay all here yet, 
how long God knows; six families tied from 
their homes, distance about fifteen miles, via 
Conewago, last night. The last came into 
town about daybreak this morning. A few 
of us have pledged our credit for public ser 
vices; if we are encouraged we will stand till 
we are cut off; if not, some of us are bound 
to the lower parts of Maryland immediately, 
if not scalped by the way." Herewith you 
have another of our petitions to the Assembly, 
all I shall say about it is that the biggest part 
of its signers are Menonists, who live about 
fifteen miles westward of York."* 

On the same day, York, 3 o'clock P. M., 
Mr. Stephenson wrote to Rev. Mr. Smith: 
The grand quaere here now is, whether we 
shall stand or run. Most are willing to stand, 
but have not arms nor ammunition. This is 
the cry of the people. We have sent tifty- 
three men to Harris' last Monday from this 
town. Such as have arms stand ready, and 
we watch night and day. People from Cum- 
berland are going through this town hourly 
in droves, and the neighboring inhabitants 
are flocking into this town, defenseless as it is. 
I must add that Mr. Barton heads a company, 
Mr. Bay another."f 

At a meeting of the council held at Phil- 
adelphia, Sunday, 2d of November, 1755, 
sundry petitions from the most respectable 
persons in the several counties of Cumber- 
land, York, Lancaster, and Chester, setting 
forth the dismal condition of the inhabitants 
were read, and sundry companies were formed 
and commission granted to such as were re- 
commended for Captains, Lieutenants and 
Ensigns.;}; And at a meeting of same, on the 
6th of November, it appeared that the Gov- 
ernor had caused the inhabitants of several 
counties to be told that if they would enter 
into associations, form themselves into com- 
panies and recommend fit persons for their 
officers, he would grant them commissions, 

*II Archives, 514. 

tibid. 466. 

tVI Col. Eec, 670. 

and give them all the encouragement in his 
power. He had received a great number of 
petitions for companies, and to the officers 
recommended, he very readily granted com- 
missions, who all took the oaths to his Majesty 
and subscribed the declarations required by 

On the 25th of November, 1755, the 
Assembly passed a militia law, which the Gov- 
ernor pronounced impracticable, but signed. 
The Penn's sent an order for £5,000 as a 
gift to the province, and the Assembly, on the 
27th of November,1755, passed an act grant- 
ing the sum of £60,000 to the King's use, to 
be disposed of with the Governor's approba- 
tion, and not otherwise, by persons named in 
the act,f and Provincial commissioners were 
appointed, of whom Benjamin Franklin was 
one, to disburse the same. 

In the list of officers and soldiers in the 
provincial service, in 1756, appear the follow- 
ing: Second Battalion: Capt. Hance Hamil- 
ton, January 16, 1756; Lieut. William 
Thompson, January 16, 1756; Ensign, John 
Prentice, May 22, 1756; Serg. William Mc 
Dowell, Private John Kelly, killed at Kit- 
tanning. Third Battalion: Capt David 
Jameson, May 19, 1756. Lieut. William 
Clapham, Jr., August 20, 1756; Ensign 
Joseph Scott, May 24, 1756. The following 
is a list of the men of Capt. Jameson's com- 
pany, killed or wounded near McCord's Fort, 
April 2, 1756: 

John Barnett, James Campbell, Matthew 
Gutton, William Hunter, Henry James, John 
McDonald, William Reynolds. James Blair, 
killed; William Chambers, killed; Daniel 
Mackey, killed; James Pierce, killed; John 
Reynolds, killed; James Robertson, (tailor) 
killed; James Robertson, (weaver) killed.;]; 

At a meeting of the Provincial council, on 
the 8th of April, 1756, the returns of seven 
associated companies of foot militia, in the 
County of York, were read, the officers ap- 
proved, and commissions ordered to issue. 
The want of powder and amunition is set 
forth in all the returns and a petition for a 
supply referred to the Commissioners. 

On the 9th of April, 1756, Hance Hamil- 
ton wrote from Fort Littleton, 8 o'clock P. M., 
to Capt. Potter: " These come to inform you 
of the melancholy news of what occurred ber 
tween the Indians, that had taken many 
captives from McCord's Fort, and a party of 
men under the command of Capt. Alexander 
Culbertson, and nineteen of our men, the 
whole amounting to about fifty, who came 

*IV Col. Eec, 680. 

fll Archives, 516, 531. 

JII Archives, Second Series, .540. 



upon the Indians with the captives, and had 
a sore engagement, many of both parties 
killed and many wounded, the number un- 
known. These wounded want a surgeon, and 
those killed require our assistance as soon as 
possible to bury them. We have sent an ex- 
press to Fort Shirley for Dr Mercer, sup- 
posing Dr. Jameson is killed or mortally 
wounded in the expedition, he being not 
returned. Therefore desire that you will 
send an express immediately for Dr. Prentice 
to Carlisle, we imagining that Dr. Mercer 
cannot leave the Fort under the circumstances 
that Fort is under. Our Indian, Isaac, has 
brought in Capt. Jacob's scalp.* In another 
letter he states that the Indians had taken 
an"d burnt McCord's Fort, and taken many 
captives, upon the news of which. Dr. Jame- 
son, with nineteen men, went over Ray's, near 
Sideling Hill, and came up with the Indians 
and captives, and a sore engagement happened. 
Only five of our men returned, mostly 
wounded Capt. Culbertson and Dr. Jameson 
were thought to be killed, having received 
several wounds. Our men engaged two hours, 
being about thirty-six in number, and would 
have had the better had not thirty Indians 
come to their assistance. Some of our men 
fired twenty- four rounds apiece, and when 
their ammunition failed were obliged to fly. j 

On Wednesday morning, 5 o'clock, August 
19, 1756, Hance Hamilton wrote to Adam 
Hoops: "We are scarce of powder and 
lead at our forts. There is a party of Capt. 
Mercer's company here, and on our receiving 
this latter we march directly, taking with us 
twelve beef cattle and what jjack horses 
belongs to the two forts. The rest is to be 
brought up by Capt. Potter's and Steel's 
men." J 

From Fort Littleton, on the 14th of 
September, 1756, Col. John Armstrong 
wrote an account of the expedition against 
Kittanning. This expedition is classed 
among the heroic acts of the war, in which 
Hanoe Hamilton participated. The notorious 
chief, Capt. Jacobs, and Shingas. a faithless 
ally of W^ashington, headed the Indians. 
Here were fitted out incursions, and prison- 
ers and plunder were continually brought in. 
Two hundred and eighty Provincials marched 
under Col. Armstrong, with whom was Dr. 
Hugh Mercer, subsequently a renowned gen- 

*VII Col. Rec, 77. This last appears to have heen a mistake. 
Capt. .lacobs was killed at ICittanning, infra. 

tThe Dr. Jameson reported killed by the Indians near Mc- 
Cord's Fort was David Jameson, a captain in the provincial serv- 
ice, was also a surgeon or doctor, and was from York. Alex- 
ander Culbertson, reported also killed, was a captain in the i 
vice, from Cumberland, and a relative of Capt. 

eral in the war of the Revolution. The men 
were led secretely over the mountain from 
Fort Littleton in the night time, and waited 
for the cessation of the revels of the Indians, 
some of whom were scattered in parties 
through the cornfields. Towards the break 
of day the Indians were attacked. Their 
houses were set on fire. The Indians re- 
fused to surrender. One of them said he 
was a man and would not be a jDrisoner, and 
that he would kill four or five before he died. 
The Indians were driven out by the flames. 
When the fire became too hot, Capt. Jacobs 
tumbled himself out of a garret or cock-loft 
window, at which he was shot. The powder- 
horn and pouch taken off him were identified 
as his, which things he had lately got from a 
French officer in exchange for Lieut. Arm- 
strong's boots, which he had carried off from 
Fort Granville. His scalp was such as no 
other Indian wore his hair in the same man- 
ner. They also knew his squaw's scalp by a 
particular bob, and the scalp of his son, a 
giant seven feet high. Capt. Hugh Mercer 
was wounded in the arm in the early part of 
the action. Of Capt. Hamilton's company, 
John Kelly, from York, was killed. * 

On the I8th of October, 1756, there was 
read in council the following letter from 
David Jameson to Edward Shippen, October 
13, 1756, from Fort Halifax: 

"As Col. Clapham is at Carlisle, audit 
being reported here that his honor, our Gov- 
ernor, has gone round by York, and there- 
fore not knowing when he will receive an 
express that is sent to him from Shamokin, 
I have thought fit to send an abstract of 
Maj. Burd's letter to me that arrived here at 
daybreak this morning, that the gentlemen 
and militia of Lancaster County might take 
such steps as they might think most prudent. 
I thought it proper to acquaint you with a 
piece of intelligence that I have received by 
old Ogaghiadaritia, one of the Sis Nations' 
Chiefs, who came here yesterday in the af- 
ternoon, and is as follows: that about 10 
days before he left Tioga, there was two Del- 
aware Indians arrived there, who was just 
come from Fort DuQuesne, and informed 
him that they before they left said Fort 
there was one thousand Indians assembled 
there, who were immediately to march in 
conjunction with a body of French to at- 
tack this fort (Fort Augusta), and he, 
Ogaghiadariha, hurried down here to give 
us the information. He says further, that 
the day before he came in here he saw upon 
the North Branch a large body of Delaware 
Indians and spoke with them, and they told 

*I1 Archives, 767~ 


him that they were going to speak with ye 
Governor of Pennsylvania ; whatever inten- 
tions they have, they are marching towards 
oiiir inhabitantB." N. B. — The Major's letter 
is dated the ]2th inst., in the afternoon. 
Directed on his Majesty's service, to Mr. 
Edward Shippen, Esqr., or any Captain in the 
Militia in Lancaster Town, to be forwarded 
with all expedition."* In the minutes of 
the Council of the ISth of October, it is 
stated that an express arrived from Maj. 
Burd, with letters giving an account of our 
old friend Ogagbiadariha's coming a second 
time to Fort Augusta, on purpose to tell 
several things of consequence which he heard 
at Diahoga. This honest Indian's intelli- 
gence, with the examination of two English 
prisoners who had escaped to that fort, was 
read and ordered to be entered, f The in- 
formation was in substance that contained in 
Capt. Jameson's letter. 

Oapt. Hance Hamilton and Capt. David 
Jameson, as already stated, were officers in 
the provincial service from York. There 
were three battalions. The first was com- 
manded by Lieut. -Col. Conrad Weiser; the 
second by Lieut. -Col. John Armstrong; and 
the third by Lieut. -Col. William Clapham. 
Hance Hamilton was commissioned January 
16, 1756, and was in the Second Battalion, 
which was at McCord's Fort, and made the 
successful attack upon Kittanning, an account 
of which has been given. David Jameson 
was commissioned May 19, 1756, and was in 
the Third Battalion, known as the Augusta 
Eegiment, which marched against the Indians 
at Shamokin, and rendezvoused under the 
immediate command of the Governor of 
Pennsylvania, Robert Hunter Morris. They 
marched from Harris' Ferry, now Harrisburg, 
to the west side of the Susquehanna, and 
recrossed in batteanx where the town of Sun- 
bury now stands. Fort Augusta was built 
by Col. Burd, at Shamokin, and after it was 
finished the battalion remained there in gar- 
rison until the year 1758. :J: 

Following is a list of Associated Compa- 
nies in York County, November 4, 1756: 

Isaac Sader, Captain; Archibald McGrew, Lieu- 
tenant; William Duffell, Ensign; sixty private 

Hugli Dunwoody, Captain; Charles McMullen, 
Lieutenant; James Smith, Ensign; sixty-six private 

James Agnew, Captain; John Miller, Lieutenant; 
Sam Withrow, Ensign; sixty private men. 

Yorli Township — David Hunter, Captain; John 
Correy, Lieutenant; John Barnes, Ensign; 100 pri- 
vate men. 

* III Archives, 9. 

tVII. Col. Eec, 282. 

til Archives, N. S. Col. Burd's Journal. Shamokin was on 

Samuel Gordon, Captain; William Smiley, Lieu- 
tenant; John Little, Ensign; 100 private men. 

Shrewsbury Township— Andrew Findley, Cap- 
tain; William Gamell, Lieutenant; Moses Lawsoii 
Ensign; 106 private men. 

Mount Joy Township— William Gibson, Captain; 
William Thompson, Lieutenant; Casper Little, En- 
sign; fifty private men. 

Francis Hollon, Captain; Joseph Ross, Lieuten- 
ant; Jolm McCall, Ensign; 100 private men. 
The above is a true list. 

Richard Peters, Secretary. 
Col. Armstrong wrote from Carlisle, June 
30, 1757, that a large number, consisting of 
French and Indians, with baggage horses, 
left Fort DuQuesne about the 9th inst., bend- 
ing their course by the old Allegheny path, 
which leads from that place toward Rays- 
town,* on the departure of which detach- 
ment the French lired their cannon : that 
lest Loudoun or Littleton should be attacked, 
he sent all he could from his battalion as far 
as Littleton, and as much farther as requi- 
site, not to exceed three days' march from 
the inhabitants; that Capt. "Hamilton com- 
manded the party, consisting of 200 private 
men and a sufficient number of officers. They 
were then encamped somewhere near Rays- 
town, and nothing was yet heard from them. 
On the 11th of July, he wrote: "Our people 
are returned from Raystown, without making 
any other discoveries than the tracks of very 
small parties at a considerable distance." 
Gov. Denny wrote from Easton, July 21, 
lv57: "Mr. Barton comes express, with an 
application from the inhabitants of York 
County for a further protection of their 
frontier during the harvest. They oifer to 
raise a company of fifty men, if they may be 
allowed the same pay as the provincial troops. 
I strongly recommend this to your serious 
and immediate consideration, as that gentle- 
man waits only for an answer, and is very 
much wanted at home." The Commissioners 
replied to this, that they had considered the 
letter respecting the raising and paying a 
company of fifty men for the protection of 
the frontier inhabitants of Y'ork County dur- 
ing their harvest, and were desirous that 
everything might be done for them that 
could be, consistent with the law. It was 
not in their power to pay more men than the 
law directs, and therefore they knew of no 
method of relieving those frontiers from 
their threatened distress, but sending some 
of the provincial troops already rai.sed or to 
be raised, to their assistance. Or if the 
battalions were defective, and the Governor 
should think proper to raise the company 
proposed, they would have no objection to 
paying them, provided the company did not 



make the number of the provincials exceed 
1,400 men.* 

The Commissioners here mentioned were 
those appointed by law for the Province of 
Pennsylvania, by act of 27 November, 1755, 
to dis'pose of the 60,000 pounds voted for 
his Majesty's use. 


Hostilities had waged in America two years 
before war was formally declared, on May 
17, 1756. Governor Morris laid before the 
council on the '2Sth of June, 1756, a letter 
from the British Secretary of State, dated 
March 13, 1756, giving information of the 
King's having appointed the Earl of Loudoun 
to be commander in chief of all his Majesty's 
forces in North America, and that Major. 
General Abercrombie was to be next in com- 
mand to him.j Loudoun was appointed 
military dicator.^ His commission estab- 
lished a military power throughout the colo- 
nies, independent of the colonial governors, 
and superior to them. The king required of 
them a general fund, to be issued and applied 
as the Commander-in-chief should direct, and 
provisioa for all such charges as might arise 
from furnishing quarters. The British troops 
were kept in the colonies and quartered at 
pleasure. In Philadelphia there was consid- 
erable trouble occasioned by the billeting of 
soldiers. The public hoixses were not suffi- 
cient in number to quarter them all. Some 
of these houses were kept by very poor peo- 
ple, and the soldiers had to be quartered in 
private houses. The latter order greatly 
surprised the inhabitants. But resistance 
was useless, as they would have been taken 
by force. § The commissioners appointed to 
dispose of the public money provided quar- 
ters. By a letter from Lord Loudoun to Gov- 
ernor Denny, October 2, 1757, he says: "As 
the season is so far advanced, I do suppose 
you will not be able to furnish yo'ur barracks 
this season, and it will be of the less conse- 
quence, as. by my present plan of quartering, 
I do propose., in case some motion of the 
enemy do not alter my disposition, to have 
the greatest part of the troops I send into 
your province quartered in the back settle- 
ments, in Beading, Lancaster and York, in 
order to cover them from any inroads of the 
enemy or Indians, which I think will be an 
essential service to your province, so that I 
imagine, one battalion will be as much as I 
shall send to Philadelphia." There appear 

» III Arcbives, 235, 236. 

tVII Col. Eec, 179. 

IBancroft's History, United States. 

ivil Col. Eec, 359 et seq. 

to have been no complaints as to the billeting 
of soldiers in York. A bill was passed by the 
Assembly to equalize the burden of quartering 
soldiers on the public houses. Another 
trouble that embarassed Lord Londoun in 
Pennsylvania was the continued troubles 
regarding militia law and the bill appro- 
priating £100,000 for his Majesty's use, 
on account of the continued differences 
between the Governor and Assembly.* 

By a letter from Col. John Armstrong to 
Governor Denny, October 11, 1757, he says: 
"I shall immediately put in execution your 
Honor's order in regard of the new company 
in York County, which can be conveniently 
done by an express from Fort Morris." And 
on October 17, ''Captain Hamilton is now at 
Littleton, settling with and paying off his 
company at that place. He has orders to 
repair with all expedition to Marsh Creek, in 
York County, in order to discharge the new 
company there stationed, which I should 
have done in his absence, only to give him 
(as he is acquainted) an opportunity of en- 
listing some of them for three years, which 
it's probable he may do."-j" 

In December, 1757, Hance Hamilton, 
under a commission dated December 6, 1757, 
with Lieut. Jacob Snyder and Ensign Hugh 
Crawford, was posted west of the Susque- 
hanna, J and David Jameson, with Lieut. 
Wm. Reynolds and Ensign Francis Johnston, 
at Fort Augusta. 

A letter from William Pitt, Secretary of 
State, to Governor Denny, dated Whitehall, 
December 30, 1757, states: "The King had 
judged proper that the Earl of Loudoun 
should return to England and bis Majesty 
had been pleased to appoint Major- General 
Abercrombie to succeed his lordship as Com- 
mander-in-chief of the King's forces in Amer- 
ica, and General Forbes to command those 
in Pennsylvania and the South." This was 
received and read in Council on the 7th of 
March; 1758.§ 

April 11, 1756, Huntington, jj Eev. Thos. 
Barton, wrote to Rev. R. Peters: That they 
were all in confusion; within twelve miles of 
his house, two families, consisting of eleven 
persons, were murdered and taken. And in 
the counties of Lancaster and Cumberland, 
the people were daily alarmed with fresh 
ravages and murders. The poor inhabitants 
were flying in numbers into the interior parts. 
He prevailed upon the inhabitants of Cone- 
wago and Bermudian to assemble themselves 

1 *Vn Col. Rec, 402, 464, III Archives, 120. 

1 tin Archive-, 290, 297. 

I rVIII C.l. Rer,, 26. 

I |VIII Col Eec, 26. 

j iiHuntington Township, now Adams County. 


together and form themselves into compa- ' 
nies to guard the frontiers of this county,till | 
they saw what would be done by the troops, 
who were going upon the western expedition. 
He hoped by this means to be able to keep 
the settlements from breaking up. That 
Mr. Alricks told him he was 
vided he could obtain the Governor's permis- j 
sion, to go out to Ohio a volunteer in defense 
of his King and country, and as he was cer- j 
tainiy a man of resolution and valor, a man 
who could undergo hardships and fatigues, 
and moreover a man whom had an interest 
with, and an influence upon the county peo- 
ple, and is likely to raise a number of them 
as any man, he stood well entitled to a com- 

George Stevenson wrote to Richard Peters, 
York, April 30, 1758 : That Archibald Mc- 
Grew signified his inclination to serve his j 
King and country in the station of Captain of [ 
a company of rangers in the pay of this j 
province for the ensuing campaign. Mr. ] 
Stevenson certified that he had known Mr. 
McGrew in his private character as a neigh- 
bor, as a juryman in court and as a Coroner. 
He also commanded one of the companies in 
the pay of this county the last fall, in all 
which stations he had behaved himself to the 
satisfaction of the people as well as Steven- 
son's. That he could raise a company who 
would go with him in defense of our good 
cause as much from principle as love of re- 
ward. He thought four or five good com- 
panies could be raised in a very short time 
here if proper ofEcers were chosen. That he 
had brought about a resolve of the Justices 
and Commissioners that forty-five men be 
immediately raised, paid and maintained at 
the expense of this county, to range along the 
frontier for the defense of the inhabitants. 
"But, what is most remarkable, four leading 
Quakers (John Wright the first), have signed 
the resolves, and we have spent but four 
hours in our deliberations, therefore I con- 
cluded our very little Government here have 
outdone the lower county little Government, 
if not in unanimity, surely in dispatch, "f 

Richard Peters wrote under date of 3d of 
May, 1758, that, in compliance with the 
recommendations of the gentlemen who had 
written in favor of Mr. McGrew, the Governor 
had granted him a Captain's Commission — 
his Lieutenant, Alexander McCain, and his 
Ensign, James Armstrong. "You write that 
four or five companies can be easily raised 
in York County, and offer your services in 
raising them. Col. Armstrong and I were 

considering, before your letter came, with 
great care, what persons might be the like- 
liest to raise companies fit for the service and 
most acceptable to the people, and being 
asked our opinion by the Governor and 
Council were mentioned Thomas Armour, 
Robert Stevenson, Joseph Armstrong, David 
McConoway* and Thomas Minshall. " 
"Thomas Minshall was nominated thinking 
Mr. James and John Wright would be obliged 
by it, and assist him in raising his company. 
Mr. Armour, Robert Stevenson and Mr. Min- 
shall, if they accepted, must each, or two of 
them, have, at least, one German subaltern 
officer to engage the German inhabitants. 
Mr. Robert Stevenson must have Mr. Benja- 
min Smith, of Slate Ridge, either for his 
Lieutenant or Ensign. Sheriff Thomas Hamil- 
ton's commission is so far made out as to 
have his name inserted, leaving it to him to 
be appointed under the Captain that may be 
in Marsh Creek, provided it be either Mr. 
David Conaway,* or Mr. Joseph Arm- 
strong. In filling up the commissions take 
care that the date of the Lieutenants' and 
Ensigns' be the same with the Captains, as 
the rank is settled here, and cannot be altered, 
and the Sheriff, Hamilton, be the first of the 
Lieutenants. And if any of the gentlemen 
should refuse, and a good German Captain 
cannot be obtained for the benefit of the 
service, then, in that case, Mr. Hamilton is 
to have a good company. But if one full set 
of officers of German farmers and free- 
holders can be had and it is judged the best 
for the good of the whole, pray let it be 
brouglit about. The ministers should be de- 
sired, in different and proper parts of the 
country, and at proper distances, as their 
congregations may be seated, to appoint 
meetings and animate the peojale to raise 
levies with all possible dispatch, as they 
are designed by one vigorous effort to dis- 
possess the enemy, regain the Indians, and 
establish a durable and advantageous peace. 
The grfat regard for the inhabitants of the 
County of York had induced the Governor 
and Council to reserve their commissions, 
though there are many persons applying of 
good interest and proper for the service. 

•• Six hundred pounds are sent with Mr. Mc- 
Grew to be delivered, after taking his share, 
to you, and by you to the Captains, who shall 
be named in the commissions, "t Mr. Ste^-en- 
son wrote to Mr. Peters on May 7, 1758, that 
the commissions were received on the 6th of 
May, for the officers of three companies. Mr. 
Armour and Mr. Joseph Stevenson, begged 


to be excused from accepting their commis- 
sioQS, not thinking themselves .sufficiently 
qualified. David Hunter was appointed in 
the room of Stevenson, an able-bodied man, a 
German, and a man of influence and inter- 
est. Benjamin Smith, to be one of the sub- 
alterns; the other, to be appointed by the 
advice of the principal inhabitants, who were 
to convene on the next Saturday, to meet Sir 
John St. Clair on other business. George 
Stevenson applied to the leading Germans, 
told them it would look ill, if they did not 
exert themselves, and desire them to spirit up 
their people, and name oificers who could get 
men. By this means, he would probably 
raise a German Company in the room of Mr. 
Axmour's, and on May 8, 1758: That Sheriff 
Hamilton, chooses to go with David McCon- 
aughey, rather than with Joseph Armstrong. 
And if Joseph Armstrong refused, Hamilton 
was to have his commission. "Must the men 
buy green clothing? I fear this well hurt us 
very much. I think linen stockings, red 
below the knee, petticoat trowers reaching to 
the thick of the leg, made of strong linen, 
and a Jailor's fi'ock made of the same, would 
be best. Young men that have clothing, 
(especially Dutch),willnotlike to lay out their 
money for more." * And by letter, dated 
York, May 15, 1758. "Last Thursday, Sir 
John St. Clair was here. A great number of 
the principal inhabitants came together to 
meet him. Upwards of seventy wagons were 
engaged for the campaign. Recruiting went 
on as well as could be expected. Capt. Mc- 
Grew had near half his men. Capt. Hunter, 
had about twenty. Joseph Armstrong would 
not accept. David McConaughy accepted, 
and set out to recruit on Friday. His sub- 
alterns were not fixed upon, Sheriff Hamilton 
was recuiting. He had accepted in the room 
of Mr. Armour. His subalterns were Victor 
King, and one McDowell, who was at Kittan- 
ning, as Sergeant with Capt. Hanoe Ham- 
ilton, recommended by him and other reputa- 
ble persons of the west end of the county. 
Thomas Minshall's accepting a commission, 
was very disagreeable to Mr. John Wright, 
and raised up a worthless fellow, Ludwig 
Myer, of Conedoghela.T There was a scheme 
to keepMinshall at home, and thereby oblige 
the women of Susquehanna, Quakers, who were 
against his going into the service. The money 
was almost out. The men want drums, colors, 
and other common instruments of war. Drums 
they needed much."J On May 21, 1758, David 
McConaughy had refused his commission. 
Thomas Minshall, had resigned much against 

! his inclination, and blamed his Susquehanna 
friends, who influenced his wife. He would 
nevertheless forward the expedition to the 
best of his power. By advice from Mr. Bay, 
Mr. Armor, Mr. Barton and others, Robert Mc- 
' Pherson, a very worthy young man, took 
Minshall's commission. His Lieutenant was 
James Ewing, who had been in the service, 
and was recruiting in Donegal, and other 
places where he was acquainted. The 
Ensign was Peter Meen, who recruited 
amongst the Germans, in and about York. 
Adam Finley, Capt. Hunter's Lieutenant, 
brought fourteen recruits to town, which com- 
pleted that company. Capt. Hunter took 
Hadden for his Ensign. By accounts from 
Capt. T. Hamilton, he had twenty men. Upon 
the whole four companies from York County, 
viz: Captains Hunter, McPherson, McGrew 
and Hamilton, and as all these had their sub- 
alterns, there were no vacanies in the four 
companies for the German Cadets. 

"The Rev. Mr. McCraddock gave me the 
pleasure of a visit and preached an excellent 
war sermon from Mr. Listry's pulpit on 
Friday last, in the hearing of Messrs. Barton, 
Bay and Listry; he went with Mr. Barton 
yesterday, is to deliver another sermon to the 
same purpose to day from Mr. Barton's pul- 
pit."* Mr. Barton was the rector of the 
Huntington Parish, in Adams County, and 
was appointed July 9, a Chaplain by Gen. 
Forbes, t 

On the 2d day of June, 1758, the return 
of the garrison at Fort Augusta, shows Capt. 
David Jameson there with fourteen men fit 
for duty. On the 6th of June, he was in 


YOKK, 6th, June, 17i58. 

Yesterday Capt. Huoter's men were received by 
Mr. Jameson, at York, and thirty-four wagons were 
contracted for with the people. Returns will be 
made to the Governor, agreeable to his desire, as 
soon as the Men shall be collected together and 
pass Muster. The names of the Officers are as fol- 
lows, viz: 

David Hunter. Captain; Andrew Finley, Lieu- 
tenant; Wm. Hadden, Ensign. Commissions bear 
date the 3.5th April, 1758. 

Robert McPherson, Captain; James Ewing, Lieu- 
tenant; Peter Meen, Ensign. Commissions bear 
date the 10th May, 17.58. 

Thomas L -uilton, Captain; Victor King, Lieu- 
tenant; Will M Lowell, Ensign. Commissions bear 
date the 16th Ma) 1758. 

The commissions "or the Captains were dated 
when I received them. The OtHcers are all sworn. 
Hunter's and McPherson s Companies are full, and 
if they had Clothing and Accoutrements, are ready 
for Action, t 

*III .^.rchives, 400. 

tibid, 451. 

nil Archives, 408. 



"I go with Mr. Jameson to Review, twenty-two 
Miles West of York, on Thursday, next, there to con- 
tract for Wagons, in pursuance of power from Col. 
Bouquet for that purpose. Thirty-five Contracts 
were signed here yesterday. The bearer, Mr. Lieut. 
Ewing, goes to buy Clo.hing for Capt. McPherson's 
Company. ... I have kept a War office near five 
weeks, without Fee, Reward or hope thereof; thank 
God the Expedition looks better than it did; the 
Store Ships, I hope have brought the arms.* . . . 

YoBK Town, ye 6th June, 1758. 
David Jameson, to Gov. Denny, 1758. 

Sir: Agreeable to Orders, I received from Col. 
Bouquet, I arrived in this Town last Saturday; I. 
yesterday examined and passed forty-four of Capt. 
Hunter's Recruits, there is more of them to be in 
Town this day, then will compleat his Company. 
Capt. McPherson's Company he informs me 
is full; Capt. Hamilton and Capt. McPherson's 
Companies I am informed, is not yet near full; 
The recruits are so scattered throughout the 
Country, that I believe that it will be the lat- 
ter end of the Week before they will arrive in 
Town. I find it extremely difficult to keep the 
recruits in order, for want of Sergeants that under- 
stand duty, and have not so much as a single drum; 
None of the recruits are furnished with Clothing, 
or any necessaries for marching. I was desired by 
Col. Bouquet to try, if possible, to get the Recruits 
to find their own Arms, but I find this impractica- 
ble; of the forty-four that passed yesterday, not one- 
third of them had arms, or could be prevailed on 
to get them, therefore, I shall find it extremely dif- 
ficult to get as many arms as is necessary for the men 
that are to escort the wagons this week to Fort 
Loudon, t A return of the Garrison at Fort Augusta, 
commanded by Capt. Levi Trump, the 1st day of 
July, Anno Domini, 1758. Among the Captains 
David Jameson; sixteen men fit for duty, total, 
eighteen; two sick. | 

At a meeting of the Provincial Council 
lield at Philadelphia, Monday, the 6th of 
November, a letter from Gen. Forbes, dated 
Kaystown Camp, the 22d of October, was 
read. Among other things he said: "The 
number of the King's troops under my com- 
mand does not exceed 1,200 men, the 
greatest part of which must be sent down 
to the inhabited parts of the country to 
recruit and fit themselves out for the ensuing 
campaign. Whether Fort Du Quesne is taken 
or not, the Forts of Loyal Hanna, Cumber- 
land, Raystown, Juniata, Littleton Loudon, 
Frederick, Shippensburgh, and Carlisle, 
ought to be garrisoned, beside those on the 
other side of the Susquehanna. "§ A letter 
was read at the meeting of the Council on the 
21st of December, from Gen. Amherst, 
announcing his appointment as Commander 
in Chief of all his Majesty's forces in North 

In the month of September, 1758, the army 
under Gen. Forbes, including the Second 
and Third Battallions of Pennsylvania, Cols. 
James Burd and Hugh Mercer, move d against 

«III Archives, 410. 

tibid, 412. 

:ibKl, 431 

?VIII Col. Rec, 244. . 

Illbid, 236. 

Fort Du Quesne. David Jameson was Major, 
under commission dated June 3, 1758, of 
the Second Battalion. Lieut. William Reyn- 
olds of his company, was wounded at Grant's 
defeat, near Fort Du Quesne, September 14, 
1758. James Hughes was Ensign. In 
the Third Battalion, James Ewing was 
Adjutant; Robert McPherson, Captain; Peter 
Meem, Ensign; Archibald McGrew, Captain; 
Alexander McKean, Lieutenant; and James 
Armstrong, Ensign and Captain, Thomas 
Hamilton; Victor King, Lieutenant; and 
William McDowell, Ensign, who had been a 
Sergeant in Capt. Hance Hamilton's Compa- 
pany, at the capture of Kittanning. Of the 
new levies, there was Capt. Armour of York 

The following list appears: "Old Levys," 
First Battalion, Colonel, John Armstrong: 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Hugh Mercer; Major, 
Hance Hamilton. Officers of the Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment, 1759: Second Battalion, 
Major, David Jameson, "to have brevet dated 
24th April, 1759. "t 

By the 5th of November, the whole 
army had arrived at Loyal Hanna, fifty 
miles from Fort DuQuesne. Gen. Forbes, 
on the 26th of November, 1758, from 
Fort DuQuesne, then Pittsburgh, had the 
pleasure and honor of acquainting the Gov- 
ernor with the signal success of his Majes- 
ty's troops over all his enemies on the Ohio, 
by having obliged them to burn and abandon 
their Fort DuQuesne, which they eflected 
upon the 24th inst., and of which he took 
jDossession with his little army the next day. 
The enemy having made their escape down 
the river, part in boats, and part by land, 
their forts and settlements on the Mississippi 
being abandoned, or at least not seconded by 
their friends, the Indians, who had previously 
been engaged, to act a neutral part, and who 
seemed all willing and ready to embrace his 
Majesty's most gracious protection. ;|; 

A letter from Col. Burd, of the 2d of De- 
cember says: "I have the jjleasure to inform 
you, that on Friday last, our army being 
within ten miles of Fort DuQuesne, the 
enemy thought proper to blow up the Fort, 
and went off bodily in their battoes. They 
entirely destroyed the works and rendered 
everything useless."§ 


In the year, 1755, occurred the abduction 
and massacre of the "Jemison family, in 

*II Archives, N. S., 559-565. 
tIbid. 577, 583. 
♦Vni Col. Rec, 232. 
gibid. 234. 



Buchanan Valley, now Adams County, The 
father, the mother and the daughter and the 
sons were carried off by the Indians. All 
were killed but the daughter, who was car- 
ried into the Indian country, brought up 
among them, and married an Indian chief, 
and was Jiving in the year lS2-i. An account 
of this abduction and of its horrors and dis- 
tresses, and the subsequent life of the 
daughter among the Indians, was published 
in the last mentioned year, entitled, "The 
Tragical History of Mary Jemison." Emi- 
grants to the territory of that part of New 
Jork, now embraced by the counties of 
Genesee and Wyoming, found the wife of an 
old Indian warrior to be a white woman, 
called the White Woman. She was possessed 
of a large tract of land. Her associates and 
children were Indians. This was in the 
year 1823, and she was then eighty years old ; 
to them she recited her history, which was 
published in book form. We are indebted to 
the Gettysburg Compiler of December 4, et 
seq., 1879, for a graphic account of this cap- 
ture and massacre. The following facts in 
Mary Jemison's case appear: The first settle- 
ments on the southwestern portion of York, 
now Adams County, were made by the Scotch- 
Irish. The father of Mary .lemiaon was one 
of these settlers. He settled near Marsh 
Creek, cleared and cultivated a large farm 
and resided there ten years. His family 
consisted of ionr sons and a daughter. One 
day in the Spring of 1755, they were alarmed 
by the discharge of a number of guns. 
William Buck, a neighbor was killed. Jemi- 
son was seized, as also were the mother and 
two brothers, the sister and neighbors with 
them. The marauding party consisted of six 
Indians and four Frenchmen. They were 
Shawanese Indians. The two older brothers 
escaped. The captured family suffered un- 
der great distress from fatigue and want of 
food. They were lashed by the Indians, and 
hurried, or rather di-agged to a fort in Cum- 
berland County, either Fort Conococheage, 
or Fort Chambers. Eight of the captives 
were mui-dered and scalped. Mary Jemison 
and the little child of Mrs. Buck were 
spared. After a painful journey of seven 
days and a half they reached Fort DuQuesne. 
Mary Jemison was taken possession of by two 
Indian squaws and treated as one of the tribe. 
They were of the Seneca Nation. At first 
she had a desire to escape whenever she met 
persons who talked English. When she was 
fourteen or fifteen years of age, she was 
married to a Delaware Indian, to whom she 
became attached, and to whom she bore 
children. She said that the labor required 

of her was not severe. But she had another 
time to undergo an exhausting and fatiguing 
journey of several hundred miles from the 
Ohio river to the Genesee. The Senecas 
were the allies of the French. The war 
came to an end in 1760. In the meantime 
her husband had died. She defended the 
moral character of the Indians and evaded 
opportunities of being released by the 
whites. In 1763 she married an old Seneca 
warrior. She was twenty years old and he 
was fifty-five. He died at the age of one 
hundi-ed and three. The war of the Kevolu- 
tion again subjected her to hardships. The 
Six-Nations joined the English. After the 
Revolution she refused to return to the 
whites, and was given a large tract of re- 
served land. She was known as Dick-e-wa- 
mis, or the White Woman of the Genesee. 

Richard Baird, who was "captivated " in 
April, 1758, from, Marsh Creek, returned, 
having made his escape some where about 
the Allegheny Hills. He had been so much 
beaten and abused by Tedyescung's friendly 
Indians, that his life was despaired of. Some 
of them told him that they had beeii lately 
to Philadelphia, that they would treat with 
the English as long as they could get pres- 
ents, and scalp and captivate as long as the 
French would reward them; that they loved 
their white brethren so well that they wanted 
a few of them to hoe corn for them. Rich- 
ard Baird was a young man of twenty- two 
years of age, of Hamilton Ban Township, 
his habitation being at the foot of the South 
Mouatain, on the southeast side. On Thurs- 
day, the 13th of April, 1758, about 7 
o'clock in the morning, he was at his house 
with his wife and infant child, and several 
children. In his field were Samuel Hunter, 
and Daniel McMenomy, laborers. A party 
consisting of nineteen Indians came and cap- 
tivated the laborers in the field, and afterward 
came to the house. After some resistance 
they surrendered, on the promise of the Ind- 
ians not to kill any of them. They tied them 
and took them up the mountain. The Ind- 
ians killed the children, and Samuel Hunter, 
and drove the captured party over the Alle- 
gheny Mountains, a day and a half, and on 
Monday night, Baird escaped. In nine 
nights and days he got to Fort Littleton. 
On the way he had no food, other than 
snakes or buds and roots. His affadavit wa& 
made at York, on May 12, 1758.* 

In a letter from General Amherst, from Al- 
bany, June, 15, 1761, it is said: "Amongst 
the children lately sent from Canada, that 
had been in the hands of the Indians, and 

•III Archives, 395. 


some that had been secreted by the Cana- 
dians, he found that there were six that were 
taken in the government of Pennsylvania, and 
two in Virginia, all of whom he sent to Qov. 
Hamilton. In the return, aj)pears the name of 
John Mann, of Marsh Creek, in Pennsylvania, 
taken in 1758, by Indians.* On the 13th of 
April, 1758, there was a man killed and nine 
persons abducted near Archibald Bard's, at 
South MoLintain. On the 21st of May, one 
man and five women were taken from the 
Yellow Breeches. On the 29th of May, 
1759, Mr. Dinwiddle, and one Crawford, 
were shot by two Indians in Carroll District, 
York County.f August 17, 1758, William 
Waugh's barn was burned, in the " Tract," 
York County, by the Indians. J 

The transfer from the French to the English 
of the posts between the Great Lakes and the 
Ohio, led to a war which broke out in 1763, 
and lasted several years, and took its name 
from that of the great Indian chief, who 
planned and conducted it. This war cost 
the colonies much in men and money, but 
they gained by the struggle. The exploits 
of the colonists themselves gave them con- 
fidence. The Pontiac war gave great alarm 
to the whole country. Massacres were 
dreaded, and the towns were crowded with 
refugees. The forts at Bedford, Pittsburg, 
and Loyal Hanna, resisted the savages, and 
the panic was allayed. At a meeting of the 
Council, on the 20th of June, 1763, Gov. 
Hamilton laid before the board sundry let- 
ters of intelligence from the frontiers, con- 
taining accounts of hostilities, committed by 
the Western Indians, on his Majesty's sub- 
jects within the province, and of the suspi- 
cious behavior of the Indians, settled in the 
upper part of the Susquehanna. And on the 
6th of July, 1763, the Governor laid before 
the Assembly a letter from Col. Bouquet, at 
Carlisle: "I am sorry to acquaint you 
that our posts at Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, and 
Venango are cut off, and the garrisons mas- 
sacred by the savages, except one officer and 
seven men, who have escaped from Le Boeuf. 
Fort Pitt was briskly attacked on the 22d ; 
had only a few men killed and wounded, and 
dispersed the enemy. Fort Ligonier has 
likewise stood a vigorous attack, by means of 
some men, who reinforced that small garrison 
from the militia of Bedford. The Indians 
expect a strong reinforcement to make new 
attempts on these two posts. If the meas- 

«vn[ Col. Eec, 628. 

tLoudon's Narrative, Vol. XI., pp. 57, 65. 

JBupp's Hist, of York County, p. 590. 

ures I had the honor to recommend to you 
are not immediately put into execution, I 
foresee the ruin of the province on this side 
of the Susquehanna, and as York County 
would be covered by Cumberland, I think 
they ought to join in assisting to build some 
posts, and saving the harvest. It would not 
be less necessary to send immediately arms 
and ammunition to be distributed to the in- 
habitants to defend their reapers.''* Col. 
Bouquet, with about five hundred men, 
mostly Highlanders, marched to the relief of 
Fort Pitt and Detroit. On the 5th and 6th 
of August, 1763, he was nearly overwhelmed 
by the savages at Bushy Run, who were re- 
pelled by the bayonet charges of the Highland- 
ers, but the numbers of the enemy were so 
great that they would have been routed, but 
for the stratagem of the commander of the 
British, who feigned retreat.f This victory 
led to peace, and the Indian ravages ceased. 


On the 19th of December, 1763, the Gov- 
ernor, John Penn, agreeably to the advice of 
the Council, wrote the following letter to the 
Magistrates of York, Lancaster and Cumber- 
land Counties. " Having received information 
that on Wednesday, the 14th inst., a party of 
men, armed and mounted, did, without cause 
or provocation, in defiance of all authority, 
proceed to the Conestogo Indian Town, in 
Lancaster County, and murder six of our 
friendly Indians, settled there under the 
protection of this Government, and its laws. 
I do hereby direct and require you immediately 
to exert yourselves on this occasion, and to 
issue warrants and take all other measures 
in your power for the apprehending of all the 
principals concerned in the murder of the 
said Indians and their accomplices, and se- 
curing them in some of the gaols of this 
Province, that they may be brought to justice 
and receive a legal tryal for the crimes they 
have committed, "t 

The Indian hostilities of 1763 were marked 
by great cruelty, and suspicion and hatred 

; followed even the neutral Indians. The 
repeated murders perpetrated by the Indians 
roused the men of the Paxton settlement to 
revenge. In Lancaster County still dwelt a 
large body of Indians, known to us already 
as the Conestogoes. On Wednesday, the 14th 
of December, 1763, a body of men entered 
the town of CoDestogb, and massacred all 
the Indians they could find there. The major- 

j ity were absent. Those on their retui-n were 

*IX Col. Eec, 35. 
tBancroft's Hist. U. S. 
1 XIX Col. Kec, 92. 


taken in charge by the Magistrates of Lancas- 
ter County, and were placed for safety in the 
workhouse at ■ Lancaster. The Paxtan men 
with a larger force, from 50 to 100 men, 
on the evening of the 26th of December, 
galloped into the town, " seized the keeper 
of the workhouse, overpowered him, rushed 
into the prison, and speedily accomplished 
the work of death. The poor Indians, to the 
number of fourteen, were butchered in cold 
blood, and the Paxtan men elated by their 
success, left the town in the same haste with 
which they had entered it." A number of 
Indians on the frontier had, at their own 
request, been removed from their habitations 
and taken to Philadelphia, and were seated 
for a better security on Province Island and 
in other places in the neighborhood of the 
city. Threats were made by the insurgents 
to march down and destroy them. The 
Assembly took measures to resist them. The 
Indians petitioned to be sent to England. 
Gov. Penn ordered them to be taken to New 
York. The people of New York became 
offended at this. Gen. Gage directed two 
companies of the royal Americans to re-escort 
them to Philadelphia, where they were 
secured in the barracks. The barracks were 
fortified, and regular troops protected them. 
The insm-gents went to Germantown, and 
learning of the large force opposed to them, 
after listening to remonstrances, promised to 
return home, and left two men, Matthew 
Smith and James Gibson, to lay their griev- 
ances before the government, which they did, 
in the name of the inhabitants of York, Lan- 
caster and Cumberland Counties. The two 
representatives, in behalf of themselves and 
his Majesty's faithful and loyal subjects, the 
inhabitants of the frontier counties of Lan- 
caster, York, Cumberland, Berks and North- 
ampton, presented their remonstrances and 
grievances before the Governor and Assem- 
bly, on the 13th of February, 1764 :* That 
they were attacked and ravaged by skulking 
parties of Indians ; that the Indians were 
taken under the protection of the govern- 
ment ; that the trial was to be removed from 
Lancaster County. They protested against 
Indians living within the inhabited parts of 
the province ; that no provision was made 
for the care and cure for wounded men ; that 
there was in this war no reward for Indian 
scalps ; that John Penn abetted the Indians, 
and made unauthorized treaties with them ; 
that Fort Augusta had furnished little assis- 
tance, with no reflection against the com- 
manding ofiScer, who was directed by those 
from whom he received orders. There was 

*IXCol.Rec., l.'iS. 

another memorial with 1,500 signatures. The 
county of Berks, by its Grand Jury, pro- 
tested against it. The Assembly considered 
the remonstrance and protest, but nothing 
was done to bring the parties concerned to 
punishment.* In the letter of Gov. Penn, 
January 5, 1764, he says : Our back inhabi- 
tants, who have indeed suffered a great deal 
by the Indian war, have got it into tlieir 
heads that one Indian should not be suffered 
to live amongst us, and have carried their 
resentment so far as to go and kill some 
Indians who lived under the faith and pro- 
tection of this government for sixty years, in 
an Indian town near Lancaster. At request 
of Indians, they were sent to the protection 
of Sir "William Johnson. It was necessary, 
in the opinion of the Governor, to extend 
the English riot act to the province, to 
apprehend the mui'derers and to quell the 
like insurrections in the future.f Such an 
act was accordingly passed by the Assembly. 


YORK, as one of the frontier counties, 
had participated with great spirit in 
the military measures to resist the inroads of 
the savages and the encroachments of the 
French. Though the means of inter-commu- 
nication between the colonies were very lim- 
ited, according to the present views of expe- 

j dition, intercourse was constant and cor- 
respondence continuous, as it was between 

j this frontier region and Philadelphia. News 
arrived slowly, but it impressed deeply the 
minds of the leading citizens, and that 
news cemented more and more firmly the 
bonds of union. After the close of the 
French and Indian war it was not long 
before the parliament of Great Britain 
commenced those measures that so com- 
pletely estranged the colonies from the moth- 
er country. The strife with the Proprieta- 
ries and Lords of Trade began in Pennsyl- 
vania in 1760. J The great Franklin had 
appeared before his Majesty's Council for 
Plantation Affairs to defend the liberties 
of our people. But the restrictions on trade 
from time to time and the arbitrary means 
used to enforce them by writs of assistance, 
caused American resistance. The notorious 
stamp act had been passed in 1765, and on 

♦Gordon's History of Pennsylvania. 
tlX Col. Eec, 112. 
JVIII Col. Bee, 554. 


the 22d of March in that year, the King being j 
then insane, it had received the royal assent 
by commission.* The military power in the 
colonies had been placed above the civil. 
The claims of American representation had 
been scoffed at by the ministry, as was also 
the assent of the American Assemblies to 
any manifest internal regulation. There 
had been proposed in Massachusetts, a Con- 
gress of committees from each of the colo- 
nies, and the plan had prevailed. The Penn- 
sylvania Assembly accepted it, and declared 
it an inherent right not to be taxed without 
consent. This was in the month of Septem- 
ber, 1765. f The Congress had met in New 
York, in October, 1765, by which the stamp 
act was annulled. J In attempts to enforce the 
act the officers had been severely handled by 
the people. The first cargo of stamped pa- 
pers had arrived under protection of a man 
of war, in this province, on the 5th of Octo- 
ber, 1765. Mr. John Hughes had been ap- 
pointed to distribute them, and so unpopular 
did he become that his house was surrounded 
by a mob and he was burnt in effigy. When 
the ship arrived, the vessels in the harbor 
put their flags at half mast, and the bells of 
the city of Philadelphia were tolled. An 
immense meeting assembled at the State 
House, and John Hughes was requested to 
resign. He denied having any commission, 
and as there was no place of security on 
shore, the Governor ordered the stamps to be 
taken on board one of the ships of war. Mer- 
chants of the city agreed not to import goods 
till the act was repealed. § After fluctuations 
in the minds of the official powers in En- 
gland, the act had been repealed in the 
month of March, 1766, and the repeal cele- 
brated by bonfires and the ringing of bells. 
There had been public satisfaction and gen- 
eral rejoicing in England, as well as in Amer- 
ica, yet to maintain the principle that there 
existed the power to bind the colonies, in 
July, 1767, among other things, the fatal 
tax of three pence a pound on tea had been 
adopted, and a board of customs established 
in Boston. The people of that city had as- 
sembled and voted to forbear importation, 
and the Assembly of Massachusets Bay had 
addressed a circular letter to the several As- 
semblies in America, which was dated the 
11th of February, 1768. This circular, con- 
taining an early declaration of the principles 
of the American Revolution, will be found 


fix Col. Eec, 300. 


av Archives, 242 ; IX Col. Rec, 298 ; Egle's Hist. Penna., 

among the published Archives of this com 

During the colonial difficulties, John Penn, 
son of Richard Penn, one of the pro- 
prietaries, and who had been born iu 
Philadelphia, and was known as the Amer- 
ican Penn, was Lieutenant-Governor of 
the province, having been appointed in 
1763, and he held the office to the end of 
the proprietary government. He was in- 
tensely loyal, so much so that during the 
Revolution he suffered imprisonment and re- 
moval from the State rather than sign a pa- 
role.f There was great jealousy entertained 
at Court of popular representation in any 
way. Hillsborough, Colonial Secretary of 
State, rebuked the Governor in the name of 
the King, for communicating to his Council 
and Assembly the letters received from the 
Secretaries of State, and also for the sending 
of addresses and petitions to his Majesty, 
otherwise than through the channel of the 
proprietary or his deputy. The Assembly of 
Pennsylvania had sent a petition to his Maj- 
esty, on the subject of the acts of parlia- 
ment, which had been delivered by Dr. 
Franklin. This was declared by the cabinet 
as tending to deny and draw in question the 
supreme authority of parliament to bind the 
colonies by laws in all cases whatever, and 
"when applied to taxation was the less to be 
expected from the province of Pennsylvania, 
as there was a clause in their charter saying 
to the crown such impositions and customs as 
by act of parliament are and shall be ap- 
pointed."^ A copy of the circular from the 
colony of Massachusetts Bay to the other col- 
onies was transmitted by Hillsborough to 
Gov. Penn, stating that his Majesty.' consid- 
ered " this measure to be of a most danger- 
ous and factious tendency, calculated to in- 
flame the minds of his good subjects in the 
colonies, to promote an unwarrantable combi- 
nation, and to excite and encourage an open 
opposition to, and denial of the authority of 
Parliament, and to subvert the true princi- 
ples of the constitution. And that it was his 
Majesty's pleasure, that the Governor should 
prevail upon the Assembly to take no notice 
of it. That the Pennsylvania Assembly had 
given repeated proofs of their reverence and 
respect for the laws, but if there should ap- 
pear a disposition to receive or give any 
countenance to the seditious paper, it would 
be his duty to prevent any proceeding upon 
it by an immediate prorogation or dis_so]u- 
I tion. This letter was dated April 21, 1 (68.§ 

! *IV Archives, 286. 

tXI Col. Rec, 264. 
1 JIV Archives, 311. 

JIX Col. Eec, 546. 


In September, 1768, the Assembly declared by 
resolution that the Governor of the province 
had no constitutional authority to dissolve 
the Assembly:* 

The British cabinet finding that the 
diities on their own manufactures of glass, 
paper, and painters' colors were con- 
trary to the true principles of commerce, 
agreed that they should be repealed. But 
there still remained the duty on tea. Al- 
though intensely interesting, we need not fol- 
low the eoui-se of the ministry in their per- 
sistent determination to enforce this tax. A 
large number of the best of English states- 
men warmly espoused the cause of America; 
Chatham, Camden, Conway, Burke and 
Barre. But the Lord Chancellor, Thurlow, 
called it rebellion, and that had to be quelled 
by the military power. Troops had been sent 
to Boston, and by their insolent bearing, pro- 
voked hostilities. On the 5th of March, 
1770. had occurred an event that sent a thrill 
through the colonies — the first fearful news 
of the shedding of blood, in the Boston Mas- 
sacre. Thfs seems to have awed them over 
the water for a time, and there was apparent 
conciliation, so much so, that it was supposed 
that the spirit of liberty was dead on the re- 
sumption of commercial intercourse. But 
the ministry were blinded by a false assump- 
tion of submission, while the fires were only 
slumbering. The crisis was brought about 
by the tax on tea. The non-importation on 
the part of the colonies had caused a great 
accumulation of that article in the stores of 
the East India Company, and it was author- 
ized to export tea to America, with a draw- 
back of the duty — payable in England — but 
three pence per pound was payable in the 
colonies. Consignments were made to 
Charleston, Philadelphia, New York and Bos- 
ton. In Philadelphia the people met in the 
State House, and condemned the duty, and 
declared every one who should countenance 
its imposition, an enemy to his country, and 
the agents of the company were compelled to 
resign. t On the 16th of December, 1773, 
had taken place in Boston Harbor that ever 
memorable event, known in history as the 
Boston Tea Party. Three tea ships were 
taken possession of and 840 chests, the whole 
quantity imported was emptied into the har- 
bor. The tea ships were driven by a storm 
off the coast from Xew York, and in South 
Carolina, the tea perished in the cellars in 
which it was stored. On the 25th of Decem- 
ber, 1773, the ships destined for Philadel- 
phia approached that city. The pilots were 

warned not to conduct ?hem into the harbor. 
A town meeting of 5,000 people was held, 
and the ships, with their cargoes of tea, were 
compelled to sail back to England.* 

In May, 1774, Gea. Gage entered the har- 
bor of Boston with vice-regal powers; he 
and his army and the civil officers no longer 
amenable to the American courts of justice. 
The port was closed on the 1st of June, which 
was made a day of fasting, humiliation and 
prayer. Again an appeal came from Massa- 
chusetts to her sister colonies, and a close 
correspondence was maintained by them with 
her. The Bostonians called upon the other 
colonies to unite with them to stop all impor 
tations from Great Britain until the port act 
should be repealed, and if they should do so 
it would prove the salvation of North Amer- 
ica and her liberties. These troubles trans- 
pired during the Tory administration of the 
Duke of Grafton and Lord North. The 
Whigs supported the cause of the colonies. f 
The name of Whig became incorporated 
into American politics. That party had its 
origin nearly a century before, and one tra- 
dition attributes the name to the initials of 
the motto, " We hope in God," at one time 
borne upon its banners. It was the liberal 
party, the party of reform and progress, and 
the Tory jitarty adhered to the establishments 
in Church and State. Hence, those who 
maintained our cause were called Whigs, 
and those who adhered to the crown and op- 
posed separation were styled Tories. There 
were Tories here as well as elsewhere, many 
good and wealthy citizens; but what was 
called loyalty in England became treason on 
this continent ; and when independence was 
declared, the estates of such were confiscated. 
The archives of the State contain accounts 
of their names and properties. But for us 
here let them rather rest in oblivion. 

A class of men appeared here who played 
their parts nobly in the history of the great 
struggle for liberty, who taught the people, 
or rather guided them, for they already held 
a power not to be relinquished. Among these 
was a man who had come to reside here, 
whose biography is intimately connected with 
her history — James Smith, for some time the 
only practicing Attorney in York.| We 

*IV Bancroft, 281. 

tCampbell's Lord Chaacellors, vol. 7, p. 37. 

JGraydon, in his " Memoirs," tells us, that beine a student 

aw, to enable him to pursue his studies without interrup- 

a, his uncle advised his spending the approaching summer 

Torktown. Mr. Samuel Johnston, the prothonotary, was a 

lar friend, who had been in the practice of the law and 

ery good library; and tendered his books and services, 

nd complimented him with a dinner. " It was in the spring of 

773 that I was transferred to this pleasant and flourishing 

illage." . . . "There were several young men in the town, 

■hose company served to relieve the dreariness of my solitude ; 

)r such it was compared with the scene from which 1 had re- 



can imagine how the beauty of the situ- 
ation of Yorktown brought families to it, ' 
and young men of intelligence and enter- ; 
prise seeking new places for the exercise of i 
their talents. Among such was Thomas 
Hartley, who came to York from Reading at 
the age of eighteen years, commenced the 
study of the law under Samuel Johnston, and 
and was admitted to the bar in 1769. For 
some time he and Smith were the only prac- 
ticing lawyers in the county, Mr. Johnston 
being then, and for some years after, pro- 
thonotary. In this last mentioned year, 
Henry Miller moved to York from Reading, 
and was also student at law under Mr. John- 
ston ; and soon after came another law student 
of his from Lancaster, John Clark. 


In all history it appears that popular pro- 
gress has been achieved by the spontaneous 
action of the citizens of a country outside of 
the constituted forms of law and government. 
The vox populi must be heard, because no 
government has that within it that can pro- 
vide for all emergencies. The public meeting 
has always controlled, sooner or later, legis- 
lative action. We have already seen that on 
this continent and in this province whatever 
was accomplished in support of freedom, was 
done by the assembled inhabitants through 
their committees appointed to do the work. 
It is a peculiar feature in American history 
that united action was maintained in the 
earlier contests ^vith the British Government, 
with a spontaneity and enthusiasm that no 
organized system could have secured. The 
factors were committees of correspondence. 
The intercourse between the colonies and the 
different parts of a colony was thus conduct- 
ed, and there was a sympathetic response to 
the appeal of Boston. The committee of 

moved. These" (no doubt Hartley and Clark and Miller), " for 
the most part (18U), are yet living, generally known and 
respected. There was also in the place an oddity, who, though 
not to be classed with its young men, I sometimes fell in with. 
This was Mr. James Smith, the lawyer, then in considerable prac- 
tice. He was probably between forty and fifty years of age, 
fond of his bottle and young company, and possessed of an 
original species of drollery." 

He then describes with some minuteness some of the pecul- 
iarities of Mr. Smith in the way of jokes. One in particular, 
practiced upon Judge Steadman, of Philadelphia, a man of read- 
ing and erudition, who In a full display of his historical knowl- 
edge was set raving by a monstrous anachronism. "Don't you 
remember, Mr. Steadman, that terrible bloody battle which 
Alexander the Great fought with the Russians at the Straits of 
Babelmandel?" "What, sir!" said Steadman, repeating with 
the most ineffable contempt, "which Alexander the Great 
fought with the Russians ! Where, mon, did you get your 
chronology?" "I think you will find it recorded, Mr. Stead- 
man, in Thucydides or Herodotus." On another occasion, being 
asked for his authority for an enormous assertion, in which 
both space and time were fairly annihilated, with unshaken 
gravity he replied, " I am pretty sure I have seen an account of 
It, Mr. Steadman, in a High Dutch almanac printed at Aleppo, 
his drawling way of pronouncing Aleppo." Every one laughed, 
says Graydon ; but the Judge, who resided in Philadelphia, and 
was ignorant of Smith's character in this particular, thought 
him the object of the laughter, so all parties were pleased. 

correspondence for the city of Philadelphia, 
addressed the following circular to the sev- 
eral counties: "The Governor declining to 
call the Assembly, renders it necessary to take 
the sentiments of the inhabitants; and for 
that purpose it is agreed to call a meeting of 
the inhabitants of this city and county at 
the State House, on Wednesday, the 15th 
inst.* And we would wish to have the sen- 
timents and concurrence of our brethren in 
the several counties, who are equally inter- 
ested with us in the General Cause, we earn- 
estly desire you to call together the princi- 
pal inhabitants of your county, and to take 
their sentiments. We shall forward to you, 
by every occasion, any matters of conse- 
quence that come to our knowledge, and we 
should be glad you would choose and appoint 
a committee to correspond with us. Signed 
by order of the Committee of Correspon- 
dence for the city of Philadelphia. 

Chas. Thompson, Clerk. 

The call was very promptly responded to 
by the citizens of York, and of the county, y 
YoHKTowN, June 24, 177-4. 

In consequence of a letter from the com- 
mittee of Philadelphia, the inhabitants of 
this town met on Monday, the 21st ult. ; 
Michael Swope, Esq., was appointed chair- 
man, who explained the design and cause of 
the meeting; the distressed state of the in- 
habitants of Boston, and the nature and the 
tendency of the Acts of Parliament lately 
passed. After due deliberation, the follow- 
ing resolves were come into, nem. con. 1. 
That we will concur with our brethren of 
Philadelphia and sister colonies in any con- 
stitutional measure, in order to obtain re- 
dress. 2. That it is the opinion of this 
meeting, that the inhabitants of Boston are 
now suffering in the common cause of liberty. 
3. It is directed, that to obtain the sense of 
our fellow inhabitants of York County upon 
the present important and alarming occasion, 
notice shall be given to the inhabitants of 
this county, that they, or such as shall be 
delegated by the several townships in the 
county, do meet in the Court house in York- 
town, on Monday, the 4th of July next, at 1 
o'clock in the afternoon, to enter into such 
resolves as may be for the public good, and 
tend to restore the liberties of British Amer- 
ica. J 

A committee of thirteen persons was then 
appointed for this town, ta remain till altered 
by any other general meeting which they 
were authorized and directed to call. The 

I tMumbert's Hist: of Lane. Co., 199. 

j JRupp's Hist. York County, 662. 


committee of correspondecne again, on the 
28th of June, enclosed to the different coun- 
ties the resolves passed at a meeting held in 
State House Square, on the 18th of June, by 
which it was left to the committee " to deter- 
mine on the most proper mode of collecting 
the sense of this province, in the present 
critical situation of affairs, and appointing 
deputies to attend the proposed Congress" — 
and submitted two propositions: 1. That 
the Speaker of the honorable House of Rep- 
resentatives be desired to write to the several 
members of the Assembly in the province, 
requesting them to meet in this city as soon 
as possible, but not later than the 1st of 
August nest, to take into their consideration 
our very alarming situation. 2. That 
letters be written to proper persons in each 
county, recommending it to them to get com- 
mittees appointed for their respective coun- 
ties, and that the said committees, or such 
number of them as may be thought proper, 
may meet in Philadelphia at the time the 
Representatives are convened, in order to 
consult and advise on the most expedient 
mode of appointing deputies for the General 
Congress, and to give their weight to such as 
may be appointed. That the Speaker of the 
Assembly in a very ready and obliging man- 
ner had agreed to comply with the request in 
the former of these propositions, that on ac- 
count of the Indian disturbances, the Gov- 
ernor had found it necessary to call the As- 
sembly to meet in their legislative capacity 
on Monday, July 18, being about the same 
time the Speaker would probably have invited 
them to a conference or convention in their 
private capacity. That they requested that 
if the mode expressed in the second propo- 
sition was approved, the whole or part of 
the committee appointed will meet the com- 
mittees from the other eoiinties at Philadel- 
phia, on Friday, the 15th of July, in order 
to assist in framing instructions, and prepar- 
ing such matters as may be proper to recom- 
mend to our Representatives at their meeting 
the Monday following. They further wrote: 
"It is with pleasure we can assure you, that 
all the colonies from North Carolina to New 
Hampshire seem animated with one spirit in 
the common cause, and consider this as the 
proper crisis for having our differences with 
the Mother Country brought to some cer- 
tain issue, and our liberties fixed upon a per- 
manent foundation."* To this provincial 
meeting, which convened on the 15th of July, 
1774, James Smith, James Donaldson, and 
Thomas Hartley, were sent as deputies from 
this county. Mr. Smith was made one of 

the committee to prepare a draught of in- 
structions on the situation of public affairs 
to their Representatives, and request them 
to appoint a proper number of persons to 
attend a Congress of deputies from the sev- 
eral colonies, under the ninth resolve of the 
conference, viz: That there is an absolute 
necessity, that a Congress of deputies from 
the several colonies be immediately assembled 
to consult together, and form a general plan 
of conduct to be observed by all the colonies, 
for the purpose of procuring relief for our 
grievances, preventing future dissensions, 
firmly establishing our rights and restoring 
harmony between Great Britain and her colo- 
nies on a constitutional foundation. They 
also agreed that if redress was not granted 
they would make the sacrifice of a suspen- 
sion of commerce, and join with the other 
colonies " in such an association of non-im- 
portation and non- exportation to Great Bri- 
tain as shall be agreed upon at the Con- 

A General Congress had been proposed by 
the "Sons of Liberty" of New York, — a title 
suggested by the famous speech of Barre. 
This was in the month of May, 1774. and 
upon the receipt of their letter, a meeting 
was called in Philadelphia, at which it was 
read, as well as the letters from Boston. The 
two measures for discussion were, that of 
New York for a Congress, and that from Boston 
for an immediate cessation of trade. That 
for a Congress was received with applause. 
John Penn, the proprietary Governor, was re- 
quested to call together the legislature. This 
was of course refused. A committee of cor- 
respondence, after the manner of Boston, was 
proposed, to be named for the several coun- 
ties in the province, and a committee was 
appointed for intercolonial correspondence, 
By July, 1774, all the delegates were chosen, 
and Massachusetts appointed the time and 
place, which were fixed, the 1st of Septem- 
ber, at Philadelphia. The Congress met iu 
Philadelphia on the 5th of September, 1774. 
The members assembled at Smith's tavern 
and chose Carpenter's Hall as the place for 
their deliberations. There were there, 
George Washington, Patrick Henry, John 
and Samuel Adams, Jay and Rutledge, and 
others, men of wisdom and eloquence. 
Though Congress showed a desire for a con- 
ciliation and a desire to subvert the colonial 
system, they approved the opposition of 
Massachusetts to the Act of Parliament, and 
declared if the same shall be attempted to 
be carried into execution by force, all Amer- 
ica ought to support them in their opposition. 



A declaration of rights was agreed upon, 
they threatened to stop imports and exports 
with Great Britain, discontinued the slave 
trade, prepared a petition to the King, and 
an address to the British people. This rec- 
ognition of the people as a source of author- 
ity was a new principle in politics. The 
Congress adjourned to meet in Philadelphia 
on the 10th of May following.* 

Agreeable to notice given to the free- 
holders and inhabitants of York County, 
entitled to vote for members of Assembly, a 
respectable number of them met at the court 
house, in York, December 16, 1774. James 
Dickson, Philip Rothrock, John Hay, Mich- 
ael Hahn and Eichard Bott were appointed 
judges of the election. Whereupon the elec- 
tors proceeded to vote by ballot, and the fol- 
lowing persons were duly chosen as a com- 
mittee for the county: Henry Slegle, Joseph 
Donaldson, George Eichelberger, George 
Irwin, John Hay, Archibald McLean, David 
Grier, David Kennedy, Thomas Fisher, John 
Kean, John Houston, George Kuntz, Simon 
Coppenheffer, Joseph Jefferies, Robert 
MeCorley, Michael Hahn, Baltzer Spengler, 
Daniel Messerly, Nicholas Bittinger, Michael 
Davis, Jacob Dahtel, Frederick Fischel, 
James Dickson, William McClellan, of Cum- 
berland Township, William Cathcart, Pat- 
rick Scott, Michael Dautel, Michael Bard, 
Casper Reinecker, Henry Liebhard, John 
Maxwell, George Oge, John O. Blenes, Will- 
iam Dill, Henry Banta, Sr., William Kil- 
mary, William Chesne, Francis Holton, Peter 
Reel and Andrew Finley, and ten of whom 
with their President or Vice-President(if their 
attendance can be had) to do business, except 
in such cases in which other regularities may 
be made. 

"This committee is chosen in such a man- 
ner, that there is at least one of that body in 
each township of the county, so that the in- 
habitants of the several districts will have 
the earliest intelligence of any material trans- 
actions, or may be assembled upon impor- 
tant business on the shortest notice." On 
the day following the election, the committee 
met at the same place, when they elected 
James Smith, President; Thomas Hartley, 
Vice-President; John Hay, Treasurer, and 
George Lewis Lef ler. Clerk of the Committee. 
They formed rules to direct them in the 
course of their proceedings, entered into meas- 
ures for the raising of a fund to defray the 
expense of communicating intelligence, and 
gave instructions for the forwarding the sub- 
scriptions for the poor in Boston. They then 
adjourned to Thursday, the 29th day of 

December, instant, of the court house. York.* 
"Geokge Lewis Lefler, 
" Clerk of Committee." 

The Committee of Correspondence of 
Philadelphia, on the 22d of December, 1774, 
addressed a letter to the several counties, 
transmitting the following resolves: That 
this committee thinks it absolutely necessary 
that the committee of the counties of this 
province, or such deputies as they may ap- 
point for this purpose, be requested to meet 
together in Provincial council as soon as 
convenient. That it be recommended to the 
county committees to meet in said convention 
on Monday, the 23d day of January next, in 
the city of Philadelphia. From a view of 
the present situation of public affairs, the 
committee have been induced to propose this 
convention, that the sense of the province may 
be obtained, and that the measures to be 
taken thereupon may be the result of the 
united wisdom of the colony, t There were 
chosen as delegates to this convention, from 
York, James Smith, Thomas Hartley, Jos- 
eph Donaldson, George Eichelberger, John 
Hay, George Irwin and Michael Smyser, who 
attended the convention which continued in 
session six days. 

The Provincial convention of the 22d of 
January, 1775, resolved, that this convention 
most heartily approve of the conduct and pro- 
ceedings of the Continental Congress; that we 
will faithfully endeavor to carry into execu- 
tion the measures of the association entered 
into and recommended by them; that as it 
was necessary to lay a restraint on importa- 
tion and supply of articles necessary for sub- 
sistence, clothing and defense must be pro- 
vided, it was resolved that no person should 
use, sell, or kill for market any sheep under 
four years old, and recommended that woolen 
manufactiu'ies be set up, especially, coating, 
flannel, blanket's, rags, or coverlids, hosiery 
and coarse cloths ; that flax and hemp be 
raised; that salt be made in the manner used 
in other countries; that saltpetre be made; 
that gun powder be manufactured as largely 
as possible; the manufacture of iron into 
nails and wire; the making of steel; of dif- 
ferent kinds of paper, and that old linen and 
rags be preserved for that pm-pose; that more 
glass houses be set up; the manufacture 
of wool combs and cards; of copper into 
sheets, bottoms and kettles; the erecting of 
fulling mills, and mills for breaking, swing- 
ing and softening hemp and flax, and the 
making of grindstones; that as the brewing 
of malt liquors would tend to render the con- 


sumption of foreign liquors less necessary, 
that proper attention be given to the cultiva- 
tion of barley; that all the inhabitants of 
this province promise for themselves to use 
our own manufactiires, and those of the 
other colonies, in preference to all others; 
that societies be established and premiums 
be granted in the several counties to persons 
who may excel in the several branches of 
manufactory; that any manufacturer or vender 
of goods shall take advantage of the neces- 
sities of this country, to sell his merchandise 
at an unusual or extravagant profit, shall be _ 
considered an enemy to his country, and be 
advertised as such by the committee; the 
making of tin plates; that printers use the 
types made by an ingenious artist in German- 
town in preference to any which may be 
thereafter imported. That the commitee of 
correspondence of Philadelphia be a standing 
committee for the several counties, and to 
give notice if a Provincial council is rendered 

At a meeting held at York the 14th of j 
February. 1775. the Committee took into 
consideration the proceedings of the late 
Provincial convention. 

Resolved unanimously, That we heartily 
approve of the proceedings of that con- 
vention. 2. The Committee, apprehend- 
ing, that from the non- importation agree- 
ment, and the present state of public affairs, 
unless great care be taken, there would, in a 
short time, be a scarcity of gunpowder, which 
is 80 necessary to our Indian trade, and the 
hunters of this province. Therefore 

Resolved, That we recommend it to the 
several members of this Committee, that they 
in their respective townships, with the assist- 
ance of the Township Committee men, do 
discoui-age the consuming of that article, 
but for the most useful purposes. 3. It 
being represented that sundry persons in this 
county had formed themselves into military 
associations, and that they would discontinue 
them, if disagreeable to this Committee; 
upon consideration of which. 

Resolved ixnanimously. That we would by 
no means discourage these proceedings ; on 
the contrary we are of the opinion, that 
said associations, if conducted with jarudence, 
moderation, and a strict regard to good order, 
under the direction of a man of probity and 
and understanding, would tend much to the 
security of this country against the attempt 
of our enemies. 

Resolved unanimously. That we recom- 
mend to the inhabitants of this county, a 
strict adherence to the Association of the 

Continental Congress, and the directions of 
our late Provincial Convention; and that, in 
case any Township Committee, should meet 
with obstructions in carrying the same into 
execution, that we will, and the rest of the 
county ought to assist them. 

Resolved unanimously. That the Town- 
ship Committeemen in this county ought, as 
soon as possible, to collect the flour and 
grain subscribed for the poor of Boston, and 
convert same into cash; and that they imme- 
diately lay such cash and all other moneys sub- 
cribed into the hands of Messrs. John Don- 
aldson and George Irwin, who with the direc- 
tion of any ten of the Committee are to 
remit the same in Bills of Exchange to the 
Committee of Boston, for the poor of that 

Resolved unanimously, That in case 
the committee of correspondence of this 
Province appointed at the last convention 
shall think proper, or if a majority of the 
county Committee shall consider it expedient 
that another Provincial convention shall be 
held, we do a^ipoint James Ewing, Michael 
Swope, James Smith, Thomas Hartley, and 
Henry Slegle, Esqrs., and George Irwin, 
George Eichelberger, David Kennedy and 
John Houston, or any five or more of them, 
as the deputies of this county to attend such 
committee, and to agree to such matters and 
things as may be deemed necessary for the 
safety and welfare of this province, or the 
common cause of American liberty. 

Extracts from the proceedings of the said 
George Lewis Leflee, Clerk of Committee* 
The following is the letter to the Boston 

YORKTOWN, April 13, 1775. 
Honored Friends and Countrymen: 

Sorry are we to hear that the hand of oppression 
still bears hard on yom- city, and that the distresses 
of your poor are not yet alleviated. If your misfor- 
tunes and sufferings could be divided, the inhabit- 
ants of this county would cheerfully bear a part. 
This, it seems, cannot be done; your destined town 
must stand the shock alone. We want words to 
express the high sense we have for your conduct 
and virtue; few men in the world would have op- 
posed despotism and stood the torrent of ministerial 
. vengeance with so much steadiness,..intrepedity and 
resolution, as the inhabitants of your town and 
countr}' have done. You have true notions of 
liberty. You have purchased it. You ought to 
enio\' it. The noble stand made by the Massa- 
chusetts Bay, if faithfully adhered to, has laid the 
foundation of establishing American liberty on the 
most firm basis. The other colonies will be equal 
gainers by a favorable termination of the conquest, 
and will not desert you in tlie time of danger; they 
will doubtless grant you the most effectual assist- 

This county, upon the earliest intelligence of 

* Eupp, 604-6. 


your distress, forwarded subscriptions for the port 
of Boston. Grain was generally subscribed; we 
expected to have sent it last fall, but could not col- 
lect it in any se.aport before the winter season came 
on, so that the shipping of it was postponed till spring, 
Upon the meeting of the committee of this county 
in February last, shortly after the receipt of the 
King's speech to the Parliament, it was thought it 
would not be safe to send grain. The committee, 
therefore, determined to convert the grain into 
cash, and remit the sum in specie or bills of ex- 
change to you. Your poor have suffered much by 
this resolution, as the price of wheat is greatly 
fallen. The subscriptions of but a part of the 
county are yet come in. We send you the sum of 
246 pounds, 8 shillings and 10 pence, to be remitted 
to you by bills of exchange, or specie, by Messrs. 
Jonathan B. Smith, and John Mitchell, nierchants 
of Philadelphia, which, be pleased to distribute 
among our poor and unhappy countrymen in your 
town, or in its neighborhood in such manner as you 
shall think proper. As there are a few disafEected 
people in this province, we must trouble you to 
publish the receipt of the donations, as is mentioned 
in the enclosed paper. 

Your friends here are numerous, and most 
heartily interest themselves in your favor. As soon 
as the rest of the subscriptions in the county 
are paid, we shall cheerfully remit the same to 

We wish you a speedy relief from all your suf- 
ferings, and are, gentlemen, with tlie greatest re- 
spect, your real friends, and most obedient humble 

Jambs Smith, President Committee. 

George Eichelberger, Michael Dandle, David 
Grier, Michael Irwin, James Donaldson, Michael 
Smyser, Balzer Spangler, John Hay, Committee of 
Correspondence of York County.* 

The conamittee of Boston received the sum 
of £246, 6s., lOd, valued at the rate of Penn- 
sylvania money, being donations from a part 
of the county of York, in the Province of 
Pennsylvania, to the poor of Boston, and its 
neighborhood ; subscribed as follows : 

Yorktown £124 10s 9d 

Heidelberg Township 36 17 5 

Germany Township 16 3 

Manheim ; 

By the hands of Adam Eichelberger 5 15 6 

By the hands of Michael Karl 5 9 9 

By the hands of David Newman. . 3 16 3 
Manchester Township from the following; 

By the hands of Michael Smyser.. . 6 12 1 
By the hands of Simon Cappennoffer 2 17 6 

By the hands of Jacob Hark 6 18 6 

Shrewsbury Township 10 

Dover Township 6 9 

Fawn 6 

Codorus 2 16 6 

Dover Township, 62| bushels of wheat, 
andi bushel of rye ; Manchester Town- 
ship, 394 bushels of wheat ; Paradise 
Township, 20 bushels of wheat; Codo- 
rus Township, 5 bushels of wheat, and 
\ bushel of rye ; York Township, 4 
bushels of wheat, part of which grain 
was made into flour and sold here.f . . . . £16 13s 3d 

Total £246 8s lOd 

The Pennsylvania Assembly, which met on 

* Rupp, 599, 

the 8th of December, 1874, was the first Pro- 
vincial Legislature to which report of the 
congressional proceedings were made, and the 
Assembly unanimously approved them, and 
delegates were appointed to the next Con- 
gress * which was to meet on the 10th of May, 
1775. In the meantime, events were hasten- 
ing on with startling rapidity toward open 
war. The attempt of Gen. Gage to de- 
stroy the public stores at Concord, roused the 
people to resistance, and after a battle the 
British troops were compelled to retreat, and 
"Lexington and Concord" were names borne 
throughout the land to arouse patriots and be 
forever watchwords of liberty. The troops 
were driven into Boston, and by the next day 
the Americans had that city in a state of 
siege. To this camp rushed the men of Massa- 
chusetts, and as the news spread over the 
country, volunteers flocked to this great open- 
ing scene of the war of independence, and 
from our own town of York went a band, whose 
march and career form one of the brightest 
incidents of American history. 

To the Pennsylvania Assembly on the 2d 
of May, 1775, John Penn, the Governor, sent 
a message, accompanying a resolution of the 
House of Commons, proposing a plan of rec- 
onciliation to this effect, that an exemption 
from any duty, tax or assessment, present or 
future, except such duties as may be expe- 
dient for the regulation of commerce, shall be 
the immediate consequences of proposals on 
the part of any of the colony Legislatures, ac- 
cepted by his Majesty, and the two Houses of 
Parliament, to make provision according to 
their respective circumstances, for contribut- 
ing their proportion to the common defense, 
and the support of the Civil Government of 
each colouy.f 

This was the first assembly on the conti- 
nent, to which this resolution was comuni- 
cated. The assembly replied, that " if no 
other objections to the plan proposed occurred 
to us, we should esteem it a dishonorable de- 
sertion of sister colonies, connected by an 
vtnion on just motives and mutual faith, and 
conducted by general councils, for a single 
colony to adopt a measure so extensive in con- 
sequence, without the advice and consent of 
those colonies engaged with us, by solemn 
ties in the same common cause. For we wish 
your Honor to be assured that we can form no 
prospect, appearing reasonable to us. of any 
lasting advantages for Pennsylvania, however 
agreeable they may be at the beginning, but 
what must arise from a communication of 
right and property with the other colonies, 

♦Egle's History of Pennsylvania. 
tX Con. Eec, 252. 



and that if such a prospect should be open to 
us, we have too sincere an affection for our 
brethren, and too strict a regard for the in- 
violable performance of our engagements, to 
receive any pleasure from benefits equally 
due to them, yet confined to ourselves, and 
which, by generously rejecting them at pres- 
ent, may at length be secured to all." 

These noble words of union were three 
days after followed by the election of the 
noble champion of our rights in England, 
Benjamin Franklin, just returned from her 
inhospitable shores, unanimously a deputy to 
the coming Congress. 

Events, civil and military, are here closely 
blended, and the hearts of the people and 
their representatives were cheered by tidings 
of the captui-e of Ticonderoga with its valu- 
able cannon and stores, on the 10th of May, 

1775, by Ethan Allen, and his undisciplined 
volunteers "in the name of the Great Jeho- 
vah and the Continental Congress." 

Whatever discussions there may have been 
as to separation, or reconciliation with the 
King, as war was actually existing, the Con- 
gress which met on the 10th of May, 1775, 
took measures for organizing and paying a 
Continental Army. George Washington was 
made Commander-in-Chief on the 15th of 
June, 1775. On the 17th of June, 1775, oc- 
curred the famous battle of Bunker Hill. 


A Provincial Conference was held at Phila- 
delphia, which began on the 18th of June, 

1776, and continued until the 25th. This 
is the minute: "This day a number of gen- 
tlemen met at Carpenter's Hall, being depu- 
ted by the committees of the several coun- 
ties to join in , the Provincial Conference, in 
consequence of a circular letter from the 
committee of the city and liberties of Phila- 
delphia, inclosing the resolution of the Con- 
tinental Congress of the 15th of May last.* 
'In Congress, May 13. 1776: 

Whereas, His Britannic Majesty, in con- 
junction with the Lords and Commons of 
Great Britain, has, by a late act of Par- 
liament, excluded the inhabitants of these 
United Colonies from the protection of His 
Crown. And whereas, no answer what- 
ever, to the humble petition of the col- 
onies for redress of grievances and recon- 
ciliation with Great Britain, has been, or is 
likely to be given, but the whole force of 
that kingdom, aided by foreign mercenaries, 
is to be exerted for the destruction of the 

•Constitutions of Penn., p. 35. 

good people of these colonies, now to take 
the oaths and affirmations necessary for the 
support of any government, under the Crown 
of Great Britain; and it is necessary that 
the exercise of every kind of authority, un- 
der the said Crown should be totally sup- 
pressed, and all the powers of government 
exerted, under the authority of the people of 
the colonies, for the preservation of internal 
peace, virtue and good order, as well as for 
the defense of their lives, liberties and prop- 
erties against the hostile invasions and cruel 
depredations of their enemies. Therefore, 
Resolved, That it be recommended to the re- 
spective assemblies and conventions of the 
United Colonies, where no government suffi- 
cient to the exigencies of their affairs has 
been hitherto established, to adopt such gov- 
ernment as shall, in the opinion of the repre- 
sentatives of the people, best conduce to the 
happiness and safety of their constituents, in 
particular, and America in general. By or- 
der of the Congress. 

John Hancock, President.'" 
The deputies from York County to this 
Conference were, ,Col. James Smith, Col. 
Kobert McPherson. Col. Richard McAlister, 
Col. David Kennedy, Col. William Rankin, 
Col. Henry Slagel, Mr. James Edgar, Capt. 
i Joseph Read and Mr. John Hay. The Chair- 
j man, Thomas McKean, Dr. Benjamin Rush, 
and Col. James Smith were made a committee 
1 to draft a resolution, declaring the sense of 
j the conference, with respect to an independ- 
j ence of the province from the Crown and Par- 
liament of Great Britain. The resolution 
reported by them declared unanimously: 
" Our willingness to concur in a vote of Con- 
gress declaring the United Colonies free and 
independent States; provided the forming of 
the government and the regulation of the in- 
ternal police of this colony be always re- 
served to the people of the said colony." 
This conference resolved, that it is necessary 
that a Provincial convention be called for the 
express purpose of forming a new govern- 
ment in this province, on the authority of the 
people only. It was recommended to the 
convention to choose and appoint delegates, 
or deputies, to represent this province in the 
Congress of the United Colonies ; and also a 
Council of Safety, to exercise the whole exec- 
utive powers of government, so far as relates 
to the military defense and safety of the prov- 
ince, to continue six months, unless a govern- 
ment should be formed within that time. It 
made provision for raising 4,500 militia in 
obedience to resolutions of Congress, of the 3d 
and 4th of June, 1776, for establishing a Fly- 
ing Camp, to consist of 10,000 men, in the 



middle colonies. Messrs. Bayard, Eush and 
Smith were appointed a committee to draft 
an address to the associators of the prov- 
ince on the subject of embodying 4,500 men. 
This address has been said to be a master- 
piece of the kind, and as it contains the sen- 
timents of our own representative, who was 
one of the committee, it is given in full.* 

The address of the deputies of the com- 
mittees of Pennsylvania, assembled in Pro- 
vincial Conference, at Philadelphia, June 
25th, 1776. 


Gentlemen: — The only desigu of our meeting 
together was to put an end to our own power in the 
province, by fixing a plan for calling a convention, 
to form a government under the authority of the 
people. But the sudden and unexpected separation 
of the late assembly has compelled us to undertake 
the execution of a resolve of Congress, for calling 
forth 4,.500 of the militia of the province, to join 
the militia of the neighboring colonies, to form a 
camp for our immediate protection. We presume 
only to recommend the plan we have formed to you, 
trusting that, in a case of so much consequence, 
your love of virtue and zeal for liberty will supply 
the want of authority delegated to us expressly for 
that purpose. We need not remind you that you 
are now furnished with new motives to animate and 
support your courage. You are not about to con- 
tend against the power of Great Britian, in order to 
displace one set of villians to make room for 
another. Your arms will not be enervated in the 
day |of battle with the reflection, that you are 
to risli your lives or shed your blood for a 
British tyrant; or that your posterity will have your 
work to do over again. You are about to contend 
for permanent freedom to be supported by a govern- 
ment which will be derived from yourselves, and i 
which will have for its object, not the emolument j 
of one man or class of men only, but the safety, 
liberty and happiness of every individual in the 
community. We call upon you, therefore, by the 
respect and obedience which are due to the author- j 
ity of the United Colonies, to concur in this impor- ', 
tant measure. The present campaign will probably i 
decide the fate of America. It is now in your 
power to immortalize your names by mingling your ; 
achievements with the events of the year 1776, a 
year which we hope will be famed in the annals of '. 
history to the end of time, for establishing upon a 
lasting foundation the liberties of one-quarter of the , 

Remember that the honor of our colony is at 
stake. Should you desert the common cause at the 
present juncture, the glory that you have acquired 
by your former exertions of strength and virtue 
will be tarnished; and our friends and brethren, who 
are now acquiring laurels in the most remote parts 
of America, will reproach us and blush to own 
themselves natives or inhabitants of Pennsylvania. 
But there are other motives before you; your 
houses, }'our fields, the legacies of your ancestors, 
or the dear bought fruits of your own industry, and 
your liberty, now urge you to the field. These can- , 
not plead with you in vain, or we might point out j 
to you further your wives, your children, your aged ; 
fathers and mothers, who now look up to you for j 
aid, and hope for salvation in this day of calamity, 
only from the instrumentality of your swords. 

* Constitution of Penna. p. 44. j 

Remember the name of Pennsylvania. Think 
of your ancestors and of your posterity. 

Signed by an unanimous order of the confer- 

TnoMAS McKean, President. 

June 2.5, 1776. 

It was on the 7th of June, 1776, that in 
Congress independence was proposed, and 
this was op))osed by some Pennsylvanians of 
prominence, who still thought of reconcili- 
ation. Yet we have seen that the march 
toward independence, had been steady on the 
part of the people, and the various manifes- 
toes issued by the Congress itself, as in the 
resolutions of the 15th of May, 1776, com- 
municated to the several colonies recommend- 
ing the formation of governments, virtually 
declared separation. The military prepar- 
ations and organizations went steadily for- 
ward. On the very day, that is celebrated 
by the nation as having given birth to our 
independence, the 4th of July, 1776, there 
was a meeting at Lancaster of the officers 
and privates of the Fifty-third Battalion of 
the Associators of Pennsylvania, to choose two 
Brigadier-Generals to command the battalions 
and forces of the State. The delegates from 
York County, were Cols. Smith and Diehl, 
Lieut-Col. Donaldson, Majs. Dinwiddle, 
Jefferies, Andrew, Finley, and Craft; Capts. 
Smyser and Campbell; privates, W. Scott, 
Ewing, Clingham, Hamilton, Little, Schley, 
Nealor and Messery. The officers and pri- 
vates voted by ballot, singly. The two Brig- 
adier-Generals were voted for at the same 
time, and the highest in Totes was declared 
the commanding officer. Daniel Roberdeau 
of Philadelphia, was elected First Brigadier, 
and James Ewing of York, Second Brigadier, 
with power and authority to call out any 
number of the associators of this province 
into action, and that power to continue until 
superseded by the convention, or by any 
authority under the appointment. And it 
was resolved to march under the direction 
and command of our Brigadier-Generals, to 
the assistance of all or any of the free and 
independent States of America; that the 
associators to be drafted out of each com- 
pany by the Brigadier-Generals, shall be in 
the same proportion as directed by the late 
Provincial Council. * 


The convention to frame the first constitu- 
tion of Pennsylvania was held in Philadel- 
phia, on the 15th day of July, 1776. The 
delegates from this county were John Hay, 
James Edgar, Francis Cragart, James Smith, 

*Rupp3. Hist, of Law. Co., pp. 406-407. 




William Eankir, Henry Slagle, Robert Mc- 
Pherson and Joseph Donaldson. The con- 
vention unanimously chose Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin, President. Col. James Smith was 
one of a committe of eleven, to make an essay 
for a declaration of rights, and also for a 
frame or system of government. Among the 
constitutional provisions was one for a 
Supreme Executive Council, to consist of 
twelve persons to be chosen by ballot; the 
freeholders of the counties of Lancaster, York, 
Cumberland and Berks, to elect one person 
for each county respectively, to serve as coun- 
cilmen for two years. And another for a 
council of censors consisting of two persons 
chosen by ballot, in each county on the sec- 
ond Tuesday in October, 1783, and every 
seventh year thereafter. Among the duties 
of this council of censors was that of inquire 
ing whether the constitution has been pre- 
served inviolate in every part, and whether 
the legislative and executive branches of gov- 
ernment had performed their full duty as 
guardians of the people, or assume to them- 
selves, or exercised other or greater powers 
than they are entitled to by the constitution. 
They were also given power to call a conven- 
tion, if there appeared to them an absolute 
necessity of amending any article of the con- 
stitution. But their organization was not to 
be effected for seven years.* The conven- 
tion completed its labors on the 2Sth of Sep- 
tember, 1776, and the constitution went into 
immediate effect as the act of the people. 
There was some dissatisfaction with the frame 
of government, and the transition from the 
Colonial to the State administration, was not 
without its difficulties. Its acceptance, how- 
ever, and the popular approval of it, man- 
ifested indignantly when an attempt was 
made to interfere with it, is one of the eviden- 
ces of the capacity of the people for self gov- 
ernment. The constitutional convention of 
1776, by an ordinance passed the 3d of 
September, nominated and appointed all 
the then members of a newly established coun- 
cil of safety, among them Michael Swope, 
Justice of the Peace for the State at large, 
and a number of other persons to be Justices 
of the Peace for the several counties in the 
State. Benjamin Franklin and Joho Dick- 
enson, were among others, appointed Justices 
for the city and county of Philadelphia, which 
indicates the dignity of the office at that 
period. For the county of York there were 
appointed Eobert McPherson, Martin Eich- 
elberger, Samuel Edie, David McConaughy. 
Eichard McAlister, Henry Slagle, Matthew 

Dill, William Eankin, William Lees, Will- 
iam Bailey, William Scott, "William Smith, 
William McCaskey, Josias Scott, Thomas 
Latta, William McClean and John Mickle, 
the younger esquires. The acts of these Jus- 
tices in the acknowledgement and proof of 
deeds, were subsequently validated by act of 

From the letters of John Adams, the fol- 
lowing extract is made of the date of Octo- 
ber 4, 1776: "The 1st of October, the day 
appointed by the charter of Pennsyl- 
vania, for the annual election of representa- 
tives, has passed away, and two counties 
only have chosen members, Bucks and Ches- 
ter. The assembly is therefore dead, and 
the convention is dissolved. A new conven- 
tion is to be chosen the beginning of Novem- 
ber, The proceedings of the late convention 
are not well liked by the best of Whigs. 
Their constitution is reprobated, and the 
oath with which they have endeavored to 
prop it, by obliging every man to swear that 
he will not add to, or diminish from, or any 
way alter that constitution, before he can 
vote, is execrated. We live in the age of 
political experiments. Among many that 
will fail, some I hope, will succeed. But 
Pennsylvania will be divided and weakened, 
and rendered much less vigorous in the cause 
by the wretched ideas of government which 
prevail in the minds of many people in it."* 
The charter of privileges granted by William 
Penn to the inhabitants of Pennsylvania, 
provided for an assembly to be chosen yearly 
by the freemen upon the 1st day of October, 
forever. The constitution just adopted pro- 
vided for the choice of representatives annu- 
ally by ballot, on the first Tuesday of Novem- 
ber for the first year and on the second 
Tuesday in October forever. This latter the 
people accepted and hence members of as- 
sembly were not chosen on the 1st of Octo- 
ber, which John Adams supposed to be a 
lapse. The oath prescribed in the constitu- 
tion, to which he refers in his letter just 
quoted, to be taken by every officer, was ' 'to 
be true and faithful to the commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, and not directly or indirectly 
do any act or thing prejudicial or injurious 
to the constitution or government thereof, 
as established by the convention," At the 
first meeting of the Legislature members ex- 
pressed some scraples with respect to taking 
this oath of allegiance, apprehending they 
would thereby be precluded from taking 
measures to obtain the sense of the people 
with respect to calling a convention, and 
they were allowed to take the oath with a 

* Letters of John Adams, p. 168. 


reservation. This was afterwards condemned 
by the council of censors.* Throughout the 
State for a few years there was a clamor on 
the part of some for a convention to remodel 
the government. The first assembly was, 
however, regularly elected. The members 
from York County were Archibald McClean, 
Michael Schwaabe, David Dumvoodie, James 
Dickson, Michael Hahn, -John Bead. The 
first session of the first General Assembly of 
the commonwealth under the constitution of 
1776, began at Philadelphia, November 2S, 

Under the militia laws there was ap- 
pointed and commissioned one repTitable 
freeholder to serve as lieuterrant of the mili- 
tia of each county, and a number of citizens, 
not exceeding the number of battalions, to 
serve as sub-lieutenants. Richard Mc.4.1ister 
was made the First Lieutenant of York 

There was dissatisfaction to the frame of 
the new government here, and also some con- 
fusion of the courts and records; but the 
troubles of putting in force the new laws ex- 
isted throughout the commonwealth, and is 
evidence of the independent spirit of the 
people and jealously of any thing they con- 
sidered oppression. The difficulties of enforc- 
ing the militia laws, viewed in the light of the 
experience of our own day arose from the 
necessity of drafting troops. The reasons 
given for opposition were in many instances 
weak, and were an attempt at an excuse for 
not wanting to go to war against one's will. 
The reasons, however, given by the Germans 
as appears in the correspondence of the period 
has more force than appeared to their British 
fellow-citizens, English or Irish, who had not 
been obliged to swear an oath of allegiance 
to the King of Great Britain, an abjuration 
of which was required by the new test; and 
then, perhaps, have to swear again to the 


The first meeting of the Council of Safety 
constituted by the Convention of 1776, con- 
sisting of twenty five persons, was held in 
Philadelphia on the 24th of July, 1776. 
David Rittenhouse was the first Chairman, 
and on the 6th of August, 1776, the board 
elected Thomas Wharton, Jr., President, and 
David Ptittenhouse, Vice-President. This 
Council of Safety continued until the Su- 
preme Executive Council under the Constitu- 
tion was inauo-urated. This took place on 
the 4th of March, 1777. On the 5th of 

«Constitutionsof Penna., 04. 

tSee Correspondence, V Archives, .512-752. 

March, the Supreme Executive Council and 
[ the Assembly met and elected Thomas Whar- 
1 ton, Jr., President, and George Bryan, Vice- 
President. This was proclaimed with great 
ceremony at the court house, at noon, on the 
6th of March; and there was a celebration 
and procession, and rejoicings, which are de- 
tailed in the Gazette of the period. The 
style and title by which the President was 
proclaimed was: His Excellency, Thomas 
Wharton, Jr., Esq., President of the 
Supreme Executive Council of the Common 
I wealth of Pennsylvania, Captain-General 
and Commander-in-Chief in and over the 


The Assembly, on the 30th of June, 1775, 
"Resoh-ed, That this house approves the Asso- 
ciation entered into by the good people of 
this colony, for the defense of their lives, 
liberty and property. That it any invasion 
or lauding of British troops, or others, shall 
be made in this or the adjacent colonies dur- 
ing the present controversy, or aay armed 
ships or vessels shall sail up the river Dela- 
ware, in an hostile manner, and such circum- 
stances shall render'it expedient, in the judg- 
ment of the committee hereafter to be ap- 
pointed, for any number of the officers and 
private men of the Association within this 
colony, to enter into actual service for repel- 

\ ling such hostile attempts, this house will 
provide for the pay and necessary expenses 

I of such officers and soldiers performing such 
military duty while in such actual service. 
That the pay of the officers and privates 

j while in such actual service shall not exceed 

; that of the army raised by the Congress of 

i the United Colonies for the defense of the 
liberties of America. That this House do 

t earnestly recommend to the Board of Com- 
missioners and Assessors of each county in 

! this province that have not already made the 
provision hereinafter mentioned; and they 
are hereby enjoined, as they regard the free- 

j dom, welfare and safety of their country, im- 
mediately to provide a proper number of 
good, new firelocks, with bayonets fitted to 
them; cartridge boxes with twenty-three 

j rounds of cartridge in every box; and knap- 
sacks, not less than (enumerating the city 
and counties) 300 for the County of York ; to 
be under the care of the commanding officers 
of the battalions of the said counties, for 
the immediate use of such .officers and 

! soldiers as shall be drafted from the battalions 
from time to time for actual service. And 
the said Commissioners and Assessors shall 


produce their accounts for furnishing the 
arms and accoutreroents aforesaid to the com- 
mittee hereinafter appointed, which being 
approved by the said committee, they shall 
draw orders on the Treasurer for the pay- 
ment thereof; and he is hereby enjoined to 
pay the same out of the Bills of Credit to be 
emitted by the resolation of this House. That 
this House do earnestly recommend to, and 
enjoin the officers and committee of each 
count}' in this province, to select a number 
of minute mea, equal to the arms, etc., pro- 
vided for the same, to be in readiness upon 
the shortest notice, to march to any quarter 
in case of an emergency.* 

" The Assembly then by resolution appoint 
ed a committee of safety, consisting of twenty- 
live gentlemen, among whom were Anthony 
Wayne and Benjamin Franklin, and from 
York County, Michael Swope, for calling 
forth such and so many of the associators in- 
to actual service when necessity requires, as 
the said committee shall judge proper; for 
paying them and supplying them with 
necessaries while in actual service; for pro- 
viding for the defense of this Province 
against insurrection and invasion, and for 
encouraging and promoting the manufacture 
of saltpetre; which said committee are hereby 
authorized and empowered to draw orders on 
the Treasurer, for the several purposes above 

The first meeting of the Committee of 
Safety was held at Philadelphia, on the 3d 
of July, 1775, and Benjamin Franklin was 
chosen its President."}" 

In Congress, on the iSthof July, 1775, it 
was ''^Resolved : That it be recommended to the 
inhabitants of all the United English colonies 
in North America that all able-bodied effective 
men, between sixteen and sixty years of age 
in each colony, immediately form themselves 
into regular coaipanies of militia, to consist 
of one Captain, two Lieutenants, one Ensign, 
four Sergeants, four Corporals, one Clerk, 
one Drummer, one Fifer and about sixty- 
eight privates. That the officers of each 
company be chosen by the respective com- 
panies. That each soldier be furnished with 
a good musket that will carry an ounce ball, 
with a bayonet, steel ramrod, worm priming 
wire and brush fitted thereto, a cutting sword 
or tomahawk, a cartridge box that will con- 
tain twenty- three rounds of cartridges, twelve 
flints and a knapsack. That all the militia 
take care to acquire military skill, and be 
well prepared for defense by being each man 
provided with one pound of gunpowder, and 

four pounds of ball fitted to his gun. 
That as there are some people who from re- 
ligious principles cannot bear arms in any 
case, this Congress intend no violence to 
their. consciences, but earnestly recommend it 
to them to contribute liberally, in this time 
of universal calamity, to the relief of their 
distressed brethren in the several colonies, 
and to do all other services to their oppressed 
country, which they can consistently, with 
their religious principles."* The Friends 
claimed complete exemption, but it appears 
that the Mennonites and German Baptists 
were willing to contribute pecuniary aid. 
Many persons rich and able to perform mili- 
tary duty, claimed exemption under pretense 
of conscientous scruples, and the associators 
of Pennsylvania claimed that the liberty of 
all was at stake and that the burdens of 
maintaining it should be borne equally bv 


At a meeting of the committee and the 
officers of the militia companies of York 
County, at York, the 2Sth and 29th of 
July, 1775, there were present forty-five 
County Committee men, besides the said 
officers. James Smith, Esq., was in the 

The committee and officers divided the 
county into five districts or divisions and 
formed five battalions, the committee then, 
with the officers of the militia companies of 
the respective districts and battalions, ap- 
pointed judges and proceeded to vote by 
ballot for field officers to be commissioned, 
when James Smith, Esq., was chosen Colonel; 
Thomas Hartley, Esq., Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and Joseph Donaldson and Michael Swope, 
Esqs. , were chosen Major.? of the first battal- 
ion. Robert McPherson, Esq., Colonel; 
David Kennedy, Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
Moses McClean and Hugh Dunwoodie were 
chosen Majors of the second battalion. 
Pilchard McCallister, Esq., Colonel; Henry 
Slazel, Esq., Lieutenant-Colonel, and John 
Andrews and Joseph JefFeries were chosen 
Majors of the third battalion. William 
Smith, Esq., Colonel; Francis Holton, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and Jacob Gibson and 
John Finley were chosen Majors of the fourth 
battalion; and William Rankin, Esq., Col- 
onel; Matthew Dill, Esq., Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and Robert Stephenson and Gerhard 
Graeff, Majors of the fifth battalion. 

The committee and the officers of the said 



"militia companies thereupon proceeded to 
vote for the field officers of the battalion of 
minute-men for York County proper, to he 
commissioned, when Eichard McCallister, 
Esq. , was chosen Colonel ; Thomas Hartley, 
Esq., was chosen Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
David Grier, Esq., was chosen Major of the 
said battalion. The committee then proceeded 
as follows : 

Renolved, That in conformity , to the direction 
of the Assembl}' of this province, and vpith a regard 
to the regulations of the Continental Congress, we 
do dirert that five companies of Minute Men, formed 
out of the several districts of this county, that is to 
say, one company in each division, by draughts or 
volunteers from the several militia companies, each 
company to consist of a Captain, two Lieutenants 
and an Ensign, four Sergeants, four Corporals, a 
Drummer and Fifer and sixty-eight or more 
privates ; and it is expected that if there be a 
defect of arms for these men, when there is a 
necessity of going into service, that the respective 
Battalions, to which they belong will furnisli them 
with the necessary arras. That if the County 
Committee men and Assistant Committee men, 
or a majority of them in any district, are at 
any time of opinion that an additional company 
or companies of Minute Men can he raised in 
their district, they may order the same to be done, 
which company or companies are under the same 
Eield Officers or rules and regulations with the said 
other companies of Minute Men. The whole Battal- 
ion of each division or district are directed to meet 
sometime in the next week following,;and draught 
the volunteers or proper persons as minute men for 
the respective companies, who are to sign an Attest- 
ation similar to that mentioned in the proceedings 
of this Committee. The subscribers are to proceed 
to choose the Officers of the respective companies, 
and make return of their names to the Field Officers 
of the said Battalion of Minute Men, in order that 
they may be commissioned. 

Resolved, That in order to prevent confusion and 
disorder that no new companies of militia be formed' 
in any township without the consent of the Com- 
mittee men of the township and three or more of 
the County Committee men. 

N. B.— The companies ofYorktown, Manchester, 
Windsor, •Codorus, York and Hellam Townships 
form the first Battalion ; the companies of Cumber- 
land, Hamilton's Bann, Strabene, Menallen, Mount 
Joy and Tyrone Townships form the second Battal- 
ion ; the companies of Heidelberg, Berwick, Parad- 
ise, Mount Pleasant, Manheim and Germany Town- 
ships, the third Battalion : Chanceford, Shrews- 
bury, Pawn and Hopewell Townships, the fourth 
Battalion ; and the companies of Dover, Newberry, 
Monnonghan, Warrington, Huntington and Reading 
Townships the tifth Battalion. 

Geo. Lewis Lefler,* 
Glerlc for the Gommtttee. 

•James Smith (Chairman) to Delegates in 
Congress, 1775: 

YoKKTOWN, August 1, 1775. 
Gentlemen: Our County Committee met the 38th 
ult., and after going through the other business 
they were called for (which will be the subject of 
another letter herewith sent), they proceeded to 
consider in what manner the recommendation of the 
Assembly and the Continental Congress, touching 
those people (in this county) who conscientiously 

scruple bearing arms, should be carried into execu- 
tion. It was expected that some offer would have 
been made by those people, but as no such offer 
was made on their part, it was recommended, that 
they should be applied to in every township in this 
county, to see if they would voluntarily propose any 
mode of contribution agreeable to the recommenda- 
tions aforesaid. But since the breaking up of the 
County Committee, it has been suggested to the 
committee of correspondence and observation, by 
some worthy people of that persuasion, that all 
such applications would be fruitless, as those people 
equally scruple subscribing as bearing arms, but 
apprehend that if the Commissioners and Asssessors 
would lay a reasonable sum as a tax on those who 
refuse or cannot, consistent with their consciences, 
bear arms, that it would be submitted to witliout 
reluctance, and consecxuently requested the commit- 
tee to reccommend that step to the Commissioners 
and Assessors. 

In so delicate an affair, where on the one hand 
any harsh measures might tend to infringe the rights 
of conscience & be construed to be taking money 
out of our brethren's pockets without their con- 
sent ; and on the other the impropriety of one part 
of thecommunity defending the whole, in a struggle 
where everything dear to freedom is at stake, added 
to this the danger of the militia laying down their 
arms, finding the burthen so unequally borne & 
that others won't so much as touch it with theii- 
little finger ; others (they say) who have as much at 
stake & are in many instances abler than themselves 
to assist in the public conflict. 

The committee thought it of too much importance 
for them to proceed without the direction of Con- 
gress, or at least of the delegates of this Province, 
more especially as the same difficulty must occur in 
every county of the Province ; and we doubt not 
but the subject has been thought of by those so 
much more capable than the Committee of framing 
an expedient to avoid the evils on the one hand & 
the other. That suggested to us would be agreeable 
here, & the Committee wish that the same or some 
other might be speedily recommended, to quiet the 
minds oi people here & prevent inevitable con- 

We are. Gentlemen, 

Your most obed't h'ble Servants- 

(Signed by order of Committee) .Lvmes Smith, 

Michael Swope to Committee of Safety of 
Pennsylvania, 1775 : 

YoRKTOWN, August the 2nd, t775. 

Gentlemen: On Friday last the Militia Officers 
and Committee of the County of York, besides a 
number of the most reputable free holders of the 
County met here, and proceeded as in the enclosed 
paper is mentioned ; the Field Officers they have 
chosen for the several Battalions of the County are 
very agreeable to the people, and are the persons 
that ought to be commissioned ; the choice in gen- 
eral is very judicious, as well as being acceptable to 
the militia. The most of us have our discipline 
and military skill yet to acquire, but are willing to 
be as serviceable sis we can to our country. There 
is a sufficient number of men associated already 
(and more are daily associating) to form five good 
Battalions. The conveniency of the inhabitants 
has been considered in forming the Battalions, so 
that they have not too great a distance to march to 
muster in Battalions. The Fi«!d Officers for the 
Minute Men, which we had formed into a Battalion 
to meet upon proper occasions, were chosen b3' the 
officers of the Militia, and the Committee, and the 
people depend upon them to command them : the 


companies of Minute men are to be increased, as it 
may be found convenient, so thatwe hope to have a 
very respectable Battallion of them ; the Privates 
are to be engaged for six months, for the Officers 
have no time limited, unless they choose to resign 
after six months. As the Congress have directed 
the Committee of Safety, in case of the recess of 
the Assembly, to commission the Field OfHcers, I 
would be glad if you would as soon as possible send 
commissions to the persons chosen as aforesaid in 
this County, which I apprehend would tend much 
to the service of the common cause. 
I am, Gentlemen, 
Your most humble Servt, 

Mich. Swope.* 

Michael Swope, to Committoe of Safety, 
York, August 12, 1775 : The Colonel of the 
Fifth Batallion of the York County Militia, 
Matthew Dill, Esq., and Lieutenant-Colonel, 
William Rankin, Esq. : The greatest part of 
the minute-men directed to be raised in this 
county by the committee has already enrolled 
themselves and signed attestations. "lex 
pect to be able in a few days to inform you 
that we have a body of upward oE 400 men, 
composed of some of the most respectable 
inhabitants of the county, ready to march 
where their country may call them on the 
shortest notice." He says, minute- men are 
absolutely necessary to raise troops.f 


To regulate the military organization known 
as the Associators of Pennsylvania, articles 
were adopted by the Committee of Safety on 
the lUth of August, 1775, the character of 
which and of the organization is indicated 
by the following preamble : " Vie, the officers 
and soldiers, engaged in the present associa- 
tion for the defense of American liberty, 
being fitlly sensible that the strength and 
security of any body of men, acting together, 
consists in just regularity, due subordination, 
and exact obedience to command, without 
which no individual can have that confidence 
in the support of those about him, that is 
so necessary to give firmness and resolution 
to the whole, do voluntarily and freely, after 
consideration of the following articles, adopt 
the same as the rules by which we agree and 
resolve to be governed in all our military 
concerns and operations until the same, or 
any of them, shall be changed or dissolved 
by the assembly, or Provincial Convention, 
or, in their recess, by the Committee of 
Safety, or a happy reconciliation shall take 
place between Great Britain and the col- 
onies. I 

These articles then provide for the fines or 
disgrace that shall attend insubordination, 

*IV Archives, 642. 

tl Archives, N. S , 545. 

XX Col. Eec, 308. I 

and for courts martial, and that all officers ' 
and soldiers of every battalion, troop, com- 
pany, or party of associators, who shall be 
called into actual service, and be on pay, 
shall be subject to all the rules and articles 
made by Congress for the government of the 
continental troops. 

The Committee of Safety, on the 26th of 
August, 1775, adopted rules, for establishing 
rank or precedence amongst the Pennsyl- 
vania Associators, in which it is provided 
that " all officers already chosen or appointed 
in York County, to rank before officers of equal 
dignity, in any other than Lancaster, Ches- 
ter, Bucks and Philadelphia County, Phila- 
delphia City and districts. And as there may 
happen occasions wherein it may be neces- 
sary to call out a part of the associators to 
actual though temporary service, it was rec- 
ommended that the battalion and companies 
be numbered by Lots 1, 2,3, 4, so that orders 
may issue to send the first or second, or any 
number of companies as shall be wanted, 
each serving on such calls in its turn.* 

Inhabitants of York County to Committee 
of Safety of Pennsylvania, 1775: 

YoRKTOWN, September 14, 1775. 
Oentlemen: — We take this opportunity of return- 
ing to you an account of the number of Associations, 
and a list of the Officers names of this county; The 
number of Associators that has been received by 
the Committee is 3,349. There is a greater number 
of Associates than the foregoing whose names we 
have not received; for the present we mention that 
number. There were about 900 non-Associators 
returned to the committee on the 28th of July last, 
many of whom have since associated; we cannot at 
this time undertake to return an exact list of the 
non-Associators, but shall do the same as soon as 
possible. The Associators and the non-Associators 
that we have an account of are chiefly taxable. 
We enclose you the proceedings of the Committee 
and Officers of the Militia Companies of this county. 
The divisions or battalions were formed and the 
seniority of each battalion fixed on by a unanimous 
vote; the mode fallen on was that each battalion 
shsuld take rank according to the time of a major- 
itj' of its companies having associated — this gave 
universal satisfaction. We, who now address you. 
are members of one or another of the Battalions, 
and are very sensible that if seniority were now to 
be fixed by lot, it would tend to create confusion 
and injure the common cause, therefore, hope that 
commissions may be granted agreeable to the regu- 
ations of the committe and officers. In forming 
these battalions, great regard was had to the sit- 
uation of the County and convenience of the inhab- 
itants. The battalions do not all consist of an 
equal number, but none of less than 500 men, which 
you will see by the enclosed papers — the three first 
battalions are large enough for regiments, but you 
may give them what names you think proper. 
In the said list we return 3'ou the names of the offi- 
cers according to seniority, agreed to in their re- 
spective battalions, in order to be commissioned. 
One of these battalions has but five companies, yet 
they are so very large that a single company niay 
act as a grand division until they can be divided 
*X Col. Eec, 320. 



with satisfaction and conveniency to the inhabi- 
tants, in which the field officers, when commissioned 
can very much assist. The particular townships of 
each battalion are to be regarded. The persons 
appointed for officers are generally agreeable to the 
people. We have been given to understand that 
Capt. James Dill, the officers of his company, and 
some others, are dissatisfied with the choice of 
Matthew Dill, Esq., for Colonel of the Fifth Bat- 
talion, that they were desirous of a new election 
and had written to you for that purpose. As to this, 
we can inform you, that without any confusion or 
disputation, and with the greatest fairness, Mat- 
thew Dill, Esq., was chosen Colonel of that divis- 
ion. A new election would answer no good pur- 
pose, but would tend to encourage faction, which we 
have happily avoided in this County. We also enclose 
you a list of the officers' names in the Minute men of 
this County, raised in pursuance of the direction of 
the Assembly of this province, and the recommend- 
ation of the Continental Congress. These are the offi- 
cers and men raised by them— the persons that are 
ready to be first called forth from this County for 
the service of the Common Cause. AVe are also of 
opinion that in the country it will not be so con- 
venient to cast lots for whole companies that are to 
march in case of a call, as the discipline of all the 
companies are not alike; many have not the same 
advantages or opportunities to be taught, and a 
number "in every company could not possibly go, 
so that lot might often fall on companies that the 
community could have no reliance on; we therefore 
apprehend it will do betterto fix on individuals that 
are to act in the first instance as Minute men. We 
have hitherto been unanimous, and hope that the 
conduct of this County will receive your counte- 
nance and approbation. There are nearly 100 per- 
sons associated in Germany Township, but as there 
is some little confusion concerning their officers, 
we shall defer sending their names for some time. 
We are, gentlemen, 

Your very humble servants, 
George Eichelberger, Martin Eichelberger, 

Baltzer Spangler, Joseph Jeffries, 

Archibald :McClean, Michael Smyser, 

John Kean, Nicholas Bittinger, 

George Slake, John Finly, 

James Smith, Philip Albright, 

Richard McAlister, Daniel Messerly, 

Thomas Hartlev, John Hay, 

William Rankin, And others. 

Directed to Benjamin Franklin, Esq., and to the 
Committee of Safety of the Province of Pennsyl- 
vania. * 

On the 3d of November, 1775, the returns of twen- 
ty-si.x townships were received at York, whereby 
the following gentlemen appear to be chosen as a 
committee for York County, to coniinuefor the 
space of one year, unless they shall think it expe- 
dient to dissolve themselves sooner, viz.: 

Michael Swope. James Smith, Thomas Hartley, 
John Hay, Charles Lukens, David Grier, Joseph 
Donaldson, George Irwin, John Kean, William 
Lease, William Scott, Geoi;g-e Eichelberger, Philip 
Albright, Michael Hahn, David Candler, Baltzer 
Spangler, John Huston, Thomas Armor, John 
Schultz, Christopher Slagle. Andrew Rutter, Peter 
Wolfe, Philip Jacob King, Zackariah Shugart, John 
Herbach, William Johnston, John Spangler, James 
Dickson, Francis Crezart, George Brenkerhoof, 
John Semple, Robert McPherson, Samuel Edie, 
William McClellan, Thomas Douglass, John Ag- 
new, David Kennedy, George Klinger, George Kerr, 
Abraham Banta, John Mickle, Jr., Samuel McCon- 
aughy, John Blackburn, William Walker, Richard 
M'AUister. Christian GrafE, Jacob Will, Henry Sla- 

*IV Archives, 636. 

gle, John Hamilton, John Minteeth, Thomas Lilley, 
Richard Parsel, Charles Gilwix, John M'Clure, 
William Shakly, Frederick Gilwix, John Hinkel, 
John Hoover. Patrick M'Sherry, James Leeper, 
Joseph Reed, Patrick Scott, James Egan, Benjamin 
Savage, Andrew Thompson, Peter Baker, Jacob 
Kasel, William Mitchell, John Williams, Lewis 
Williams, William Rankin, James Nailer, Baltzer 
Kuertzer, Henry Mathias, George Stough, Daniel 
Messerle, John Nesbit, William Wakely, John 
Chamberlin, Andrew Thompson, Alexander Sand- 

On the same day the committee met at the court 
house in York , when James Smith was chosen 
President, and Thomas Hartley Vice-President of 
the commitiee. 


The following gentlemen were unanimously elect- 
ed as a Committee of Correspondence for York 
County, viz. : James Smith, Michael Swope, Thomas 
Hartley, Joseph Donaldson, George Eichelberger. 
Charles Lukens, David Grier, George Irwin, 
Thomas Armor, William Lease, George Clinger, 
John Nesbit, James Leeper, Francis Crezart. Peter 
Wolfe, David M'Conaughy, and five or more of them 
were empowered to act. 

The committee adjourned to the first Thursday in 
December next, to meet at the court house in York. 
Thomas Armor, Clerk.^ 


At a meeting of the Committee of Correspond- 
ence for the county of York, the oth of February, 

The committee taking into consideration the state 
of the county, are of opinion that several companies, 
beside the two already ordered, might be immedi- 
ately raised in this county for the Continental serv- 
ice, provided they were officered in this county. 
That, considering the zeal and patriotic spirit of the 
people, we think that in the late appointment of 
officers in the troops to be raised in this province, 
this county has not had its proportion. Therefore, 

Resolved, That the chairman of this committee 
do write a letter to the Delegates of this province 
in Congress inclosing this resolution, to be laid be- 
fore the Congress, and expressing the willingness of 
this county to exert themselves to the utmost in de- 
fence of the Common Cause, with the request that 
if any more troops are soon necessary to be raised 
in this province in the Continental service, that 
this county be honored with the officering six com- 
panies, and recommending the Field Officers of the 
battalion, as we make no doubt but the greater part 
of the men for the companies might be raised in 
York County. „ . 

Resolved, That a letter be written by the Chair- 
man to the Committee of Safety, requesting their 
weight and concurrence with the Congress in favor 
of the above application. 

Thomas Armor, Clerk.\ 

Oenilemen:— The inhabitants of this county, who 
have been always ready to grant their assistance in 
favor of liberty since the commencement of the 
present unhappy dispute bet^veen GreatBritain and 
these Colonies, consider that on account of the 
shortness of the notice given liy the board, that 
they have not their proportion of the officers ap- 
pointed in the different battalions. The service 


sufEers by this. The best men and the flower of the 
youth will not engage with strangers. The two 
Companies ordered in this county are already near- 
ly completed; but Officers from other counties will 
not be equally successful. Had mor* companies 
been ordered in York County, and the Officers rec- 
ommended from hence, we apprehend they would 
have been in great forwardness. This county is not 
very ambitious of having officers, but still it gives 
disgust to many persons to see numbers in the 
other counties, not even equally qualified, and who 
have done nothing in the common cause preferred, 
and themselves unnoticed. 

The Committee of Correspondence met on the 5th 
inst.. and came to the resolutions, which I beg 
leave to inclose, and hope that they will meet with 
your approbation and weight. As it is probable 
from the present situation of Mr. Swope's family 
that he will not be able to attend you soon, Mr. 
Hartley, the bearer, will be ready to wait on the 
Board, and give them some material information 
relating to the above, as also some other matters of 

I am. Gentlemen, with 

the greatest Respect. 

Your most Humble Serv't, 
James Smith, Chairman* 


In March, 1776, Capt. Squires, the com- 
mander of the British sloop of *ar Otter, 
who had been cruising about in various parts 
of the bay, made a demonstration in the Pat- 
apsco Riverwith various boats which produced 
a very great alarm in the town. Capt. Nich- 
olson, the commander of the Defense, a ship 
belonging to the State of Maryland, was at 
that time in Baltimore. He soon got under 
weigh to drive these marauders from the river, 
which he did in a short time, and captured 
four or five of the boats. It was the occasion 
of this alarm that rise to the necessity 
of throwing up batteries on Fell's Point; the 
fortifying of Whetstone Point f with eigh- 
teen guns and the sinking of vessels at the 
fort. These defenses were considered at the 
time as invulnerable, and the aid which the 
militia of the sm-rounding country afforded 
called for the grateful thanks of the people. 
From Harvard County a battalion marched 
to Baltimore, whose services it afterward be- 
came necessary to accept. J 

Nor was this devotion to Baltimore con- 
fined in the hour of her need, to the citizens 
of her own State. The borough of York 
wrote on the 10th of March to the committee: 
" Our committee resolved instantly to raise a 
good rifle company, to be ready to make 
march on an hour's warning to your province, 
in case you should judge it necessary, and sig- 
nify the same to our committee. " This is not 
a solitary instance of this patriotic borough's 

«IV Archi-ves, 710. 
tFort JMcHenry now. 

1-1 narrative of events which occurred in Baltimore 
Town during theHevolutionary war. By Robert Pur 

offering her valuable aid to Baltimore, In 
the war of 1812, a company sent by her 
united with the Baltimore troops, on the day 
of her celebrated battle with the British 
army near North Point, and no troops on 
that day were more entitled to the honors 
which their valor won than those from York. 
The following letters were exchanged: 

YORKTOWN, March 10, 1776. 

Gentlemen: — This moment we received Mr. Alex- 
ander Donaldson's letter of the 9th inst. At the 
time of writing our former letter to him it was un- 
certain, from the intelligence, what force might be 
sent against Baltimore, and judged it would be 
proper for this county to have in readiness detach- 
ments from the several militia battalions to the 
amount of five hundred men 

We are glad to hear that it is only the buccaneer 
Squire that payed you a visit, of whom we hope 
to hear Capt. Nicholson give a good accouiit. But 
as a greater force may be sent to harass you in re- 
venge for Capt. Squire's bad success, in pursuance 
of the desire of your committee, communicated to 
us by Capt. Donaldson, our committee resolved in- 
stantly to raise a good rifle company, to be ready to 
march on an hour's warning to your province, in 
case you should judge it necessary and signify the 
same to our committee. 

The officers chosen are, Joseph Donaldson. Cap- 
tain; William Rankin, First Lieutenant; JohnKean, 
Second Lieutenant; Wm. Baillie, Third Lieutenant, 
and Jacob Holtzinger, Fourth Lieutenant, and none 
are to be admitted but expert riflemen. 

By order of the Committee, 

James Smith, Ghairmii?i.* 

To the Committee of Inspection, Baltimore; 
Baltimore, March 12, 1776. 

Oentlemen: We have just now received 3'our ac- 
ceptable favor of the 10th, per Mr. Donaldson, and 
return you our wannest thtinks for your ready of- 
fers of succour in defending us from the incursions 
of Capt. Squire, who, after taking many prizes at 
the mouth of our river, was obliged to relinquish 
the most valuable on the appearance of the gallant 
Capt. Nicholson, of the ship Defence, who has first 
had the honor of displaying the continental colors 
to a British-man-of-war without a return. 

The County of York have always stood in the 
foremost rank for zeal and attachment in the glori- 
ous cause of liberty, and this comniittee would do 
them an injury in refusing the rifle company to 
march at the first notice: they cheerfully accept 
then, the generous offer, and will, on any appear- 
ance of danger, inform them by express. 

By order of the Committee, 
Wm. Ltjx, Deputy Chairman. 
To the Committee of York: 


The following account of the companies 
from York County and of the Flying Camp 
is taken from Glassbrenner's History: 

As early as December, 1774, a company 
was formed in the town of York, the object 
of which was to make soldiers who would be 
well disciplined for battle in case the disaf- 
fection then existing toward England, should 
proceed to open hostilities. The officei-g of 
this company were James Smith. Captain; 


Thomas Hartley, First Lieutenant; David 
Green, Second Lieutenant; and Henry Miller, 
Ensign. Each of those ofScers thus early 
attached to the cause of liberty, wa.s much 
distinguished in the subsequent history of 
our country. The first was a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence; the second was 
a Colonel in the Kevolution, and for eleven 
years a member of Congress; and the third 
and forth were each distinguished officers, 
and "acquired a fame and a name" con- 
nected with the cause they supported. 

The second company formed in the town 
of York was in February, 1775, the officers 
of which were Hartman Deustch, Captain; 
Mr. Gr abb, First Lieutenant; Phillip Entler, 
Second Lieutenant, and Luke Eause, En- 

In December, 1775, the third company was 
formed in Yorktown, entitled "The Inde 
pendent Light Infantry (Company belonging 
to the first battalion of York County." This 
company drew up and signed a constitution 
consisting of thirty-two articles, the original 
manuscript of which, with the signatures of 
all the officers and soldiers, lies now before 
us. It was signed on the 16th of December 
by the following persons : James Smith, 
Colonel; Thomas Hartley, Lieutenant Col- 
onel; Joseph Donaldson, Major; Michael 
Swoope, Major; George Irwin, Captain; John 
Hay, First Lieutenant ; William Baily, 
Second Lieutenant; Christoph Lauman, En- 
sign; Paul Metzgar, Henry Walter, Jacob 
Gardner, and John Shultz, Sergeants; and 
W^illiam Scott.Clerk; then followed the names 
of 122 persons, private soldiers, a catalogue 
of which would be too lengthy. The company 
was commanded in 1777, by William Baily, 
Captain; Christoph Lauman, First Lieuten- :' 
ant; and William Scott, Second Lieutenant. 
Mr. John Hay being elected a member of the \ 
State Convention held in that year. j 

Companies were already formed through- | 
out the country, and everything spoke of 
freemen under arms for liberty. But contin- 
ing ourselves to Yorktown, we will mention 
the other companies which vfere formed here 
at the commencement of the Revolution. The 
fourth company was formed in the spring of 
1776, and its officers, Michael Hahn, Captain; 
Baltzer Spengler, First Lieutenant; Michael 
Billmeyer, Second Lieutenant; and George 
Michael Spengler, Ensign. The fifth com- 
pany was likewise formed in the spring of 
1776, whereof Charles Lukens was Captain; 
Christian Stake, First Lieutenant; and Cor- 
nelius Sheriff, Second Lieutenant. The sixth 
company was formed in May of the same 
year, and was commanded by Captain 

Rudolph Spangler. The first and second 
companies formed in town, had long since 
been dissolved, and the soldier.s thereof joined 
and became a part of the fifth andsi.\:th com- 
panies; so that in June, 1776, there were 
four different railitarv associations in the 
town of York. The third, fourth, fifth and 
sixth companies constituted a part of those 
five battalions which marched to New Jersey 
in 1776 to form the flying camp. Though 
they thus marched oat of the county, yet it 
was no warlike field, the only object was to 
form other companies, which shall be men- 
tioned in their places. 

In 1776 the counties of York and Cum- 
berland were required each to raise four com- 
panies for the forming of a regiment. Of 
this regiment, Wm. Irwine, at first, was 
Colonel; Thomas Hartley, Lieutenant Col- 
onel; and James Dunlap, Major. Of the 
four companies raised in York County, David 
Grier was Captain of the first, Moses M'Lean, 
of the second, Archibald M'AUister, of the 
third, the name of the Captain of the 
fourth we cannot give. These companies, 
which were enlisted for fifteen months, left 
the county to follow the fate of war in the 
latter end of March. In the year J 777 this 
regiment formed the 11th regiment of the 
Pennsylvania line, and its officers were 
Thomas Hartley, Colonel ; David Grier, 
Lieutenant Colonel ; and Lewis Bush. 

Early in May 1776, a rifle company, which 
had been enlisted to serve fifteen months, 
marched from the County of York to Phila- 
delphia, where it was attached to Col. Miles' 
Rifle Regiment. The Captain of the com- 
pany was William M'Pherson, and the Third 
Lieutenant was Jacob Stake. 

In July, 1776, five battalions of militia 
marched from York County to New Jersey. 
Out of these five battalions there were formed 
in about six weeks after their arrival, two 
battalions of the Flying Camp; those who 
did not belong to the camp returned home. 
The reason of so many more than there was 
occasion for, being called forth from all the 
counties seems to have been firstly to try the 
spirit of the people, and secondly to show 
the enemy the power of the nation they 
warred against. 

As the Flying Camp is closely connected 
with the honors and the sufferings of many 
men in this county, we will briefly state its 
history. Congress, on the 3d of June. 
1776, ' "Resolved, that a Flying Camp be 
immediately established in the middle col- 
onies, and that it consist of 10,000 men." to 
complete which number, it was resolved that 



the colony of Pennsvlvauia be required to 

furnish of the militia^ 6,000 

Marrland, 3,400 

Delaware , 600 

The militia were to be engaged until the 
1st of December following, that is, about sis 
roonths. The conference of committees for 
Pennsylvania, then held at Philadelphia, re- 
solved on the 14th of June, that 4,500 of the 
militia should be embodied, which, with the 
1,500 then in the pay of the province, would 
make 6,000, the quota required by Congress. 
The same conference on the 25th, recom- 
mended to the associators of York County to 
furnish 400 men. 

Thus, York County furnishiug 400 

The other counties, and Philadelphia city, iu 

all 4,100 

Troops under Col. Miles 1..500 

Total., 6,000 

The convention of the State, on the 12th 
of August, resolved to add four additional 
battalions to the Flying Camp, York County 
being required to furnish 515 men toward 
making out the number of 2,984, the amount 
of the four new battalions. On the same 
day Col. George Ross, Vice President of the 
Convention, Col. Thomas Matlaek, of Phila- 
delphia, and Col. Henry Schlegel, of York 
County, were chosen, by ballot, commission- 
ers to go to headquarters in New Jersey, and 
form the Flying Camp. 

The Flying Camp was accordingly soon 
formed: it consisted of three brigades. The 
Brigadier-General of the First Brigade was 
James Ewing, of York County; his brigade 
consisted of three battalions, the first of 
which was commanded by Col. Swope, of 
York County; the second, by Col. Bull, of 
Chester County: and the third by Col. Watts, 
of Cumberland Countv, father of the late 
David Watts, Esq., of Carlisle. Of the 
other brigades and battalions, we are not at 
present able to speak with much certainty. 

As the two battalions formed from the five 
battalions of York County Militia which 
marched to New Jersey, underwent the hard 
fate of severe war, we will be somewhat par- 
ticular concerning them: 

Firsi Compa)uj—lslia\\B.B\ Schmeiser, Cap- 
tain; Zachariah Shugart, First Lieutenant; 
Andrew Ptobinson, Second Lieutenant; Will- 
iam AVayne, Ensign. 

Second Company — Gerhart, Graeff, Cap- 
tain; Kauffman, Lieutenant. 

Third Company— Jacob Dritt, Captain; 
Baymil'er, First Lieutenant; Clayton, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant: Jacob Mayer, Ensign. 

Fourth Company — Christian Stake, Cap- 
tain: Cornelius Sheriff, First Lieutenant; 
Jacob Holtzinger, Second Lieutenant; Jacob 
Barnitz, Ensign. 

j Fifth Com2Mny— John McDonald, Cap- 

I tain; William Scott, First Lieutenant; Rob- 
ert Patten, Second Lieutenant; Howe, En- 

; sign. 

j Sixth Company — John Ewing, Captain; 

\ John Paysley, Ensign. 

Seventh Company — William Nelson, Cap- 
tain; Todd, First Lieutenant; Joseph Welsh, 
Second Lieutenant; Nesbit, Ensign. 
Eighth Company — Capt. Williams. 
The officers of the Second Battalion were 
Col. Richard McAllister (father of Archibald 
McAllister, already mentioned) Lieut.-Col. 
David Kennedy, and Maj. John Clark* The 
Captains were Bittinger, McCarter, MoCos- 
key. Laird, Wilson and Paxton, from York 
County. To this battalion were added two 
companies from the countj^ of Bucks. Thus 
each battalion consisted of eight companies. 
The above list, as to both battalions, is 
very imperfect; but there is not a document 
in existence by which it can be made better. 
The above information, as likewise all that 
follows, has been eommucicated to us by a 
few men of silvered hairs, whose memories 
are still fresh with respect to the warlike 
hardships and dangers of their more youth- 
ful days. 

The battalion of Col. Swope suffered as 
severely as any one during the Revolution. 

The company of Gerhart Graeff belong- 
ing to that regiment was taken at the battle 
of Long Island, and but eighteen of the 
men returned to join the regiment. Not one 
of this company is now alive. 

But the place which proved the grave of 
their hopes was Fort Washington, on the 
Hudson, near the city of New York. The 
officers belonging to Swope's Battalion, that 

, was taken at that place on the 16th of No- 
vember, 1776, were the following fourteen: 

1 Col. Michael Swope, Maj. William Baily, 

' Surgeon Humphrey Fullerton, Capt. Michael 
Schmeiser, Capt. Jacob Dritt, Capt. Christian 
Stake. Capt. John M' Donald, Lieut. Zacha- 
riah Shugard, Lieut. Jacob Holtzinger, 
Lieut. Andrew Robinson, Lieut. Robert 
Patten, Lieut. Joseph Welsch, Ensign, Ja- 
cob Barnitz, Ensign and Adjutant Howe, En- 
sign Jacob Meyer. Of the company of Capt. 
Stake, we are enabled to give the names of 
those, beside the three officers already men- 

*We perceive hy a number of letters, now in c 
from Gen, Washington, and Gen. Greene, etc., to Maj. Clark,' 
that the latter gentleman stood very high in the confidence and 
esteem of the American Commander-in-Chief. He was employed 
durlng»the war, in duties for which no individual would have 
been selected who was not deemed true as steel. 


tioned, who were taken prisoners: They were 
Sergt. Fater Haak, Sergt. John Dicks, Sergt. 
Henry Counselman, Corp. John AcUum, Da- 
vid Parker, James Dobbins, Hugh Dobbins, 
Henry Miller, (now living in Virginia) John 
Strohman, Christian Strohman, James Berry, 
Joseph Bay, Henry Hof, Joseph Updegraff, 
Daniel Miller, Henry Shultze, Bill Liikens, a I 
mulatto, and a waiter in the company, with 
perhaps some more. The company of Capt. 
Stake consisted mostly of spirited and high- 
minded, young men from the town of York 
and its vicinity. 

Though each party suffered much, and the 
mutual slaughter was great, yet but two offi- 
cers of the Flying Camp were wounded on 
that day. The first was Capt. McCarter, 
who was from the neighborhood of Hanover, 
and was about twenty- two years of age. He , 
belonged to the battalion of Col. McAllister, 
and commanded the Piqnet Guard, when he 
was shot through the breast. His wounded 
fellow-officer, who lay by his side, saw him 
stiffened in death on the fifth day. The 
other was Ensign Jacob Barnitz, of the town 
of York. Mr. Barnitz was wounded in both 
legs, and laid for fifteen months a comfort- 
less prisoner without hope, his wounds still 
unhealed and festering. After his return he 
lived for years to enjoy the confidence and 
esteem of his fellow-citizens; but, after suf- 
ferings which wrung him to the soul, he was 
obliged to commit himself to the skill of the 
surgerm, and to suffer the loss of one of those 
members which had once borne the hero and 
the patriot, as he proudly waved to the winds 
the ensign of the country's liberty, ! 

"The stars and stripes, 
Tlie banner of the free heart's onl}^ home."* 

On the 1st of May, 1777, Richard Mc- 
Allister, Lieutenant of the coiinty, wrote from 
Yorktown that they were just finishing the 
dividing of the county into districts, and 
should not lose an hour that can be applied 
in forming the militia according to the law 
provided, but how the quota will be raised 
before this law is got in force he was at a 1 
loss to know. That the militia of the county i 
could not be brought together before the 
elections of choosing their officers, at which 
time he would do everything in his power to 
raise the quota of volunteers and fill the | 
other orders. President Wharton wrote in j 
reply that the quota was to be brought out 
under the militia laws and not as volunteers. 
He says: "The enemy's real intentions we 
are yet ignorant of; if they should be to 
invade this State, which is the opinion of 
many, I have no doubt from the strength of 


our army under Gen. Washington, together 
with the assistance of our militia and that of 
the neighboring States, we shall make them 
sorely repent of such a step."* 

In Congress, on the 2"2d of August, 1777, 
it was resolved, among other things, that the 
State of Pennsylvania be requested to keep 
up 4,000 of their militia to assist in repell- 
ing the threatened attack of the enemy by 
the way of the Chesapeake and Delaware 
Bays; that these rendezvous at Lancaster, 
Downington and Chester, as the Council of 
the State shall direct, and that they be sub- 
ject to the orders of Gen. Washington. 

In Congress, April 24. 1777, it was 
earnestly recommended to the President of 
the Supreme Executive Council and the 
Board of War of Pennsylvania to call out 
3,000 militia of the State (exclusive of the 
city militia), one-half of the said troops to 
rendezvous at Chester on the Delaware, and 
the other half at Bristol, Agreeable to 
which resolve and with the advice of the 
Board of War it was determined that the 
counties of Chester, Lancaster and l''ork 
should form a camp at or near Chester, York 
County was to furnish 500 men with as 
many arms and accoutrements as could be 
procured in the county. A blanket was to be 
procured for each man, to remain the prop- 
erty of the State. If they could not be pur- 
chased they were to be impressed and their 
value paid. This order was to be complied 
with with all possible expedition, as the enemy 
were preparing to make an immediate attack 
upon the State. 

On the 27th of August, 1777, the Su- 
preme Executive Council wrote to the Lieu- 
tenants of the several counties that Gen. 
Howe having landed an army in Maryland, 
less than seventy miles from Philadelphia, it 
was necessary to draw oixt more of the 
militia of the State to replace those then in 
the field, but whose term of two months was 
passing. That Philadelphia, Lancaster and 
Bucks had third classes embodied and in 
service, and it was but equal to make like 
calls on other counties, and it was probable 
that the Council would be under the neces- 
sity of ordering a second class of the militia 
of each county, and perhaps a third.f And 
on the 6th of September, as it was then 
become certain that the intention of the 
enemy was to invade the State and get pos- 
session of the city, Congress, by resolution, 
recommended to give orders to all the militia 
of the State to hold themselves in readiness 
to march at a moment's warning. On the 



12th of September, as the enemy was ad- 
vancing rapidly toward the city, the Council 
had determined to call out the strength of 
the State, and commanded the Lieutenants to 
order out the militia of the third and fourth 
classes and march them without loss of time 
to the Swede's Ford, unless they should 
receive other orders from Council or Gen. 
AVashington to rendezvous elsewhere. 

In the schedule annexed to this requisition, 
York County was called upon for the third 

On November 8, 1777, in the Council of 
Safety, at which James Smith. Esq., was 
present, it was ordered that the persons here- 
inafter name;d in the respective counties be 
authorized and required to collect without 
delay from such of the inhabitants of the 
respective counties as have not taken the oath 
of allegiance and abjuration, or who have 
aided and assisted the enemy, arms and 
accoutrements, blankets, woolen and linsey 
woolsey cloth, linen, shoes and stockings, for 
the army; that they appraise the same when 
taken, etc. In the county of York — Joseph 
Donaldson, George Erwin, Thomas Stockton, 
Frederick Gelwis, Thomas Weems, John 
Nesbit, Henry Cotton, Jacob Staley, John 
Andrew. Robert Smith. f 

On November 12, 1777, McAllister wrote 
from Hanover: "His Excellency had men- 
tioned that if the fourth and fifth classes did 
not turn out pretty generally, then the other 
two classes should be sent forth also. The 
two classes had turned out past expectation; 
some parts of the class made up a company, 
but for the greatest part he threw two classes 
together, when they were like to be small 
companies, and made one large one, and 
made the ofiicers cast lots who should go. 
But in the whole, he believed about one-half, 
or some better, were gone in those two classes, 
perhaps three parts in foiu-; the great num- 
ber uf Quakers, Menonists and Dunkards in 
this county occasions the companies to be so 
hard to be tilled up. the others in the upper 
end of the county, which is mostly Irish people 
and Dutch, go pretty generally. "+ 

America is embarked, has the full approba- 
tion of the Committee of Safety and merits 
their just esteem." 

And on the lith of October, 1775, it is 
said: "The very public-spirited exertions in 
their country's cause, which have distin- 
guished the County of York leave us no room 
to doubt but they will readily acquiesce in the 
justness of this measure, and we are satisfied 
that their views are too liberal, whilst their 
county is comparatively secure, to wish to 
withold from any of their countrymen the 
necessary means of defense." 

This was with reference to an order upon 
the county for powder and lead for the pro- 
tection of the counties of Northumberland 
and Northampton against the attacks of in- 
truders from Connecticut, who threatened to 
overrun that country and settle themselves by 
force on the West Branch. 

In Committee of Safety, ) 
Philadelphia, June 14, 1776. \ 
Gentlemen : 

From every appearance of the enemy's mo- 
tions we have reason to apprehend an attack 
upon this city, which has determined the 
board to form a magazine of stores at Ger- 
mantown, the present place of residence of 
Lieutenants Boger and Ball, two Navy 
otficers who have been made prisoners, from 
that circumstance it is thought most advisa- 
ble to remove them. Your town is fixed upon 
as the most proper place, as it is likely to be 
remote from the scene of action, and of 
course not a ready channel either to convey 
or receive intelligence' that may be injurious 
to us, but more especially on account of the 
virtuous and determined attachment of your 
good people to the cause of American Liberty. 
They will be escorted by an officer of Col. 
Atlee's Battalion, who will hand you this. 
They are to remain on the same footing as 
the other otficers at Yorktown, who are upon 
parole, to have the same allowance, and be- 
fore they leave Germantown are to take the 
parole of which a copy is enclosed and to be 
under your care and observation. 

To the Committee of York County. 

associations fok defense. 
By letter from the Committee of Safety, 
dated Philadelphia, 29th of September, 1775, 
to the Committee of York County acknowl- 
edging the retm-n of the officers of the asso- 
ciation, it is said: "The spirited and firm 
behavior of the inhabitants of York County 
in support of the righteous cause in which 

*V Archives, 767. 
tX Col. Eec, 340. 
tV Archives, 767. 


Revolutionary Soldiers. Col. James 
Thompson; Lieut. -Col, Samuel Wilson; Maj. 
James Chamberlain. 

First Company — Capt. William Dodd : 1st 

Lieut. Nelly; 2nd Lieut. Neily; 

Ensign Joseph Dodd. Rank and file 104 

Second Company — Capt. Daniel W^illiams ; 
1st Lieut. James McNickle; 2d Lieut. George 


Glean; Ensign, James Read. Rank and file 
7S men. 

Third Company — Capt. John Shaver ; 1st 
Lieut. Henry Smith; 2nd Lieut. Jacob Stray- 
er ; Ensign, Jacob Miller. Rank and lile 95 

Fourth Company — Capt. Daniel May ; 1st 
Lieut. Andrew Melhom; 2nd Lieut. Henry 
Yessler ; Ensign, Frederick Spaar. Rank 
and file 89 men. 

Fifth Company — Capt. James Parkinson ; 
Ist Lieut. James Fagen; 2nd Lieut. Alexander 
Nesbit ; Ensign, John May. Rank and file 
206 men. 

Sixth Company — Capt. Benjamin Heable ; 
1st Lieut. Henry Shaver; 2nd Lieut. Lawrence 
Oats. Rank and file 75 men. 

Seventh Company — Capt. Fi'ancis Boner; 
Ist Lieut. George Robinet ; 2nd Lieut. John 
Shroeder; Ensign, "William Brandon. Rank 
and file 120 men. 

Eighth Company — Capt. John O'Blainess; 
Ist Lieut. John Polk ; 2nd Lieut. William 
Johnson ; Ensign, William. Beathy. Rank 
and file 106 men. Number of men in regi- 
ment 873. 


York County Militia— Col. William Ran- 
kin ; Lieut.-Col. John Ewing ; Maj. John 

First Company — Capt. William Ashton ; 
let Lieut. Michael Shelly; 2ud Lieut. James 
Eliot ; Ensign, John Carroll. Rank and file 
91 men. 

Second Company — Capt. John Rankin ; 
1st Lieut. Joseph Hunter; 2nd Lieut. John 
Aston ; Ensign, Daniel McHenry. Rank 
and file 88 men. 

Third Company — Capt. Simon Copenbaver ; 
1st Lieut. Michael Schriver; Ensign, Andrew 
Smith. Rank and file 60 men. 

Fourth Company — Capt. Jacob Hiar (Hyar) 
1st Lieut. Adam Ban; 2nd Lieut. Jacob Com- 
fort ; Ensign, George Hias. Rank and file 
66 men. 

Fifth Company — Capt. Emamxel Haman ; 
1st Lieut. William Momer; 2nd Lieut. John 
Brodrough ; Ensign, Harman Hoopes. Rank 
and tile 81 men. 

Si.xth Company — Capt. John Mansberger ; 
1st Lieut. Henry Mathias: 2nd Lieut, George 
Mayers ; Ensign, Jacob Hepler. Rank and 
file 73 men. 

Seventh Company — Capt. William Walls ; 
1st Lieut: Hemy Liphart; 2nd Lieut. John 
Jordon ; Ensign, Jacob Shultz. Rank and 
file 60 men. 

Eighth Company — Capt. Yost Harbaugh ; 
1st Lieut. Peter Sholtz ; 2nd Lieut. Jacob 

Rudisil ; Ensign, Michael Ettinger. Rank 
and file 56 men. Whole number of men iu 
regiment 514. 


York County Militia— Col. David Jameson; 
Lieut.-Col. Albright; Maj. William. Scott. 

First Company — Capt. Jacob Beaver ; 1st 
Lieut. Nicholas Baker; 2nd Lieut. John Bare ; 
Ensign, George Lafever. Rank and file 106 

Second Company — Capt. Gotfried Fry ; 1st 
Lieut. John Bushong ; 2nd Lieut. George 
Spangler ; Ensign, James Jones. Rank and 
file 65 men. 

Third Company — Capt. Peter Frote ; 1st 
Lieut. Christ. Stear; 2nd Lieut. Andi-ew 
Hartsock; Ensign, Jacob Welsbans. Rank 
and file 66 men. 

Fourth Company — Capt. Christ. Lauman ; 
1st Lieut. Ephian Pennington ; 2nd Lieut. 
John Fishel ; Ensign, Charles Barnitz. 
Rank and file 72 men. 

Fifth Company — Capt. Alexander Ligget; 
1st Lieut. Robert Richey, 2nd Lieut. Robert 
Stewart ; Ensign, Peter Fry. Rank and file 
75 men. 

Sixth Company — Capt. George Long ; 1st 
Lieut. Samuel Smith ; 2nd Lieut. Conrad 
Keesey ; Ensign, Samuel Mosser. Rank and 
file 62 men. 

Seventh Company — Capt. Michael Halm ; 

1st Lieut. JohnMimm; 2nd Lieut. ; 

Ensign, Christian Zinn. Rank and file 75 
men. Number of men in regiment 521. 


York County Militia. — Col. John Andrew; 
Lieut.-Col. William Walker; Maj. Simon 

First Company. — Capt. First 

Lieut. William Hamilton; 2nd Lieut., Jo- 
seph Pallack: Ensign, Adam' Heaver; rank 
and file 58 men. 

Second Company.— Capt. John King; 1st 
Lieut. James Eliot; 2nd Lieut. Battzer 
Hetrick; Ensign, William Niely; rank and 
file 64 men. 

Third Company. —Capt. William Gilli- 
land; 1st Lieut. Matthew Mitchell; 2nd 
Lieut. William Helmery; Ensign, Nicholas 
Glasgow; rank and file 67 men. 

Fourth Company. — Capt. Samuel Morri- 
son; 1st Lieut. Peregin Mercer; 2nd Lieut. 
John Armstrong; Ensig-n, Stephen Gilpin; 
rank and file 64 men. 

Fifth Company— Capt. John McElvain; 
1st Lieut. John Range; 2nd Lieut. Francis 
Clapsaddle; Ensign, James Geary. Rank and 
file 74 men. 


Sixth Company. — Capt. John Stockton; 
1st Lieut. John Anderson; 2nd Lieut. David 
Stockton; Ensign, Elisha Grady. Kank and 
ble 64 men. 

Seventh Company. — Capt. Samuel Erwin; 
1st Lieut. Wm. Hougtelin; 2nd Lieut. Heni-y 
Forney; Ensign, Wiliiam Read. Rank and 
file 79 men. 

Eighth Company. — Capt. Thomas Stock- 
ton; 1st Lieut. Jacob Cassat; 2nd Lieut. 
Daniel Montieth; Ensign, Andrew Fatter- 
son. Rank and tile 59 men. Whole num- 
ber of men in regiment 529. 


York County Militia. — Col. Joseph Jef- 
fries; Lieut. -Col. Michael Ege; Maj. Joseph 

First Company. — Capt. John Maye; 1st 

Lieut. ; 2nd Lieut. Abraham , 

Bolinger; Ensign Daniel Hamme. Rank and I 
file 55 men. 

Second Company. — Capt. Adam Black; 1st 
Lieut. William Lindsey; 2nd Lieut. David 
Jordan; Ensign, Robert Buchanan. Rank 
and file 60 mea. 

Third Company. — Capt. William Mc- 
Cleary; 1st Lieut. David Blyth; 2ndLieut. 
Benjamin Read; Ensign, William Hart. 
Rank and file 64 men. 

Fourth Company. —Capt. David Wilson; 
1st Lieut. Robert Rowan; 2nd Lieut. John 
Thompson; Ensign, John Crowan. Rank 
and file 64 men. 

Fifth Company. — Capt. Josejjh Morrison; 
1st Lieut. James Johnston; 2nd Lieut. John 
McBride; Ensign, John Buchanan. Rank 
and file 59 men. 

Sixth Company. — Capt. William Miller; 

1st Lieat. James Porter; 2nd Lieut. 

; Ensign, Barabas McSherry. Rank 

and file 59 men. 

Seventh Company. — Capt. Thomas Orbi- 
son; 1st Lieut. Robert McElhenny; 2nd 
Lieut. Joseph Hunter; Ensign, Robert Wil- 
son. Rank and file 68 men. 

Eighth Company. — Capt. John Paxton; 
1st Lieut. James Marshall; 2nd Lieut. Will- 
iam McMun; Ensign, Thomas Forgus. 


York County Militia. — Col. William Ross; 
Iiieut. -Col. ; Maj. 

I'irst Company. — Capt. Laird; 1st 

Lieut. H. William Reed; 2nd Lieut. 

; Ensign, David Steel. Rank and 

file 84 men. 

Second Company. — Capt. Casper Reineka; 
1st Lieut. Jacob Rudisill; 2nd Lieut. Simon 

Clear; Ensign, Elias Davis. Rank and file 
89 men. 

Third Company. — Capt. ; 

1st Lieut. ; 2nd Lieut. 

; Ensign, . Rank and 

tile 85 men. 

Fourth Company. — Capt. Frederick Hurtz; 
1st Lieut. Matthew Baugher. Rank and file 
85 men. 

Fifth Company. — Capt. Peter lekes; 1st 
Lieut. John Mullin; 2nd Lieut. Jonas Wolf; 
Ensign, George Harman. Rank and file 84 

Sixth Company. — Capt. Leonard Zenew- 
ern; 1st Lieut. John Wampler; 2nd Lieut. 
Jacob Newcomer; Ensign, Ludroy Wampler. 
Rank and file 86 men. 

Eighth Company. — Capt. Abraham Sell; 
1st Lieut. Jacob Ketzmiller. Rank and file 
66 men. Whole number in regiment 630 


York County Militia — Col. David Kennedy ; 
Lieut. -Col. James Agnew; Maj. John Weams. 

First Company — Capt. Thomas Latta ; 1st 
Lieut. Robert Fletcher ; 2nd Lieut. Samuel 
Cobeen. Rank and file 69 men. 

Second Company — Capt. Thomas White ; 
1st Lieut. Robert Jeffries ; 2nd Lieut. John 
Jeffries ; Ensign, Alfred Lea. Rank and 
file 57 men. 

Third Company — Capt. John Miller ; 1st 
Lieut. Peter Smith; 2nd Lieut. John McDon- 
ald ; Ensign, Quiller Wbimney. Rank and 
file 60 men. 

Foiurth Company — Capt. Peter Aldinger ; 
1st Lieut. David Amer ; 2nd Lieut. Joseph 
Baltzer ; Ensign, Anthony Snyder. Rank 
and file 64 men. 

Fifth Company — Capt. John Arman ; 1st 
Lieut. Daniel Peterman; 2nd Lieut. Michael 
Lech; Ensign, George Arman. Rank and 
file 65 men. 

Sixth Company — Capt. George Geiselman ; 
1st Lieut. Fred Heiner ; 2nd Lieut. Henry 
Simrow; Ensign, Valentine Alt. Rank and 
file 63 men. 

Seventh Company— Capt. Jacob Ament ; 

1st Lieut. ; 2nd Lieut. Nicholas 

Andrews; Ensign, Adam Klinefelter. Rank 
and file 55 men. 

Eighth Company— Capt. John Sherer ; 1st 
Lieut. Jacob Hetrick; 2nd Lieut. Frederick 
Mayer ; Ensign, Jacob Bear. Rank and tile 
70 men. Whole number in regiment 489. 


York County Militia — Col. Henry Slagle ; 
Lieut. -Col. ; Maj. Joseph Lilly. 


First Company — Capt. Nicholas Gelwis ; 
1st Lieut. Adam Hoopard ; 2nd Lieut. George 
Gelwix ; Ensign, Henry Feltz. Bank and 
file 86 men. 

Second Company — Capt. Josh Reed ; 1st 

Lieut. Robert Smith; 2nd Lieut. ; 

Ensign, Samuel Collins, Rank and file 53 

Fourth Company — Capt. William Gray ; 
1st Lieut. James Patterson; 2nd Lieut. Hum- 
phrey Anderson ; Ensign, William McCul- 
lough. Rank and file 69 men. 

Fifth Company — Capt. ; 1st 

Lieut. Andrew Warrick; 2nd Lieut. Samuel 
Moor ; Ensign, Thomas Allison. Rank and 
file 64 men. 

Sixth Company — Capt. John Reppey ; 
Lieut. John Caldwell. Rank and file 44 

Seventh Company — Capt. Joseph Reed. 
Rank and file 59 men. 

Eighth Company — Capt. Thomas McNery. 
Rank and file 54 men. Whole number of 
men in regiment 487. 

Whole number of men of York County 
Militia 4,621. Return April, 1778. 

The associators were originally volunteers, 
but Congress having recommended the organ- 
ization of companies of miJitia, and persons 
claiming exemption from conscientious scru- 
ples being compelled by the Assembly to pay, 
the association became a compulsory militia, 
and they were divided into classes, and then 
were drafted by the county Lieutenants. In 
1777 and 1778, and subsequently, the York 
County associators or militia were called out 
to guard Hessian prisoners. 



EVENTS were occurring toward the close 
of the year 1777, which conspired to 
bring into conspicuous prominence the town 
of York, and make it for a time the capital 
of the now independent states of America. 
The Continental Congress was in session 
here for nine months, and its proceedings 
were of great importance, while the occur- 
rences during its sittings were of intense 
interest. Information gleaned from various 
sources shows how much of anxiety was 
centered here, and how the salvation of the 
country depended upon the wisdom for which 

that Congress is noted. The advance of Sir 
William Howe on Philadelphia brought the 
Congress to York. 

On the 23d of August, 1777,* John Adams 
from Philadelphia: "It is now no longer a 
secret where Mr. Howe's fleet is ; we "have 
authentic intelligence that it is arrived at 
the head of the Chesapeake Bay, above the 
river Patapsco, upon which the town of 
Baltimore stands. We have called out the 
militia of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and 
Pennsylvania to oppose him, and Gen. 
Washington is handy enough to meet him. " 
And on the 26th : " Howe's army, at least 
about five thousand of them, besides his 
light horse, are landed upon the banks of 
the Elk River. The militia are turning out 
with great alacrity both in Maryland and 
Pennsylvania. They are distressed for want 
of arms. Many have none, others have only 
little fowling pieces. " And on the 29th : 
"The militia of four states are turning out 
with much alacrity and cheerful spirits. " 
And on September 2 : " Washington has a 
great body of militia assembled and assem- 
bling, in addition to a grand continental 
army. " 

On the 11th of September, 1777, occurred 
the great battle fought upon the bloody field 
of Brandywine. John Adams wrote on the 
14th of September : "Mr. Howe's army is 
at Chester, about fifteen miles from this town. 
Gen. W^ashingtoQ is over the Schuylkill, 
awaiting the flank of Mr. Howe's army. How 
much longer Congress will stay is uncertain. 
If we should move it will be to Reading, 
Lancaster, Y'ork, Easton or Bethlehem, some 
town in this State. Don't be anxions aljout 
me, nor about our great and sacred cause. 
It is the cause of truth and will prevail. If 
Howe gets the city it will cost him all his 
force to keep it, and so he can get nothing 

On the 14th of September, Congress re 
solved to leave Philadelphia and meet at 
Lancaster on the 27 th. They were in session 
at Philadelphia on the I8th of September, 
and had adjourned for the day. During 
the evening word came that the enemy would 
be in Philadelphia before the next morning. 
The members assembled at Lancaster, under 
a resolution adopted on the 14th. They 
met at Lancaster on the 27th, the day the 
city of Philadelphia was occupied by Gen. 
Howe ; bat they resolved that " the Susque- 
hanna should flow betw~een them and the 
enemy, '' and on the same day adjourned 
to Y'ork. They met in the old court house 
in Centre Square on the 30th of September, 

*Letters of John Adams Vol. 1, p 2sn. 


1777, and continued in session here until the 
27th of June, 1778.* 


YoRKTOWN. Penn., | 

Tuesday, 30th of Septemper, 1777. I 
In the morning of the 19th instant, the Congress 
were ahumed in their beds by a letter from Mr. 
Hamilton, one of Gen. Washington's family, that 
the enemy was in possession of the ford over the 
Schuylkill and. the boats, so that they had, in their 
power to be in Philadelphia before morning. The 
papers of Congress belonging to the Secretary s of- 
tice the War office, the Treasury office, etc.. were 
before sent to Bristol. The President and all the 
other gentlemen were gone that road, so I followed 
with rSy friend. Mr. Marchant. of Rhode Island, to 
Trentoi in the Jerseys. We staid at Trentc.n until 
the 21st when we set off to Baston. upon the forks ot 
the Delaware. ProraEaston we went to Bethlehem, 
from thence to Reading, from thence to Lancaster, 
and from theuce to this town, which is about a 
dozen miles over the Susquehanna River. Here 
Contrress is to sit. In order to convey the papers 
with^ safety, which are of more importance than 
•ill the members, we were induced to take this cir- 
cuit which is near 180, whereas this town, by direct 
road is not more than 88 miles from Philadelphia. 
The tour has given me an opportunity of seeing 
many parts of 'this country, which I never saw be- j 
fore . This morning Maj. Troup arrived here 

with a verv large packet from Gen. Gates, contain- 
ing very agreeable intelligence,t which I need not 

■ilaapnper prepared bv I Barnitz Bacon for " Frank Leslie's 
Chimney Corner." we liave the lollowing inlorniation: 

"Mr. Smilh-s law office was at the south side ol the old square 
AtcClean's residence was on the north side. They were both , 
ardent patriots. Within the daily view of e-ich of them on he 
pavement beside the court house, rested a bell presented to the . 
English Episcopal congregation by Queen t aroline in 1/74, 
which had not yet been placed in position on their cliurch^ Im- 
mediatelT after the passage of the Declaration, Smith and i 
Mcriean with other citizens, hoisted the bell to the court house 
cuDOla and rang out a peal summoning the people to ratify in. 
denendence Then they removed the royal escutcheon and the 1 
broad arrow, and enlisted a battalion for the Continental Fly- 
ing Camp which forthwith marched to defend the City of New 

repeat, as you have much earlier intelligence from 
that part than we have. I wish affairs here wore as 
pleasing an aspect. But alas, they do not 

York " "During the session of Congress here the same pape 
■•The mansion of Archibald McClean became the .-eat o 
vhile, jnst across the scj ' 

1..0 Treasury, , .^ , , 

Smith was occupied by the Board of 

Foreign Affairs. Tom Pai 

and there wr»te several nv 

■"Our Picture' (and this applies to the 
work) is a view of the original, with the e.vcepiiuu o. lue "ea- 

.1 ,„= whir'li at first represented the 'broad arrow ot tn- 

■ ■ hich was removed in 177G. After 
'evated over the 
elaborate cupola 
Pulaski and Armand recruited their 
from the countrv round, and their success and 
> court house its crowning and enduring revo- 
iuUonary^ornament. A gilded dragoon, in panoply of sword 
and heliuet, was elevated as a vane to ref' ' " " 

on the top spire It was widely kn 
there it remair 

"land, a mark of sovereignty, 

the Revolution two additional gables 

north and south fronts, and a loliii 

the broad ; 
'The Little Man,' and 
1 the demolition of the court house in 1840. 
s a sacred relic of the times." 
writing fron Yorktown, October 1, 1777, 
ir, wi' 
press this day, are referred ..■,.. 

for publication. The express gives a verbal account that two 
spies were descried by some continental troops round our Gen. 
Clinton's quarters, habited like unto the British soldiers for the 

r preserved 

easing an aspect. iJut aias, tuey ao not. 

I shall avoid everything like history, and make no 
reflections. However, Gen. Washington is in a 
condition tolerably respectable, and the militia are 
now turning out from Virginia, Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania in small numbers. All the apology that 
can be made for this part of the world is, that Mr. 
Howe's march from Elk to Philadelphia, was 
through the very regions of passive obedience. The 
wliole country through which he passed is inhabited 
by Quakers. " There is not such another body of 
Q'uakers in all America, perhaps not in the world. 
I am still of opinion that Philadelphia will be no loss 
to us. I am very comfortably situated here in the 
house of Gen. Roberdeau, whose hospitality has 
taken in Mrs. S. Adams, Mr. Gerry, and me. 

Yorktown, October 2.5, 1777. 

This town is a small one, not larger than Ply- 
mouth. There are in it two German churches, the 
one Lutheran, the other Calvinistical. The congre- 
gations are pretty numerous, and their attendance 
upon public worship is decent. It is remarkable 
that the Germans, wherever they are found, are 
careful to maintain the public worship, which is 
more than can be said of the other denominations 
of Christians, in this way. There is one church 
here erected by the joint contributions of Episco- 
palians and Presbyterians, but the minister, who is 
a missionary, is confined for Toryism, so that they 
have had for along lime no public worship. Con- 
gress have appointed two chaplains, Mr, White and 
Mr. Duffield. the former of whom, an Episcopalian, 
is arrived, and opens Congress with prayers every 
day. The latter is expected every hour. Mr. 
Duche, I am sorry to inform you. has turned out an 
apostate and a traitor. Poor man ! I pity his weak- 
ness and detest his wickedness 

Yorktown, October 26, 1777. 

.... Congress will appoint a Thanksgiving; 
and one cause of it ought to be, that the glory of 
turning the tide of -..rms is not immediately due to 
the Commander-in-chief, nor to Southern troops. If 
it had been, idolatry and adulation wouldhave been 
unbounded, so excessive as to endanger our liber- 
ties, for what I know. Now, we can allow a cer- 
tain citizen to be w se, virtuous and good, without 
thinking him a deity or a Savior.* 

Yorktown, October 28, 1777. 
We have been three days soaking and poaching 
'in the heaviest rain that has been known for several 

*"This is the only letter, in the large collection of Mr. Adams' 
private correspondence with his wife, which makes any allusion 
to the position of Gen. Washington in Congress at this time. It 
is verv well known that the Conway cabal, in its origin; exclu- 
sively a military intrigue, with very base motives, obtained its 
■Greatest source of influence in Congress from the coincidence 
Tn time between the defeats of Washington at Brandy wine and 
Germantown. and the victory of Gates over Burgoyne in the 
North. Mr. Adams does not appear ever to have favored that 
cabal, but he always looked with some apprehension upon the 
powers with which Washington had been invested. Inji mail- 

• Clii 



5 presence. 

1 surprise, they said he T 
.„e'Gen'.''ciint'on they enquired for. He replied he could do 
their business, and accordingly ordered them to be hanged in 
an hour, but upon discovering some important intelligence, t hey 
were respited— via consequence of this mlormation Gen Clin- 
ton Gov Clinton and Gen. Putnam were suddenly in motion. 
He 'then relates what he calls a singular anecdote- -One of tne 
spies when discovered, swallowed a small silver ball, which he 
was made to disgorge by the immediate application ol an emetic, 
It contained intelligence from the British officer Clintou, who 
commiinded at theBighlands, to Gen. Burgoyne. These anec- 
dotes will not be published, nor are th-y said to be depended 
upon, nevertheless, as I believe them, they are offered for your 
amusement.— V. Archives, 630; Wilkenson's Memoirs, vol. 1., p. 

urrender to the General the power of ap- 
pointing' his own officers, but no such motion appears on the 
journal It is more probable that the proposition was made in 
(he course of the debate that took place on that day upon going 
into the election of five Major-Genenils, but was never put into 
form, and therefore was not recorded Upon that proposition, 
Dr Rush reports Mr. Adams to have said these words: "There 
are certain principles which foUow us through life, and none 
more certainly than the love of the first place. We see it in the 
forms in which children sit at schools. It prevails equally to 
the latest period of life. I am sorry to find it prevail so little in 
this house. I have been distressed to see some of our members 
disposed to Idolize an image which their own hands have molten. 
I speak of the superstitious veneration which is paid to Uen. 
Washington. I honor him for his good qualities, but in this 
house I feel mvself his superior. In private life, I shall always 
acknowledge liini to be mine "—No/e to Adams' Letters. 


years, and what adds to gloom is, the uncertainty 
in whicli we remain to this moment, concerning the 
fate of Gates and Burgoyne. We are out of pa- 
tience. It is impossible to bear this suspense with 
any temper. 

1 am in comfortable lodgings, which is a felicity 
that has fallen to the lot of a very few of our mem- 
bers. Yet the house where I am is so thronged that 
I cannot enjoy such accommodations as I wish. I 
cannot have a room as I used, and therefore cannot 
find opportunities to write as I once did. . . . 

The people of this country are chiefly Germans, 
who have schools in their own language, as well as 
prayers, psalms and sermons, so that multitudes are 
born, grow up and die here, without ever learning 
the English. In politics they are a breed of mon- 
grels or neutrals, and benumbed with a general tor- 
por. If the people in Pennsylvania,' Maryland, 
Delaware and Jersey had the feelings and spirit of 
some people that I know, Howe would be soon en- 
snared in a trap more fatal than that in which, as it 
is said, Burgoyne was taken. Howe is completely 
in our power, and if he is not totally ruined, it will 
be entirely owing to the awkwardness and indolence 
of this country.* 

From Moore's Diary of the Revolution is 
extracted the following: 

the resignation op pkesident hancock. 

October 39, 1777. 

This morning President Hancock took leave of 
the Congress in the following speech : "Gentle- 
men, Friday last completed two years and five 
months since you did me the honor of electing 
me to fill this chair. As I could never flatter 
myself your choice proceeded from any idea of 
my abilities, but rather from a partial opinion of 
m}' attachment to the liberties of America, I felt 
myself under the strongest obligations to discharge 
the duties of the oftice, and I accepted the appoint- 
ment with the firmest resolution to go through the 
business annexed to it in the best manner I was able. ■ 
Every argument conspired to make me exert myself, 
and I endeavored by industry and attention to make 
up for every other deficiency. As to my conduct, I 
both in and out of Congress, in the execution of 
your business, it is improper for me to say anything, j 
You are the best judges. But I think I shall be for- ; 
given, if I say I have spared no pains, expense or 
labor, to gratify your wishes, and accomplish the 
views of Congress. My health being much im- 
paired, I find relaxation so absolutely necessary . 
after such constant application; I must therefore 
request 3'our indulgence for leave of absence for two 
months. But I cannot take my departure, gentle- 
men, without exi5ressing my thanks for the civility 
and politeness I have experienced from you. It is 
imj^ossible to mention this without a heart felt 
pleasure. If in the course of so long a period as I 
have had the honor to fill this chaii-, any expressions 
may have dropped from me that may have given 
the least offense to any member, it was not inten- 
tional, so I hope his candor will pass it over. | 

"May every happiness, gentlemen, attend you, 
both as members of this house and as individuals ; 
and I pray Heaven that unanimity and persever- 
ance may go hand in hand in this house ; and that 
everything which may tend to distract or divide 
j'our councils, may be forever banished."! 

On the first of November, Congress elected ; 
Henry Laurens to the chair made vacant by 
Hancock's resignation. 

. Ad.i 

, Vol. II, 

British Account of Hancock' n Speech:— 'Deacon 
Loudon* has taken upon himself lo give, in his ex- 
traordinary -Packet, a garbled account of the late 
squabble among the Congress rapscallions, which 
terminated in easy John's leaving the chair. Aa 
this production is calculated to mislead the public, 
we are happy to present to our readers a statement 
by an eye-witness, who has been watching the Con- 
gress since it left Philadelphia: 

"As soon as the rebels learned that the British 
fleet was at the head of the Chesapeake, a motion 
was made in Congress for an adjournment to some 
place at least lOu miles from any part of God's 
kingdom where the British mercenaries can possibly 
land; which, after some rapturous demonstration, 
was carried nem. con. Immediately the rCongress 
commenced the retreat, leaving old Nosey Thomson 
to pick up the duds and write promises to pay 
(when the Congress should return), the Congress 
debts. In the flight as in the rebellion, Hancock 
having a just apprehension of the vengeance which 
awaits him, took the initiative and was the first lo 
carry out the letter of the motion of his associates. 

"In four days they met at York. At the opening 
of the session, the President, having performed his 
journey on horseback, and much more like an ex- 
press than a lord, was unable to take his seat, and 
for several days the chair was filled by upro tern- 
pore. On the return of Hancock he gave many in- 
dications of the intense fright he had experienced, 
and was observed to assume tlie chair with more 
than usual care and quiet seriousness, whether from 
soreness or a desire for the further remove of the 
Congress, his best friend could not tell. 

"Out of this silent discontent, murmurs soon 
sprang, and one day before the dinner hour of Con- 
gress, he offered a motion 'that this body do ad- 
journ, until the troops under the Howes, now pur- 
suing the freemen of America, retire altogether 
from the State of Pennsylvania.' This was not 
adopted. Hancock then arose and delivered the 
following, which is a fair specimen of rebel elo- 
quence, and 'much to the p'int,' as the Yankee par- 
sons say: 

'Brethren, freemen and legislators: — It's now 
more'n two years sence you done me the honor of 
puttin' me in this seat, which, however humbly I 
have filled, I was determined to carry out. It's a 
a responsible situation, and I've been often awak- 
ened of nights a hearin' them reglars a comin' fer 
my head. I can't bear it. It's worked on me, and 
already I feel as though I was several years older 
than I was. My firmness, which has made up for 
all my other infirmities, has been the cause of many 
heartburnings, which I am sure the candor of those 
among you who don't like it, will pass over. As to 
the execution of business, I have spared no pains, 
and shall return to my family and folks with that 
satisfaction. In taking leave of you. my brethren, 
let me wish that we may meet soon under the glo- 
ries of a free, but British government.' After re- 
questing Congress to pass around his chair and 
shake his hand, the afflicter of his countr3' retired, 
satisfied as usual with himself and the Congress, 
who, with equal satisfaction, welcomed his de- 


That session of Congress held the fate of 
the nation and the fame of Washington iu its 
hands. One of its members has said that 
the history of its proceedings regarding 
Washington would never be written. "As 
the old Congress daily sat with closed doors, 



the public knew no more of what passed 
within, than what it was deemed expedient 
to disclose." ' "From the tirst to the last there 
was a most bitter party against him." The 
Fabian policy of the Commander-in-Chief 
gave umbrage to some in Congress, and in 
the army. The disastrous defeat and i-etreat 
from Long Island had been brilliantly atoned 
by the masterly stroke of crossing the Dela- 
ware and the capture of the Hessian forces at 
Trenton. Bat the loss of the bloody field of 
Brandy wine; and the failure of the attack 
upon the enemy at Germantown, contrasted 
strongly with the brilliant, if not decisive, 
achievements of the Northern army at Ben- 
nington and Saratoga. The unanimous 
thanks of the Congress, assembled here, had 
scarcely been given "to Gen. Washington, 
for his wise and well concerted attack upon 
the enemy's army near Gennautown, and 
to the officers and soldiers of the army 
for their brave exertions on that occasion — 
Congress being well satisfied that the best 
designs and the boldest efforts may sometimes 
fail by unforseen accidents, trusting that on 
future occasions the valor and virtue of the 
army will, by the blessing of Heaven, be 
crowned with complete and deserved suc- 
cess," — than it became their duty to present 
•'the thanks of Congress in their own name, 
and in behalf of the inhabitants of the thir- 
teen United States, to Maj.-Gen. Gates, 
commander-in-chief in the northern depart- 
ment, an<i to Maj.-Gen. Lincoln and Arnold, 
and the rest of the officers and troops 
under his command, for their brave and suc- 
cessful efforts in support of the independence 
of their country, whereby an army of the 
enemy, of ten thousand men. had been totally 
defeated; one large detachment of it con- 
quered at Bennington, another repulsed from 
Fort Schuyler, and the main army of six 
thousand men, under Lieut. -Gen. Bur- 
goyne, reduced to the necessity of surrender- 
ing themselves upon terms honorable and 
advantageous to these States, to Maj.-Gen. 
Gates; and that a medal of gold be struck 
under the direction of the board of war in 
commemoration of this great event, and in the 
name of the United States, presented by the 
President to Maj.-Gen. Gates." 

This gave occasion to the enemies of Wash- 
ington to concert their plans; and it is said 
that a movement was in progress, supported 
by members of Congress, signers of the Dec- 
laration, and by general officers of the army, 
for the supplanting of the Commander-in 
Chief. .4. cabal, which took its name from 
an Irish- French soldier of fortune. Gen. 
Conway, is said to have exercised its 

intrigues here at that time. Gen. Gate 
was summoned by Congress to York, as the 
bead of the board of war. Here he held his 
court, an ace implished soldier and scholar, 
a man of fine presence, social and popular. 
The hilarity surrounding his reception and 
sojourn here, was in striking contrast with 
the gloomy prospects'^'^Tni-Tlreary encamp- 
ment of the Commander-in-Chief at Valley 
Forge, with his reduced and wretched army, 
exposed to hunger, Trakethress and cold. A 
far different^cene wasTrahsacting in York, 
where ovations wefFpaid~to the conqueror of 
Burgoyn^a The name of Horatio Gates lin- 
gers here^ioiThe'had m'aSy friends, and the 
glittering renown of his late victories, in that 
dark period, made him the rising sun. 

Here, too, at that time, came Lafayette, 
who was summoned by Congress to Y'ork, to 
further the plans of new conquests and lead 
an expedition to Canada. The faith and 
devotion of this young and gallant French 
nobleman never faltered toward the man 
whom he so loved and honored. A feast 
was given in his honor, at which, in spite of 
the frowns and silence accompanying it, he 
gave as his toast: "The Commander-in-Chief 
of the American armies." The movement; 
however, was not so formidable as it 
appeared. It ended in personal questions of 
honor, as one incident, which happened here, 
will illustrate. The bearer of the despatches 
to Congress, of the victory at Saratoga, was 
Maj. Wilkinson, a young man of a keen 
sense of honor and of his own merits. A 
man since not unknown to fame, for he after- 
ward became, by seniority, Commander-in- 
Chief of the United States army — a fame not 
without blemish from his supposed conni- 
vance with the conspiracy of Aaron Burr. It 
is related that so many days elapsed after the 
surrender before he presented himself with a 
great flourish before Congress, that the eclat 
of bis mission was considerably broken. They 
had the news before his arrival at Y'ork. 
When it was moved to present him with a 
sword, Dr. Witherspoon said "ye' 11 better gie 
the lad a pair of spurs." 

Wilkinson was at that time the Adjutant- 
General, and a warm friend and admirer of 
the hero of Saratoga. Shortly after this, in 
a convivial mood, he betrayed some of the 
secrets of the cabal to an aid de camp of 
Gen. Sterling, Maj. McWilliams, who con- 
sidered it his duty to disclose the matter to 
Lord Sterling, who in his turn, felt bound, 
in regard to the public interest as well as 
impelled by private friendship, to communi- 
cate it to Gen. Washington. This he ac- 
cordingly did in a note containing a memo- 



randum of the words from Conway's letter, 
as repeated to Mc Williams, by Wilkinson, as 
follows: "The enclosed was communicated 
by Col. Wilkinson to Maj. McWilliams; 
such wicked duplicity I shall always consider 
it uiy duty to detect.'' In consequence of 
this disclosure, and with no other view than 
to show Conway that he was apprised of his 
intrigues, Gen. Washington wrote to him as 

Sir:— A letter which I received last night con- 
tains the following paragraph: "Heaven has deter- 
mined to save }'our Country, or a weak general and 
bad councillors, would have ruined it." 

In Dr. Duer's Life of Lord Sterling*, is 
the following: " A correspondence now en- 
sued between Gens. Washington, Gates, and 
Conway; but the letter itself was not at that 
time produced. It was afterward shown by 
Gen. Gates, in confidence, to Mr. Henry 
Laurens, the President of Congress, and 
some others; and although it appeared not 
to have been exactly quoted by Maj. McWil- 
liams, yet, in substance, it proved the same. 
Gen. Washington never communicated the 
letter to Lord Sterling, or the information it 
contained to any officer of the army out of 
his own family, except the marquis de La- 
fayette, and to him it was shown under an 
injunction of secrecy; but from the circum- 
stances attending the affair, it coiild not be 
long concealed. Rumors respecting it got 
abroad, and the public sentiment was ex- 
pressed in a tone so indignant as to compel 
the conspirators to abandon their mischievous 
and ambitious projects. 

Although there is no reason to believe 
that any other officers of the army were di- 
rectly engaged in this conspiracy, yet it is evi- 
dent, from the jaroceedings of Congress, that 
it was favored by a considerable party in 
that body. 

Deeming his honor deeply wounded by the 
course of Gen. Gates, he determined to de- 
mand satisfaction. He was speedier with bis 
business than with his war despatches. The 
account of the meeting of Gen. Ciates is 
given by Gen. Wilkinson himself in his 
"Memoirs" in these words: 

I immediately proceeded to Yorktown, where 
I purposely arrived in tlie twilight, to escape obser- 
vation; there I found my early companion .and 
friend Capt. Stoddert, recounted my wrongs to him, 
and requested him to bear a message to Gen. Gates, 
whose manly proffer of any satisfaction I might re- 
quire, removed the difflculties which otherwise 
might have attended the application; he peremp- 
torily refused me, remonstrated against my inten- 
tion, and assured me I was running headlong to 
destruction; but ruin had no terrors for an ardent 
young man, who prized his honor a thousandfold 
more than his life, and who was willing to hazard 

his eternal happiness in its drfin^t Pir !■ m me, 
High Heaven, in pity to the fi:iilii ' ', ..iture! 
Pardon me, divine Author of II i_\ : n ' ' Iding 
to the tyranny of fashion, tlie ili' |i.ii n |iM ^ ii|jtion 
of honor, when I sought, by illicit means to vindi- 
cate tbe dignity of the creature, whom thou hast 
formed after thine own likeness; for the tirst time 
in our lives we parted in displeasure, and I accident- 
ally _ met with Lieut.-Col Burgess Ball, of the 
Virginia line, whose spirit was as independent as 
his fortune, and hewillingly became my friend. By 
him I addressed the following note to Gen. Gates, 
which I find with date, thottgh it was delivered the 
same evening (the 23dj: 

"I have discharged my duty to you and to my 
conscience; meet me to-morrow morning behind the 
English Church, and I will there stipulate the satis- 
faction which you have promised to grant. 
"I am 

"Your most humble servant 

".James Wilki>'son." 

' General Gate.s." 
The general expression of this billet w: 

lated to prevent unfair advan 
Gen. Gates had promised me sMii-l'.ui' .n, I deter- 
mined to avoid unnecessary e-xposii inn ; jml tliere- 
fore Col. Ball was instructed to iuljusi iliciimc, and 
circumstances, and made no diflficulty about ar- 
rangements. We were to meet at 8 o'clock with 
pistols, and without distance. We early the 
next morning, had put our arms in order, and was 
just about to repair to the ground, when Capt. 
Stoddert called on me, and informed me Gen. Gates 
wished to speak with me. I expressed my astonish- 
ment and observed it was "impossible"! He re- 
plied with much agitation, "for God's sake, be not 
always a fool, come along and see him." Struck 
with the manner of my friend, I inquired where 
the General was? He answered, "in the street near 
the door." The surprise robbed me of circumspec- 
tion; I requested Col. Ball to halt and followed 
Capt; Stoddert; I found Gen. Gates unarmed and 
alone, and was received with tenderness but mani- 
fest embarrassment; he asked me to walk, turned 
into a back sti'eet and we proceeded in silence till 
we passed the buildings, when he burst into tears, 
took me by the hand, and asked me "how I could 
think he wi.shed to injure me'?" I was too deeply 
affected to speak, and he relieved my embarrass- 
ment by continuing "I you? it is impossible, 
I should as soon think of injuring my own child." 
This language not only disarmed me, but awakened 
all my confidence, and all my tenderness; I was 
silent, and he added "besides, there was no cause 
for injuring you. as Conway aclcnowledged. in his 
letter, and' has since said much harder things to 
Washington's face." Such language left me noth- 
ing to require; it was satisfactory beyond expecta- 
tion, and rendered me more than content; I was 
flattered and pleased, and if a third person had 
doubted the sincerity of the explanation, I would 
have insulted him; along conversation ensued, in 
which Lord Sterling's conduct was canvassed, and 
my purpose respecting him made known, and it 
was settled I should attend at the war office, in my 
capacity of secretary, a few- days, and then have 
leave to visit the camp at Valley Forge, whfre 
Lord Sterling was. 

I attended at the war oiHce, and I think fotind 
there the honorable Judge Peters and Col. T. Pick- 
ering, but my reception from the President. Gen. 
Gates, did not correspond with his recent profes- 
sions; he was civil, but barely so, and I was at a 
loss to account for his coldness, yet had no.sus- 
pici'in of his insincerity.* 




It is related by Mr. Dunlap, in his " His- 
tory of Xew York," upon the authority, it 
is presumed of the late Gen. Morgan Lewis, 
that a day had been appointed by the "Cabal" 
in Congress for one of them to move for a 
committee to proceed to the camp at Valley 
Forge to arrest Gen. "Washington, and that 
the motion would have succeeded had they 
not unexpectedly lost the majority which they 
possessed when the measure was determined 
on. At that time there were but two dele- 
gates in attendance from New York: Francis 
Lewis, the father of the late Gen. Morgan 
Lewis, and William Duer, the son-in law of 
Lord Sterling — barely sufficient to entitle the 
State to a vote, if both were present. But 
Mr. Duer was conlined to his bed by a severe 
and dangerous illness. His colleague, Mr. 
Lewis, had sent an express for Mr. Gouvern- 
eur Morris, one of the absent members, who 
had not, however, arrived on the morning of 
the day on which the motion was to have been 
made. Finding this to be the case, Mr. D. 
inquired of his physician, Dr. John Jones, 
whether itVas possible for him to be carried 
to the court house where Congress sat. The 
Doctor told him it was possible, but it would 
be at the risk of his life. " Do you mean," 
said Mr. D.. " that I should expire before 
reaching the place?" "No," replied the 
Doctor, " but I would not answer for your 
leaving it alive."' "Very well, sir," said 
Mr. D., "You have done your duty and 
I will do mine. Prepare a litter for me; if 
you will not somebody else will, but I pre- 
fer your aid. " The litter was prepared and 
the sick man placed on it, when the arrival 
of Mr. Morris rendered the further use of it 
the intrigue that had 

unnecessary, a _ 

induced its preparation."* 

In Kapp's " Life of Steuben, "f is the 
following: " Steuben left Portsmounth on 
the 12th of December, 1777, and set out for 
Boston by land, where he arrived on the 14th, 
and was received as cordially as at the for- 
mer place. He met there the illustrious 
John Hancock, who had just retired from the 
Presidency of Congress, and received Wash- 
ington's reply to his letter, by which he was 
informed that he must repair, without delay, 
to York, Penn., where Congress was then sit- 
ting, since it belonged exclusively to that 
body to enter into negotiations with him. At 
the time Hancock communicated to Steuben 
an order of Congress that every preparation 
should be made to make him and his suite 
comfortable on their journey to York, and 
Mr. Hancock himself with great care made 
all the necessary arrangements." 

*Lifo or Lord Sterling. fPage 97. 

They (the Baron and suite) arrived at 
York Februarv 5, 1778. Steuben stayed at 
York until the 19th of February, 1778. "The 
Congress of the United States," continues 
Duponceati, " were not at that time the illus- 
trious body whose eloquence and wisdom, 
whose stern virtues and unflinching patriot- 
ism, had astonished the world. Their num- 
ber was reduced to about one-half of what it 
was when independence was declared — all 
but a few of the men of superior minds had 
disappeared from it. Their measitres were 
feeble and vacillating, and their party feuds 
seemed to for bode some impending calamity. 
The enemy were in possession of our capital 
city; the army we had to oppose to them 
were hitngry, naked and destitute of every- 
thing. No foreign government had yet 
acknowledged oar independence — everything 
around us was dark and gloomy. The only 
ray of light which appeared amidst the dark- 
ness was the capture of Burgoyne, which 
cheered the spirits of those who might other- 
wise have despaired of the Commonwealth, 
But that bvilliant victory had nearly pro 
duced most fatal consequences. Gen. Gates 
became the hero of the day. Saratoga was 
then what New Orleans has been since— the 
watchword of the discontented. A party was 
formed even in Congress to raise the conquer- 
or of Burgoyne to the supreme command of our 
ai-mies. But the great figure of Washington 
stood calm and serene at his camp at Valley 
Forge, and struck the conspirators with awe. 
With the exception of a few factious chiefs, 
he was idolized by the army and by the 
nation at large. The plot was discovered, 
and the plan frustrated without a struggle. 
Without any effort or management on his 
part and by the mere force of his character, 
Washington stood firm and undaunted in the 
midst of his enemies, and I might also say, 
looked them into silence. 

Such was the state of things when we 
arrived at York. Parties were then at their 
height, but as Congress sat with closed doors, 
the country at large was not agitated as it 
would otherwise have been. There were not 
wanting out of doors disaffected persons, 
who railed at King " Cong ' ' and the bunch 
of " kings " (such was the slang of the day 
among the Tories), but the great mass of the 
people was still in favor of the Revolution, 
and the press did not dare to utter a senti- 
ment inimical to it. 

The fame of Baron Steuben had preceded 
him to York. He was welcomed and courted 
by all, and I well remember that Gen. Gates, 
in particttlar, paid him the most assiduous 
court, and even invited him to make his 


house his home, which he i^rudently declined. 
"Please accept my grateful thanks" — 
such are Steuben's words, in a letter to John 
Hancock, written a day after his arrival at 
York — " for all the kindness you have shown 
me during my stay at Boston. In this very 
moment I enjoy the good effects of it, having 
taken the liberty of quartering myself in an 
apartment of your house in this town. My 
journey has been extremely painful; but the 
kind reception I have met with from Con- 
gress and Gen. Gates, on my arrival here, 
have made me soon forget those past incon- 
veniences. Now, sir, I am an American, and 
an American for life; your nation has become 
as dear to me as your cause already was. 
You know that my pretensions are very mod- 
erate; I have submitted them to a committee 
sent to me by Congress. They seem to be 
satisfied and so am I, and shall be the more 
so when I find the opportunity to render all 
the services in my x^ower to the United States 
of America. Three members of Congress 
have been appointed for concluding an 
arrangement with me to-morrow; that will 
not take long, my claims being the confi 
dence of your General-in-Chief." 

"The committee in Congress just men 
tioned by Steuben, which consisted of Dr. 
Witherspoon, the Chairman, and only person 
who spoke French, Messrs. Henry, of Mary- 
land, and Thomas McKean, waited upon 
Steuben the day after his arrival, and de 
manded of him the conditions on which he 
was inclined to serve the United States, and 
if he made any stipulations with their Com- 
missioners in France? He replied that he 
had made no agreement with them, nor was 
it his intention to accept of any rank or pay; 
that he wished to join the army as a volun- 
teer, and to render such services as the Com- 
mander-in-Chief should think him capable 
of, adding that he had no other fortune than 
a revenue of 600 guineas per annum, arising 
from places and posts of honor in Germany, 
which he had relinquished to come to this 
country; that in consideration of this, he 
expected the United States would defray his 
necessary expenses while in their service; 
that if, unhappily, this country should not 
succeed in establishing their independence, 
or if he should not succeed in his endeavors 
in their service, in either of these cases he 
should consider the United States as free 
from any obligations toward him: but, if on 
the other hand, the United States should be 
fortunate enough to establish their freedom, 
and that if his efforts should be successful, 
in that case he should expect a full indem- 
nification for the sacrifice he had made in 

coming over, and such marks of their liber- 
ality as the justice of the United States 
should dictate; that he only required com- 
missions for the officers attached to his per- 
son, namely, that of Major and Aid-de-camp 
for Mr. D. Roumanai, that of Captain of 
Engineers for Mr. De 1' Enfant, that of Cap- 
tain of cavalry for Mr. De Depontiere, and 
the rank of Captain for hjs Secretary, Mr. 
Duponceau; that if these terms were agree- 
able to Congress, he waited for their orders 
to join the army without delay." 

The committee applauded the generosity 
of Steuben's propositions in thus risking his 
fortune on that of the United States, and 
made their report. The next day. Congress 
gave him an entertainment, after which the 
President, Mr. Laurens, told him it was the 
desire of Congress that he should join the 
army immediately in conformity with the 
follosving resolutions: 

Whebeas, Baron Steuben, aLieutenant-General 
in foreign service, has in a most disinterested and 
lieroic manner ofEered liis services to tliese States as 
a volunteer. 

Besohed, That the President return the thanks of 
Congress, in behalf of these United States, to Baron 
Steuben, for the zeal he has shown for the cause of 
America, and the disinterested tender he has been 
pleased to make of his military talents, and inform 
him that Congress cheerfully accept of his services 
as a volunteer in the army of these States, and wish 
him to repair to Gen. Washington's quarters as soon 
as convenient. 

" Congress received Steuben with every 
mark of distinction," says Eichard Peters, in 
a letter dated Belmont, October 30, 1875, 
" and paid more particular attention to him 
than I had known given to any foreigner. 
Much pleasure was expressed at the arrival of 
a person of his military knowledge and expe- 
rience, at a time when the want of discipline 
in our army, and the economy it produced, 
were severely felt and regretted." 

Steuben set out for Valley Forge on the 
19th of February, 1778, and arrived there 
on the 23d. " On our jom-ney," says Depon- 
ceau, "we passed through Lancaster, then 
considered the largest inland town in the 
United States. Having arrived there early 
in the afternoon, the Baron was waited upon 
by Col. Gibson and other gentlemen, who in- 
vited him and his family to a subscription 
ball to take place that evening in honor of 
his arrival. • The Baron accepted, and we 
accordingly went. There we saw assembled 
all the fashion and beauty of Lancaster and 
its vicinity. The Baron 'was delighted to 
converse with the German girls in his native 
tongue. There was a handsome supper, and 
the company did not separate until 2 o'clock 
the next morning." 


On the 11th of June, 1778, Philip Liv- 
ingston, a delegate from the State of New- 
York, and one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, died while here, and 
was buried in the burying-ground of the 
German Reformed Church, where a monu- 
ment of white marble, surmounted by an urn, 
was erected to his memory, with this inscrip- 
tion : 


To the memory of the Honorable 


who died June 12, 1778, 

Aged 63 years, 

while attending the Coneress 

of the United States, at Yorli 

Town, Penna., as a Delegate from 

the State of New York. 

Eminently distinguished for 

his talents and rectitude, he deservedly 

enjoyed the confldence of his 

country, and the love and veneration 

of his friends and children. 

This monument, erected by 

his grandson, 

Stephen Van Rensalaer. 

James Smith lived to a good old age, hav- 
ing died in the year 1806. He was buried in 
the Presbyterian church -yard, where his 
tombstone is readily discovered with this sim- 
ple inscription: 


One of the signers of the 

Declaration of Independence, 

Died July 11, 1806, 

Aged 93 years. 


"Retiring beyond the Susquehanna to 
fork, Congress presently authorized Wash- 
ington, in addition to his other extraordinary 
powers, to seize, to try by courts martial, and 
to punish with death all persons within thirty 
miltss of any town occupied by the British, 
who should pilot them by land or water, give 
or send them intelligence, or furnish them 
with provisions, arms, forage, fuel or stores 
of any kind."* 

" Congress, meanwhile at session at York, 
on the west side of the Susquehanna, deter- 
mined to establish a new Board of War, to be 
composed of persons not members of Con- 
gress. John Adams, thus released from his 
arduous duties, as head of the War Depart- 
ment, was sent to France as one of the Com- 
missioners to that court, Deane, being re- 
called to give an accoant of his conduct, 
especially in the matter of the extravagant 
promises which he had made to foreign offi- 

' 'The Articles of Confederation, the consid- 

eration of which had been resumed in April, 
having been agreed to at last, after repeated 
and warm debates, were now sent out with a 
circular letter, urging upon the States imme- 
diate ratification. But, on the part of some 
of the States, ratification was long delayed."* 

York, November 13, 1777, William Clin- 
gan and Daniel Roberdeau wrote, "we have 
the happiness to inform the State that Con- 
federation has this evening passed Congress." 
A copy of the Confederation was received by 
the Council on December l.f and referred to 
the Assembly for their approbation. 

"A subject of earnest deliberation at 
York was that of finance, and the pressing 
wants of the soldiers, and the extortion of 
the public agents and traders. J 

The town of York had been a center well 
known to the colonies before the assembling 
of Congress here. A New England conven- 
tion had been held at Providence at the 
beginning of the year 1777, at which a 
scheme was agreed upon for regulating the 
prices of labor, produce, manufactured arti- 
cles and imported goods. In Hildreth's His- 
torj' of the United States§ is the following: 
" The doings of 'the New England Conven- 
tion having been laid before Congress, their 
scheme for regulating prices was approved. 
The other States were advised to imitate it, 
and to call for that purpose two conventions, 
one from the Middle, the other from the 
Southern States. In accordance with this 
recommendation, a Convention for the Middle 
States, in which New York, New Jersey, Del- 
aware, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia 
were represented, presently (March 26, 1777,) 
met at Yorktown (York, Penn.), and agreed 
upon a scale of prices. But this scheme, 
though very popular, was found wholly im- 

The anxious deliberation of the committee 
of Congress during more than two months at 
Yorktown, with the report of the Springfield 
Convention before them, produced only a 
recommendation adopted in November (the 
22d;), 1777, that the several States should 
become creditors of the United States by 
raising for the Continental treasury $5,000,- 
000 in four quarterly instalments.] 

The following resolutions appear upon the 
journals of Congress (Glossbrenner's His- 
tory) : 

OCTOBER 4, 1777. 

Resolved. That a letter be written to Gen. Gates, 
informing him that Congress highly approve of the 
prowess and behavior of the troops under his com- 

«Hildreth, Vol. 3, p. 227. 

tV ArchJTes, 770; X Col. Eec, 379. 



IIBanoroft's Hist. U. S., Vol. 2, p. 167, 



mand in their late gallant repulse of the enemy 
under Gen. Burgo}'ne. 

Resolved, That the thanks of Congress be pre- 
sented to Gen. Stark of the New Hampshire militia, 
and the officers and troops under his command, for 
their brave and successful attack upon, and signal 
victor)' over the enemy in their lines at Bennington; 
and that Brigadier Stark be appointed a Brigadier 
Oeneral in the army of the "United States. 

OCTOBER 6, 1777. 
Resolved, That it be recommended to the Legis- 
latures of the several States to pass laws declaring 
that any person, his aider or abettor, who shall will- 
fully and maliciously burn or destroy any magazine 
of provisions, or of military or of naval stores be- 
longing to the United States; or if any master, 
officer, seaman, mariner or other person intrusted 
with the navigation or care of any continental ves- 
sel shall willfully and maliciously burn or destroy, 
or attempt to or conspire to burn or destroy any 
such vessel, or shall willfully betray, or voluntarily 
yield or deliver, or attempt to conspire to betray, 
yield or deliver any such vessel to the enemies of 
the United States, such person, his aider or abettor, 
on legal conviction thereof shall suffer death with- 
out benefit of clergy. 

OCTOBER 8, 1777. 
Resolved, Unanimously, that the thanks of Con- be given to Gen. Washington for his wise and 
•well concerted attack upon the enemy's army near 
Germantown on the dth instant, and to the officers 
and soldiers of the army for their brave exertions 
on that occasion. Congress being well satisfied that 
the best designs and boldest efforts may sometimes 
fail by unforseen incidents, trusting that on future 
occasions the valor and virtue of the army will, by 
the blessing of Heaven, be crowned with complete 
and deserving success. 

OCTOBER 14, 1777. 

Whereas, The British nation have received into 
their ports, and condemned in their courts of admi- 
ralty as lawful prize several vessels and their car- 
goes belonging to these States, which the mariners, 
in breach of the trust and confidence reposed in 
them, have betrayed and delivered to the officers of 
the British Crown; 

Resolved, Therefore. That any vessel or cargo, the 
property of any British subject, not an inhabitant 
of Bermuda, or of any of the Bahama Islands, 
brought into any of the'ports or harbors of any of 
these United States by the master or mariners, shall 
be adjudged a lawful prize and divided among the 
captors in the same proportion as if taken by any 
continental vessel of war. 

OCTOBER 17, 1777. 

A'. '■r:cd, That the Committee of Intelligence be 
nutho'.ized to take the most speedy and effectual 
measures for getting a printing press erected in 
Yorktown for the purpose of conveying to the pub- 
li' the intelligence that Congress may from time to 
time receive. 

OCTOBER 31, 1777. 

Tlie Secretary laid before Congress a copy of the 
speech with which Mr. Hancock took leave of Con- 
gres.s, which was ordered to be entered on the jour- 
nals. It was then 

Resoleed, "That the thanks of Congress be 
presented to John Hancock, Esq., for the unre- 
mitted attention and steady impartiality which 
he has manifested in discharge of various duties of 
his office as President since his election to the 
chair on the 34th day of May, 1775." 

NOVEMBER 1, 1777. 

Congress proceeded to the election of a President; 
and the ballots being taken, the Hon. Henry Lau- 
rens was elected. 

NOVEMBER 4, 1777. 

Resolved, That the thanks of Congress, in their 
own name and in behalf of the inhabitants of the 
thirteen United States, be presented to Maj.-Gen. 
Gates, Commander-in-Chief in the northern depart- 
ment, and to the Majs.-Gen. Lincoln and Arnold 
and the rest of the officers and troops under his 
command, for their brave and successful efforts in 
support of the independence of their country, 
whereby an army of the enemy of 10,000 men has 
been totally defeated, one large detachment of it, 
that strongly posted and intrenched, having been 
conquered at Bennington, another repulsed with loss 
and disgrace from Fort Schuyler, and the main 
army of 6,000 men, under Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne, 
after being beaten in different actions and driven 
from a formidable post and strong entrenchments, 
reduced to the necessity of surrendering themselves, 
upon terms honorable and advantageous to these 
States, on the 17th day of October last, to Maj-Gen. 
Gates; and that a medal of. "gold be struck, under 
the direction of the Board of War, in commemora- 
tion of this great event, and in the name of these 
United States presented by the President to Maj.- 
Gen. Gates. 

Resolved, That Gen. Washington be informed, it 
is highly agreeable to Congress that Marquis ■ de 
Lafayette be appointed to the command of a di- 
vision in the Continental army. 

DECEMBER 11, 1777. 

The Board of War report: "That in their opinion 
the public interest will be promoted by erecting in 
the town of York temporary barracks or sheds suffi- 
cient for containing 600 men, for the purpose of 
accommodating such recruits, and other troops as 
may be from time to time stationed or detained at 
the said place, either as guards or for the pm-pose 
of equipment and discipline," whereupon. 

Resolved, That the Board of War be directed to 
cause the said barracks or sheds to be erected, with 
all possible dispatch, and in the most reasonable 
manner they can devise. 

JANUARY 14, 1778. 

Whereas, Baron Steuben, a Lieutenant-General 
in foreign service, has. in a most disinterested and 
heroic manner, offered his services to these States in 
the quality of a volunteer, 

Resolved, That the President present the thanks 
of Congress, in behalf of these United States, to 
Baron Steuben, for the zeal he has shown for the 
cause of America, and the disinterested tender he 
has been pleased to make of his military talents, 
and inform him that Congress cheerfully accepts of 
his service as a volunteer in the army of these States, 
and wish him to repair to Gen. Washington's quar- 
ters as soon as convenient. 

FEBRUARY 6, 1778. 

That Mathew Clarkson and IMaj. John Clark be 
appointed Auditors for the army under the command 
of Gen. Washington; and that they be authorized 
to appoint two clerks, and allow each of them §-50 
a month and two rations a day. 

M.iRCH 28, 1778. 

Resolved, That Count Pulaski retain his rank of 

Brigadier in the army of the United States, and 

that he raise and have command of an independent 

corps, to consist of sixty-eight horse and 200 foot, 



the horse to be armed with lances, and the foot 
equipped in the manner of light infantry: the corps 
to be raised in such way and composed of such men 
as Gen. Washington shall think espedient and 
proper; and if it shall be thought by Gen. Wash- 
ington that it will not be injurious to the service 
that he have liberty to dispense, in this particular 
instance, with the resolve of Congress against en- 
listing deserters. 

JUNE 12, 1778. 

Congress being informed that Mr. P. Livingston, 
one of the delegates for the State of New York, 
died last night, and that the circumstances require 
him to be interred this evening; 

Resolced. That Congress will in a body attend the 
funeral this evening, at 6 o'clock, with a crape 
round the arm, and will continue in mourning for 
the space of one month. 

.JUNE 27, 1778. 
Adjourned to Thursday nest, to meet at the 
State House in Philadelphia. 

York, in Pen-n-syi,yani.\, Nov. 8, 1777. 
Dear Sir: — The following books are much 
wanted by some gentlemen of Congress, and are 
not to be procured in this place; if they are to be 
found in ye Pennsylvannia Library, which, we are removed by order of your Excellency to 
Lancaster, I shall be much obliged to you for ye 
loan thereof, being. 

With respect, 

Your E.xcellency's 

Very humble servant, 
E. Gerry. 
Vattel's Law of Nations. Grotius, Puffendorff. 

His E-fcellency Thomas Wharton, Esq., 

Gen. Roberdeau made the same request by letter. 
The Ijooks were received, though the General seems 
to have been more interested in obtaining for him- 
self lighter literature, namely, Ovid and Virgil. f 


In a letter from David Jameson and Jacob 
Eichelberger to President Keed, Yorktown, 
July 1, 1779, it said: "This has been, till 
lately, a gi-eat thoroughfare for troops, par- 
ticularly militia, in inarching from the south- 
ward to the main army." It was thought 
proper when the Congress was here to have 
a Commissary of Pitrchases, another of Issues, 
a Quartermaster, Town Major and a Physician, 
which oflficers have since been continued.''^ 
On the 3d of June, 1779, a letter from the 
Council to the Board of War, observes that 
Mr. John Brooks, of Yorktown, styles him- 
self Town Major. The novelty of this char- 
acter took the attention of the Council and 
led to some inquiry. Mr. Hahn, of that 
place, told them that the appointment was 
made during the residence of Congress, and 
on the occasion of quartering some soldiers. 
The Board of W^ar replied that Mr. Brooks 
was appointed Town Major by order of Con- 

*V Archives, 7.54. 

iT\>k\, 772. 

JVII Archives, 530. 

gress during their residence in Yorktown. 
They intended to have discharged him on 
Congress leaving that place, but on examin- 
ing into the matter found it would be neces- 
sary to have a careful person there to rectify 
returns of provisions, &c., for passing troops. 
It appeared that between 2,000 and 3,000 
soldiers had passed through, and drawn rations 
at that post on their way to and from the 
southward, within a few months, and they 
believed that saving more than equal to Mr. 
Brooks' appointment had ensued from his 
being stationed at the post. They had it, 
however, in contemplation to discharge him, 
in order to avoid the appearance of keeping 
of unnecessary officers.* 


THE war of the Revolution began with the 
retreat of the British from Concord, and 
when they sought refuge in Boston, it was 
the signal for American troops to rally there 
spontaneously, and Eorm that great Contin- 
ental Army, under Washington, which main- 
tained that ever memorable siege, and ultim- 
ately achieved our independence. A letter 
from John Adams, June 17, 1775, says : "I 
can now inform you, that the Congress have 
made choice of the modest and virtuous, the 
amiable, generous and brave George Wash- 
ington, Esq., to be General of the American 
Army, and that he is to repair as soon as 
possible to the camp before Boston. This 
appointment will have a great effect in 
cementing and securing the union of these 
colonies. The continent is really in earnest. 
They have voted ten companies of riflemen 
to be sent from Pennsylvania, Maryland and 
Virginia, to join the army before Boston. 
These are an excellent species of light in- 
fantry. They use a peculiar kind of musket, 
called a rifle. It has circular bore or grooves 
within the barrel, and carries a ball with 
great exactness to great distances. They are 
the most accurate marksmen in the world."f 

Col. Thompson's Battalion of Riflemen was 
enlisted in the latter part of June, and be- 
ginning of July, 1775, in the pursuance of 
the resolution of Congress, of June 14, for 
raising six companies of expert riflemen in 
Pennsylvania, two in Maryland, and two in 


Virginia, which as soon as completed, were 
to join the army near Boston. By resolution, 
dated June 22, Pennsylvania was to raise 
two more companies, which, with the six, 
were to be formed into a battalion, and be 
commanded by such officers as the assembly 
or convention should recommend. The com- 
missions to the officers are dated June, 25, 
1775. The commissions were signed by John 
Hancock, President, and the form of enlist- 
ment was : " I have this day voluntarily en- 
listed myself as a soldier in the American 
Continental Army for one year, unless sooner 
discharged, and do bind myself to conform in 
all instances to such rules and regulations as 
are, or shall be established for the govern- 
ment of the said army. " Each company was 
to consist of a captain, three lieutenants, four 
sergeants, four corporals, a drummer or 
trumpeter, and sixty-eight privates. The 
battalion afterward was made to consist of 
nine companies. One company, Capt. Doud- 
el's, enlisted in York. The patriotism of 
Pennsylvania was evinced in the haste with 
which these companies were filled to over- 
flowing, and the promptitude with which they 
took up their march for Boston. The Phila- 
delphia Evening Post of August 17, 1775, 
publishes a New York item "that between the 
28th of July, and 2d inst. the riflemen 
under the command of Captains Smith, 
Lowdon, Doudel, Chambers, Nagel, Miller 
and Hendricks, passed through New "Windsor 
(a few miles north of West Point) in the 
New York government, on their way to 

This battalion became the Second Regiment 
(and after the first of January, 1776, the 
First Regiment) "of the Army of the United 
Colonies, commanded by his Excellency, 
George Washington, Esq., General and Com- 
mander-in-Chief. " 

Foremost among the volunteers : Captain 
Michael Doudel's Company left York for 
Boston, July 1, 1775, arriving at Cambridge, 
Mass., July" 25, at one P. M. 

The following letter was addressed by the 
committee of York to their representatives in 
Congress : 

YoRKTOWx, July 1, 1775. 
Oentlemen : 

We liad the honor of receiving your favor of the 
loth ultimo, enclosing a resolve of the Continental 
Congress of the 14th ultimo. We immecliately sum- 
moned the commiitee of this count}', and laid be- 
fore them your letter, etc. The committee pro- 
ceeded to the choice of officers fit to be recommended 
to the Congress, to command the company of rifle- 
men to be raised, and appointed six companies to 
provide the necessaries for them. Every resolve 
passed in committee with the greatest unanimity, 
and the gentlemen of Yorktowa, after the meeting 

dispersed themselves througli the county, and 
assisted the officers in recruiting. 

The spirit of tlic people, on this occasion, gave 
the committee infinite spirit. The men seemed 
actuated with the greatest zeal, and thought them- 
selves honored in having their names enrolled 
among the sons of liberty, who are to fight for tlicir 
country, and in defense of their dearest rights and 
privileges. The only uneasiness they feel is, tliat 
they are not this moment at the scene of action. 
From the spirit of the soldiers, we entertain the 
most flattering hopes that they will prove service- 
able to the cause of liberty, and reflect honor on this 

The principal people here have caught the spirit 
of the lionorable Congress, and in their small circle 
have done everything in their power to animate 
their neighbors to stand forth in this day of despot- 
ism, and resist the arbitrary and unjust measures of 
Parliament with all the power which Heaven has 
given them. And we have the pleasure to inform 
you that their labors have not been in vain, and 
that the county is ready to strain every nerve to put 
into e.Kecution any measures which the Congress 
may judge necessary to our common defence. 

The officers now take the liberty to recommend 
to you. Captain Michael Boudle, Lieuls. Henry 
Miller, John Dill and John Watson. They arc men 
whose courage we have the highest opinion of. 
The company, including the officers and soldiers, 
are beyond the number fixed for this county, and as 
Gen. Gates thought it improper to discharge any. 
we have sent all. 

We request the favor of you that proper care be 
taken that none are draughted out of their company 
into another. This is the request of the inhabitants 
of this county, many of them having their dearest 
friends engaged in the service, and would not by 
any means have them taken from their present 

We hope no alteration will be made in the officers. 
The captain has behaved very well on this occasion, 
and has done all in his power, by advancing money, 
etc.. to forward the important common cause. Mr. 
Miller is known to some of you gentlemen. The 
other ofiicers are men of worth and property : they 
have all wives and families, and are entitled to the 
warmest thanks of their country. 

The commissioners appointed to provide missions 
for the men, will forward their accounts as soon as 
they possibly can. 

We are, gentlemen, your most humble servants : 
James Smith, George Irwin, John Kean, .Joseph 
Donaldson, Thomas Hartley, Michael Hahu. 

P. S.— The company began their march the near- 
est road to Boston this day.* 

In Frothingham's "Siege of Boston "f is 
the following: "The Southern riflemen at- 
tracted much attention. They had enlisted 
with great promptness, and had marched 
from 4 to 700 miles. In a short time 
large bodies of them arrived in camp. 
They were remarkably stout, hardy men 
dressed in white frocks or rifle shirts, and 
round hats, and were skillful marksmen. At 
a review, a company of them, while on a 
quick advance, fired their balls into objects 
of seven inches diameter, at a distance of 
250 yards. They were stationed on the lines, 
and became terrible to the British. The ac- 
counts of their prowess were circulated over 

*X Archives, N. S., 20. Paipp. COT, 


England. One of them, taken prisoner, was ' 
carried there, and the papers described him 
minutely, as a remarkable curiosity." 

A letter, Jul}' 19, says: — "The general 
uniforms are made of brown Holland and 
Osnaburghs, something like. a shirt, double- 
caped over the shoulders in imitation of the 
Indians; and on the breast, in capital letters, 
is their motto. ' Liberty or Death.' "* 

"On the 29th of July, the British planted 
a bomb battery on Bunker Hill, advanced 
their guard on Charleston Neck further into 
the country and began to throw up an abatis 
to protect it. cutting down large trees for 
this purpose. Washington, in the evening, 
ordered the York county rifle company to cut 
off these outposts, and bring off a prisoner. 
The company attempted this service in the 
following manner: Capt. Dowdle and thirty- 
nine men tiled off to the right, and crept on 
their hands and knees to the rear of the 
enemy's works; Lieut. Miller, with a party, 
in a like manner, got behind the sentries on 
the left. But just as the two divisions were 
about to join, a party of the British came 
down from Bunker Hill to relieve the guard, 
and discovered the riflemen. Both sides 
fired. The riflemen killed five and took two 
prisoners and retreated, having one man cap- 
tured. Gren. Howe, in general orders the 
following day, stated that had his directions 
relative to the relief been complied with ' the 
soldiers could not have failed to destroy a 
number of the rebels last night, f '' 

Moore's Diary of the Revolution contains 
the following: •' July "^Sth, 1775 — Capt. 
Dowdle, with his company of riflemen, from 
Yorktown, Pennsylvania, arrived at Cam- 
bridge about one o'clock today, and since has 
made proposals to Gen. Washington to at- 
tack the transport stationed at Charles Biver. 
He will engage to take her with tliirty men. 
The General thinks it best to decline it at 
present; but at the same time commends the 
spirit of Capt. Dowdle and his brave men, 
who, though they just came a very long march, 
offers to execute the plan immediately.^" 

" July 30, 1775 — Last Friday the regulars 

«In ■'EeminiseeDces of New York in the Olden Time," by 
J. Biirnitz Bacon is tlie following : 

•'Presently, more drums — from the direction of I'ey street, 
this time. It must be the General : No : it was only a rifle 
company from Pennsylvania on their way to Boston. Capt. 
Doudels company from Yorktown, with Lieut. Heury Miller in 
command — the first company from west of the Hudson — belong- 
ing to Col Thompson's regiment, afterward Hand's, and bear- 
ing the first commission issued by Congress after Washington's. 
Y'orktown offered so many men, that the young Lieutenant- 
he was only twenty-four — chalked a very small nose on a barn- 
door. ' I'll take only the men that can hit that nose at one 
hundred and fifty yards !' said he. ' Take care of your nose, 
Gen. Gagel' said the newspapers at the time. Both Y'ork- 
town and Lieut. Miller afterward became noted in Revo- 
lutionary history. A hundred rifles filled his ranks as they, 
too, marched on to Kingsbridge." 

JP. 119. 


cut several trees and were busy all night in 
throwing up a line and abatis in front of it. 
In the evening, orders were given to the York 
County riflemen to march down to our ad- 
vanced post in Charleston Xeck to endeavor 
to surround the advanced guard and bring 
off' some prisoners, from whom we expected 
to learn their design in throwing up their 
abatis in the Xeck. The rifle company 
divided and executed their plan in the fol- 
lowing manner: Capt. Dowdle with thirty- 
nine men, filed off to the right of Bunker's 
Hill, and creeping on their hands and knees, 
got into the rear without being discovered. 
The other division of forty men, under Lieut. 
Miller, were equally successful in getting 
behind the sentinels on the left and were 
within a few yards of joining the division on 
the right when a party of regulars came down 
the hill to relieve their guard, and crossed 
our riflemen under Capt. Dowdle, as they 
were jying on the ground in Indian tile. The 
regulars were within twenty yards of our 
men before they saw them, and immediately 
tired. The riflemen returned the salute, 
killed several, and brought off two prisoners, 
and their arms, with the loss of Corporal 
Creuse, who is supposed to be killed, as he 
has not been heard of since the affair."* 

"Aug. 9, 1775— The riflemen from York 
County have annoyed the regulars very much. 
By a gentleman who left Boston yesterday, 
we hear that Capts. Percival and Sabine, of 
the marines, Capt. Johnson, of the Royal 
Irish, and Capt. LeMoino, of the train, were 
killed on Monday. Capt. Chetwyn, son of 
Lord Chetwyn, is mortally wounded. The 
number of privates killed this week we have 
not heard. The regulars have thrown up a 
breastwork across the neck at the foot of 
Bunker's Hill to secure their sentries and 
advanced guards.f" 

The roll of Capt. Doudel's Company does 
not comprise more than one-half of its 
strength. Research has failed to complete it.f 
Michael Doudel, Captain, resigned on account 
of ill health soon after the company reached 
Cambridge. Henry Miller, First Lieutenant, 
promoted Captain. John Dill, Second Lieu- 
tenant. James Matson, Third Lieutenant. 
John Clark, Third Lieutenant, afterward Ma- 
jor in Col, McAllister's Battalion, and aide to 
Gen. Greene. In February, 1778, Auditor 
of Accounts died December 27, 1819, at 
York, Penna., aged sixty- eight. Walter 
Cruise, captured in front of Boston, July 29, 
1775, a prisoner seventeen months ; pro- 


moted Captain Sixth Pennsylvania. Robert 
Armor, John Ferguson, George Armstrong, 
Robert Graft, John Beverly, John Griffith, 
Christian Bittinger, Joseph Halbut, Wil- 
liam Cooper, Richard Kennedy, George 
Dougherty, Thomas Kennedy, John Douther, 
Abram Lewis, Abel Evans, John McAlister, 
John McCrary, Joshua Minshall, John Mc- 
Curt, James Mill, Edward Moore, Matthew 
Shields, Daniel Lelap, died January 29, 
1776. John Brown, captured in September, 

1775, in front of Boston. Thomas Campbell 
afterward Captain in Fourth Pennsylvania. 
William Cline, re-enlisted and discharged 
March, 1777 ; died in 1826 in York County. 
David Ramsay, discharged July 1, ]7/6, en- 
listed in Col. Hannum's battalion and taken 

at Brandywine; in York County, 1818, 

aged sisty-nine. Jacob Staley, Andrew 
Start, Tobias Tanner, John Taylor, Patrick 
Sullivan, enlisted June 24, 1775; re-enlisted 
First Pennsylvania. Isaac Sweeny, promoted 
Lieutenant in Hartley's Regiment. Cor- 
nelius Turner, taken with Corp. Cruise, and 
carried to Halifax. 

The Commander-in-Chief 's guard, organ- 
ized by Gen. Washington, in 1776, consisted 
of 180 men. Among them were John Dother, 
of Marsh Creek, and William Kernahan, 
formerly of Miller's riflemen, of York County. 
This was also called Washington's Life 
Guard. Their uniform consisted of a blue 
coat with white facings, white waistcoat and 
breeches, black stock and half-gaiters, and a 
round hat with blue and white feather.* 


under the command of Col. Samuel Miles, 
was raised for the defence of the province. 
In this regiment was the company of Capt. 
Philip Albright, who was appointed from 
York County on March, 19, 1776, and re- 
signed January 23, 1777. The Second Lieu- 
tenant of this company was William Mc- 
Pherson, who was captured August 27, 1776, 
at Long Island, and exchanged April 20, 
1778. He died at Gettysburg on August 2, 
1832, and was buried in Evergreen cemetery. 
In this company was Charles Stump, who 
was wounded August 27, 1776 ; lost a linger, 
was missing since the battle of August 27, 

1776, and who resided in York County in 
1788. In Capt. Shade's company, in this 
regiment, was Henry Dull, April 1, 1776, 
who resided in York County, in 1818, aged 
seventy-one. Just before the battle of Long 
Island, Col. Miles was ordered with his rifle- 
men to watch the motions of the enemy, and 

on the 27th was overcome by a superior force 
and surrendered. Col. Miles was exchanged 
April 20, 1778.* 

On the 12th of March, 1777, the Su- 
preme Eiecutive Council had aid before 
them, from the' Council of Safety, the 
list and arrangement of the field officers 
of the twelve Pennsylvania regiments in the 
Continental service. First Regiment, Col- 
onel, Edward Hand ; Lieutenant-Colonel. 
James Ross ; Major, Henry Miller. Seventh 
Regiment, Colonel, William Irwin ; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel, David Grier ; Major, Samuel 



Capt. Henry Miller, with his company of 
riflemen, was attached to the First Regiment 
of the Pennsylvania Line, commanded by 
Col. Edward Hand, and he was promoted 
to be Major of the regiment. In the " Mem- 
oirs " of Gen. Wilkinson, the gallantry of 
Col. Hand and Maj. Miller is graphically 
described, in checking the pursuit of the 
American Army by the British, in the mem- 
orable retreat across New Jersey. | At the 
battle of Monmouth, as Maj. Miller was 
ascending, in company with Lieut. -Cols. 
North and Bunner, a hill from which the 
British were driven, he had two horses shot 
under him, and Col. Bunner, by his side, 
was killed. From Major of the First he was 
promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel of the Second 
Regiment of the Pennsylvania Line, July 1, 
1778. He resigned in the month of Decem- 
ber, 1778, but was afterward Quartermaster 
of the western expedition. He commanded 
a brigade of militia in defence of Baltimore 
in 1814.§ 

John Clark, of the York Riflemen, was 
made a Second Lieutenant in the First Penn- 
sylvania, and was afterward a Major in the 
battalion of Colonel McAlister, in the Flying 
Camp, and was promoted Aid to Gen. Greene. 
He died on the 27th of December, 1819, at 
York, aged sixty-eight. 

Capt. John McClelland was promoted from 
Lieutenant, in this regiment, October 1, 17 /9. 
I His company left York, under Gen. Wayne, 
in 1781, for the southern campaign. He 
retired from service January 1, 1783, and 
resided on Marsh Creek. York County, in 

Andrew Johnston, Quartermaster, appoint- 
ed October 2, 1778, wounded in left leg at 

*X Archives, N. S., 199. 
tXICol.Eec, 179. 

iWilkinson's Memories, Vol. 1, p. 136. 
gX Archives, 2d. S., 397. 



Paoli, and in the right leg at Monmouth, re- 
sided in York County in 1813. John Jacob 
Bauer, wounded in left hand by bayonet and 
sabre wound in head, resided in York County 
in 1824. John Beaty, died August 30, 1829, 
aged 74, in York County. Edward Cave- 
naugh, from Thompson's Rifles, served two 
years, resided in York County in 1808. 
John Cavanagh, wounded at Brandywine, 
resided in York 1835, aged 83 "years. 
John Devianey, from Fourth battalion, served 
until the end of the war; died in York County 
February 15, 1825, aged 69. William Smith 
died in York County July 4. 1821, aged 71. 
Michael Warner, resided in York County 
1835, aged 75. MajorHenry Miller was pro- 
moted from First Pennsylvania, ranking from 
March 1, 1777, Lieutenant-Colonel of Penn- 
sylvania Line, Second Regiment. Capt. Jo- 
seph McClellan's company left York, Penn., 
under Gen. Wayne, May 26, 1781, for the 
southern campaign. Names taken from his 
journal: James Allison, Phillip Briulls, John 
Davis, John Farmer, Nicholas Howe, Samuel 
Lacount, Valentine Miller, Daniel Nether- 
house, Jas. Sedwick, Matthew Turney. Taken 
from list in Secretary's office: John Anderson, 
resided in York County, 1787. John Brown, 
resided in York County, 1834, aged eighty- 
four; Martin Duhl, resided in York County, 
1835, aged seventy-nine; Christopher New, 
April 1, 1777 to January 1781, in Capt. Pat- 
terson's company, resid"ed in York County, 
1818, aged sixty-five, died in York County, 
Dec. 1, 1826, aged seventy-three. Henry 
Snyder resided in York County, 1835, aged 
seventy-eight. John McMehan resided in 
York County in 1789. Ezekiel Sankey of 
York County. John Wren died in York 
County July 9, 1827, aged eighty-nine. 



In this corps were Capt. Joshua Williams, 
commissioned May 25, 1775, Adjutant of the 
Fifth Battalion of Associators of York 
County, and Captain of a company in the 
Flying Camp. He then raised an independ- 
ent company, of which Alexander Ramsey was 
a Lieutenant, which was annexed to Fourth 
Pennsylvania, October 21, 1777. Capt. 
Thomas Campbell January 1, 1781, retired 
January 1, 1783 — Senator from York County, 
1810, died at Monaghan, York County, 1815. 
John Cavanagh resided in York County, 1835. 
Andrew Crotty enlisted in 1776; wounded at 
Stoney Point in the hip; discharged August 
18, 1783; resided in '^York County, 1812. 
Christian Pepret, 1777 to 1783, resided at 

York in 1818, aged sixty-seven. William 
Smith resided in York, 1818, aged sixty-nine. 
George Seittel resided in York County, 1822. 
Andrew Shoeman died in York County, May 
16, 1832, aged eighty. 


John Deveny, discharged 1783; resided in 
York County, 1821, aged sixty -five. 


William Brown, wounded atPaoli. left the 
army April 1, 1780; resided in York County, 
1822, aged seventy-seven. Joel Gray, dis- 
charged at Lebanon, April 1, 1781, after 
serving his term; he belonged to the British 
Army; died in York, October 9, 1820, 


Lieut.-Col. David Grier, ranking from 
October 2, 1776, retired January 1, 1781; 
died at York, June 3, 1790, aged forty-eight; 
John Brown, August 15, 1779-81; wounded; 
resided in York County, 1813. 


John Tate, ensign, York County. 1777-78; 
Stephen Stevenson, of York County, from 
Ensign promoted Captain-Lieutenant,October 
10, 1779; he signed a paper as retiring 
ofBcer, January 30, 1781, but was appointed 
subsequently Captain in the Fourth Penn- 
sylvania. Adam Davidson, twenty-three, 
farmer, Scotland; York County, 1780. Sam- 
uel Jamieson, Sergeant, forty-five; farmer; 
Jersey, England, York, 1776. George Hef- 
flefinger, at Green Springs, July 5, '1781; re- 
sided in York County, 1814. 


James Lang, of York County, from Lieu- 
tenant in Atlee's regiment, December 4, 1776, 
commissioned. John Lockhart, March 7, 
1777-81; died in York County, June 1, 
1830, aged seventy-six. Samuel Spicer; dis- 
located his wrist while building huts at 
Morristown, 1779; resided in York County, 
1835, aged ninety-seven. 



Robert McMurdie, brigade chaplain, July, 
1779; resided on Marsh Creek, York County, 
now Adams, Jan. 1791. 




Matthew Farney, from Marsh Creek. 


In service from January 9, 1776, to March 
20, 1777, was commanded by Col. William 
Irvine. Lieut-Col. Thomas Hartley was 
commissioned January 10, 1776. He was 
promoted Colonel of one of the sixteen addi- 
tional regiments. Major David Grier, of 
York, was promoted from Captain; and af- 
terward, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Seventh 
Pennsylvania. Capt. Grier' s Company was 
raised in York County in January and Feb- 
ruary, 1776. The otScers, commissioned 
March 20, 1776, were four, non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates eighty-eight, total 
strength ninety-two. In this battalion was 
also Capt. Moses McClean's Company, which 
had many York County men. The First Lieu- 
tenants were Barnet Eichelberger, who re- 
signed, and John Edie, Second Lieutenant, 
John Hoge, Ensign, Robert Hopes. This 
battalion was raised under the authority of 
Congress, by resolution of January 4, 1776. 
Six companies were to be raised, four in 
Cumberland and two in York County. 

Letter from Lieut. -Col. Thomas Hartley 
to Jasper Yeates, Esq. 

Ca:mp AT SoREL, June 12, 1776. 
A detachment under Gen. Thompson was sent 
down the river.* The corps under Col. St. Clair 
was to join in, and, if the General thought it expe- 
dient, he was ordered by Gen. Sullivan to attack 

the enemy at Three Rivers Col. St. Clair's 

division advanced, but the fire was too heavy. Part 
of Col. Irvine's division, especially the riflemen, 
went up toward the enemy. I understood the army 
was in confusion. I consulted some friends, and 
led up the reserve within a short distance of the 
enemy. Capt. McClean's and Grier's company 
advanced with spirit; St. Clairs' men took the 
best situation, and within eighty yards of the en- 
emy, exposed to the fire of the shipping, as hot as 
hell. I experienced some of it. Not a'man of Mc- 
Clean's company behaved ill; Grier's company be- 
haved well. Several of the enemy were killed in 
the attack of the reserve .... but a retreat was 
necessary. Col. Wayne and Allen gathered some 
hundreds together, and I got as many in my 
division as I could, with several others amount- 
ing to upward of 200 . . . Lieut. Eddie, of the 
York troops, I fear is killed. He was a fine young 
fellow and behaved bravely. He approached the 
enemy's works without dismay, several times, and 
remained in the swamp to the last. He was in the 
second engagement, where it is supposed he was 
killed. Ensign Hopes, of the same company, was 
wounded near the breastwork when I led up the re- 
serve. I cannot give too much commendation of 
him. He showed tlie greatest courage after he had 
received several wounds in the arm. He stood his 
gi-ound and animated his men. He nobly made 
good his retreat, with me, through a swamp of 
nearly eighteen miles long. The ball has hurt the 

bone. Several of our men were killed— I appre- 
hend between thirty and fifty. The rest, missing, 
have been taken, quite worn out with fatigue and 

P. S. .lune 13. Last night, a sort of flag of truce 
came from the enemy. Gen. Thompson, Col. Ir- 
vine (William), Dr. McKenzie, Lieutenants Edie, 
Currie and Parson MeCalla(of the first) are prison- 
ers. 'They were taken up by some of the rascally 
Canadians in the most treacherous manner.* 

Lieutenant Edie mentioned in this account 
was in Moses McClean's company from York 
County, was taken prisoner on the 8th of 
June, 1776, and exchanged on the 10th of 
April, 1778 — afterward became Gen. Edie. 
He resided in Adams County in 1814. En- 
sign Hopes, of whom Col. Hartley also 
writes in other letters, and whom he was de- 
sirous to promote an account of his gallant 
conduct, was Ensign Df Moses McClean's 
company, and was made Quarter -Master of 
the battalion, by Gen. Gates, on November 
17, 1776. He was afterward promoted Cap- 
tain in Col. Hartley's additional regiment on 
the 13th of January, 1777, and was killed at 
the battle of Brandywine. In this battalion, 
one of the companies from Cumberland was 
commanded by Capt. Samuel Hay, an iron 
master, afterward promoted to be Major of 
the Seventh Pennsylvania. This is the Major 
Hay of whom Col. Hartley makes mention 
in his letter. On the 11th of October, Hart- 
ley still maintained his post; having found 
in the woods some cannon lost in the French 
war, with great labor he had roads cut, and 
transported them to Crown Point, and had a 
battery of six guns ready for visitors, not 
any too soon, for on the same day the British 
attacked Arnold's fleet, on Lake Champlain, 
compelling him to retire toward Crown 
Point to refit, the next day, almost totally 
destroying it before it got there. On the 
14th, Col. Hartley set fire to all the houses 
at and near Crown Point, and retired to Ti- 
conderoga. After threatening which place, 
the British retired into winter quarters. 
The army was moved to Ticonderoga the 
6th, under Lieut.-Col. Hartley, was posted 
at Crown Point, where it remained the bal- 
ance of the summer and fall, the sentiuel 
regiment of Gen. Gate's army. On the 6th 
of September, Lieut.-Col. Hartley desired 
Gen. Gates to send to Crown Point either 
Gen. Wayne's battalion or the second, and he 
would defend it with them. Gen. Gates gave 
him positive orders to retreat if the British 
reached that point. The British did not 
come, however, and on the~2'2d Irvine's reg- 
iment was still at Crown Point. f 

*St. Lawrence. 

«November 3, 1775, prison 

! taken at St. John 

Y'ork, of His Majesty's Twenty-sixth Regiment, and of the 
Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment— the officers on parole — 
Archives, N. S., 74. Force's Am. Archives. 



Sixth Pennsylvania Battalion. First 
Lieutenants — Bamet Eichelberger, York 
County; commissioned January, 9, 1776; re- 
signed February 5, 1776. John Edie, com- 
missioned February 5, 1770, taken June 8, 
1776; exchanged April 10, 1778; afterward 
G-en. John Edie resigned in Adams County 
in 1814. Robert Hopes, Ensign, commis- 
sioned January 9, 1776. Appointed by Gen. 
Gates Quarter-master November 19, 1776, 
promoted a Captain in Hartley's additional 
regiment, January 13, 1777, from Sixth 
Battalion; killed at Brandywino. 


Sixth Pennsylvania Battalion (raised in 
York County, in January and February, 
1 1 /'■)), March 20, 1776, officers commissioned, 
four, non-commissioned officers and privates, 
eighty-eight, total strength ninety-two. 

Captains — Grier, David, commissioned 
January 9, 17 /6; promoted Major, October 25, 
1/(6. Alexander, William, from First Lieu- 
tenant, Capt. Rippey's Company. 

First Lieutenant— McDowell, John, Janu- 
ary 9, 1776. 

Second Lieutenant. — McAlister, Abdiel, 
captured opposite Isle Aux Noix, June 21, 
1776; exchanged May 8, 1778. 

Ensigns. — Nichols, William, commissioned 
Januai-y 9, 1776; promoted to captain, Bush's 
company, June 21, 1776. Hughes, John, 
commissioned June 21, 1776. 

Sergeants. — Walker, Andrew, Yorktowu, 
age twenty-one; enlisted January 30, 1776. 
Knox, John, York County, age twenty-three; 
enlisted February 20, 1776. Jefferies, 

Robert, age twenty one; enlisted January 
25, 1 (76. Hayman, John, enlisted February 
21, 1776. 

Corporals. — Lawson, James, Berwick, York 
County, age twenty- three; enlisted January 
20, 1 ( /6. Mcllhenny, Felix,born in Ferman- 
agh, County Derry, Ireland; enlisted from 
Hopewell January 20, 1776; age twenty; 
taken June 8, 1776; paroled August 9, 1776. 
Lethew, David, Hopewell, age thirty-two; en- 
listed February 24, 1776. Tomson, Ezra, 
York County, cutler; age twenty-five; enlisted 
January 20, 1776; taken June 8, 1776. 

Drum and Fife. — Hamilton, James. 
Wright, Mathias, taken prisoner June 8, 

Privates. — Anguis, William, age twenty- 
two; enlisted February 5, 1776. Barnes, 
Patrick, Cumberland County, age thirty; en- 
listed January 19, 1776. Baker, George, 
age twenty- one; enlisted January 19, 1776. 

Bacheldor, Ebenezer, age twenty- eight; 
enlisted January 25, 1776. Barry, James, 
enlisted January 29, 1776. Beard, Robert, 
age eighteen; Fawn Township, enlisted Feb- 
ruary 7, 1776. Brian, John; Campbell, 
Archibald, Berwick; age twenty- four; enlisted 
February 14, 1776. Clemmonds, John, York- 
town, cooper; age twenty-one; enlisted 
January 19, 1776. Conn. Adam, York 
County; age twenty; enlisted February 8, 
17(6. Conner, George, Reading Township; 
age twenty- three; wagon maker; enlisted 
March 9, 1776; taken June 14, 1776. Con- 
way, Charles, Reading Township; age 
twenty-four; enlisted January 23, 1776. 
Cooper, George, Chauceford, York Couuty; 
age eighteen; enlisted February 2, 1776. 
Corrigan, Cornelius, age twenty- two; enlisted 
January 25, 1776. Davis, David, age nine- 
teen; enlisted January 25, 1776. Dalany, 
Thomas, Donegal, Lancaster County; enlisted 
January 24, 1776; taken June 8, 1776; 
Dorce, John, or Deis, resident in York County 
in 1818, aged sixty-two. Dougherty, Charles, 
enlisted February 12, 1776. Dougherty, 
John, Yorktowu, age twenty-two; enlisted 

; February 2, 1776; taken June 8, 1776. 

' Essen, Alexander, Hopewell; age twenty; 

j enlisted February 20, 1776. Falkner, John, 
age twenty-five; enlisted January 22, 1776. 
Frick, John, Yorktown; age twenty-eight; 

: enlisted January 16, 1776. Forsyth, Robert, 
Yorktown; age thirty-five; enlisted January 
21, 1776. Geddes, Joseph, enlisted January 
20, 1776; resident in Huntington County, 

! May, 1818, weaver, aged seventy-five .years. 
Grant, Peter, age twenty-seven; enlisted 
January 25, 1776; taken June 8, 1776. 
Guscager, Charles, Paradise Township; stone- 
cutter; February 14, 1776. Gyfinger, 
Charles, taken June 8, 1776. Harkins, James, 
age twenty-six; enlisted January 23, 1776. 
Hickenbottom, Edward, enlisted from Cum- 
berland Township, January 23, 1776; age 
twenty-five; taken June 8, 1776. Hodge, 
Isaac, Baltimore; age twenty-five; enlisted 
February 20, 1776. Hay, Thomas, Hagers- 
town, York County; age twenty-five; enlisted 
February 16, 1776; Jackson, Archibald, age 
nineteen; enlisted February 5. 1776. John, 
ston, Robert, Hopewell, age twenty ; enlisted 
February 24. 1776. Johnston, William, 
Reading Township, York County, age 
eighteen; enlisted February 16, 1776. Kelly, 
Thomas, Baltimore; age twenty-three; en- 
listed March 30, 1776; taken June 8, 1776. 
Kelly, George, Yorktown; shoemaker; age 
twenty; enlisted January 16, 1776. Leeson, 
James, enlisted February 12, 1776; taken 
June 8, 1776. Mason, William, Barrens, 


York County, age forty; enlisted February I 
12, 1776; taken June 8, 1776; paroled Aug- ' 
ust 9, 1776. Matthews, Jacob. MoCali, 
John, age twenty-five; enlisted January 26, 
1776. McCoy, William, age eighteen; en- 
listed February 16, 1776. McDaniel. John, 
York County, age twenty -three; enlisted Feb, 
ruary 5,1776. McGowan, Samuel, Hopewell, 
age twenty-three; enlisted Februaiy 24, 
1776. McKissaeh, Henry, Hopewell, age 
twenty-two; enlisted February 24, 1776. 
McMeehan, Michael, age twenty-six; enlisted 
January 23, 1776. McMullan, James, York 
County, age twenty-one; enlisted January 27, 
1776. Mealy, Lawrence, Raphe, County 
Donegal, Ireland; enlisted from Hopewell 
February 23, 1776; age twenty; taken June 
8, 1776; paroled August 9, 1776. Murphy, 
Michael, Gunpowder Falls, age twenty-nine; 
March30,1776. Murphy, Dennis, Yorktown: 
shoemaker; age twenty-five; enlisted January 
18; taken June 8, 1776. O'Loan, Patrick, 
Yorktown; weaver; age twenty; eu listed 
January 22, 1776. O'Neal, Peter, Cumber- 
land Township, age twenty-one; enlisted 
February 1, 1776. Pearcy.John, age twenty; 
enlisted January 19, 1776. Price, James, 
enlisted February 12, 1776. Qaigley, Will- 
iam, Chanceford, age twenty three; enlisted 
January 29, 1776. Redmond. Murtough, 
age twenty- six; enlisted January 23; taken 
June 8, 1776. Robinson, James, age twenty- 
five; enlisted February 7, 1776. Roney, 
Patrick, Hopewell, age twenty-one; enlisted 
January 29, 1776. Russell, Joseph, York 
County, age nineteen; enlisted February 23, 
1776. Scullion, Patrick, age twenty-four; 
enlisted January 31, 1776. Schregh, Peter, 
age twenty-one; enlisted February 4, 1/76. 
Shaw, Archibald, York County; enlisted 
February 15, 1776. Shaw, James, age 
eighteen; enlisted January 25,1776. Stand- 
ley, Francis, Hopewell, March 5, 17(6. 
Shive, Philip, Yorktown, age twenty- two; 
enlisted January 16, 1776. Schregh, Michael, 
age eighteen; enlisted February 5, 1776; 
resided in York County 1818, aged sixty-one. 
Scidle, Peter, age seventeen; enlisted Feb- 
ruary 7, 1776. Schneider, John, Yorktown; 
age twenty-one; enlisted January 1 /, 1776, 
re-enlisted in Capt. Farmer's company, Hazen 
• regiment; resided in York County in 1818; 
aged sixty-seven. Spencer, Edward, Codorus, 
forgeman; age eighteen; enlisted January 
20, 1776. Stevenson, James, enlisted Feb- 
ruary 7, 1776. Swank, Baltzer, Yorktojvn; 
saddler; age eighteen; January 30, li76. 
Swartz, George, Yorktown; clockmaker; 
age twenty- two; enlisted January 16, 1(76. 
Swartz, Peter, Rapho Township, Lancaster 

County; mason; age twenty-two; enlisted 
March 26, 1776. Taylor, John, age tweuty- 
one; enlisted January 31, 1776; taken June 
8, 1776; Trees, Jacob, York, enlisted Janu- 
ary 22, 1776. Wade, Joseph, age twenty-six: 
enlisted January 23, 1776. Weaverling, 
Adam, Yorktown, age twenty; enlisted Janu- 
ary 31, 1776. Welch, Edward, age twenty- 
four; enlisted January 19, 1776. White, 
Isaac, Yorktown, age twenty; enlisted Jan- 
uary 20, 1776. Wilkinson, William, York 
County, aged twenty one; enlisted January 
25, 1776. Wilson, Joseph, York County, age 
nineteen; enlisted January 29, 1776. Wor- 
ley, George, Windsor Township, age twenty- 
three; enlisted February 9, 1776. Wright, 
Matthias, York County, enlisted Februarv 7. 
1776; taken June 8, 1776. 


This regiment was organized by the re-en- 
listment of the Sixth Battalion. The Col- 
onel, Irvine, had been captured at Three 
Rivers, June 8, 1776. In January, 1777, 
Lieut.-Col. Hartley was appointed to com- 
mand one of the additional regiments, and 
Maj. David Grier became Lieutenant- Colonel, 
and had charge of the regiment until Col. 
Irvine's exchange. The regiment returned 
to Carlisle from Ticonderoga in March, 1877. 
Capt. Moses McClean was returned prisoner. 
He was exchanged March 27, 1777. Maj. 
Hay wrote to Col. Irvine, September 29. 
1777, from camp at Trappe, in regard to the 
Paoli night attacjk and Maj. Grier: "The 
annals of the age cannot produce such a 
scene of butchery. All was confusion. The 
enemy amongst us, and your regiment (the 
Seventh) the most exposed, as the enemy 
came on the right wing. The enemy rushed 
on, with fixed bayonets, and made use of 
them as they intended. The party lost 30(1 
privates in killed, wounded and missing, be- 
sides commissioned and non-commissioned. 
Our loss is Col. Grier, Capt. Wilson, and 
Lieut. Irvine (who received seventeen bayonet 
wounds), and sixty-one non-commissioned 
and privates killed and wounded, which was 
just half the men we had on the ground fit 
for duty. The 22d I went to the ground to 
see the wounded. The scene was shocking. 
The poor men groaning under their wounds, 
which were all by stabs of bayonets, and cuts 
of light horsemen's swords. Col. Grier is 
wounded in the side by ~a bayonet, super- 
ficially slanting to the breast bone."* After 
the actions of Brandywine, Paoli and Ger- 
mantown. the retui-n reported four Captains. 

«X Archives, N. S., .595,598. 


three Lieutenants, eighty-nine privates fit for 
duty. Col. Grier retired January 1, 1781. 
He died at York, June 3, lv90, aged forty- 
eight. " 

In G. "\V. Parke Custis' " Kecollections and 
Private Memoirs of Washington," is related 
a circumstance which places Col. Hartley in 
intimate relations with the_Commander-in- 
Chief . Years previous, in 1 m 0, when Wash- 
ington, a'i Colonel, received an embassy from 
the Six Nations, the grand sachem referred to 
the time when on the battle-field their rifles 
had been levelled at him in vain, and said, 
"Listen! The Great Spirit protects that 
man and guides his destinies. He will be- 
come the chief of nations, and a people yet 
unborn will hail him as the founder of a 
mighty empire! " This made a deep impres- 
sion, and at the battle of Monmouth, Dr. 
James Craik expressed great faith in the Indi- 
an's prophecy. Curtis says: "During the 
engagement "on the following day, while 
Washington was speaking to a favorite officer, 
I think the brave and valued Col. Hartley, of 
the Pennsylvania Line, a cannon ball struck 
just at his horse's feet, throwing the dirt in 
his face and over his clothes; the General 
continued giving his orders, without noticing 
the derangement of his toilet. The officers 
present, several of whom were of the party 
the preceding evening, looked at each other 
with anxiety. The chief of the medical 
staff, pleased with the proof of his predic- 
tion, and in reminiscense of what had passed 
the night before, pointed toward heaven, 
which was noticed by the others, with a grat- 
ifying smile of acknowledgement." "Of the 
brave and valued Col. Hartley, it is said, 
that the Commander-in-Chief sent for him in 
the heat of an engagement, and addressed 
him as follows: I have sent for you Colonel, 
to employ you on a serious piece of service. 
The state of oui- affairs renders it necessary 
that a part of this army should be sacrificed 
for the welfare of the whole. You command 
an efficient corps (a tine regiment of Germans 
from York and Lancaster Counties). I know 
you well, and have therefore selected you to 
perform this important and serious duty. 
You will take such a position and defend it 
to the last extremity." The Colonel received 
this appointment to a forlorn hope, with a 
smile of exultation, and bowing, replied: 
"Your Excellency does me too much honor; 
your orders shall be obeyed to the letter," 
and repaired to his post. I will not be pos- 
itive as to the location of this anecdote, hav- 
ing heard it from the old people of the Rev- 
olution, many years ago, but think it occurred 
on the field of Monmoirth, but of this I am 

not certain. I have a hundred times seen 
Col. Hartley received in the halls of the great 
President, where so many Revolutionary 
worthies were made welcome, and to none 
was the hand of honored and friendly recol- 
lection more feelingly ofiered; on none did 
the merit-discerning eye of the Chief appear 
to bear with more pleasure than on Hartley, 
of York."* 


On the 27th of December, 1776, Congress 
authorized Gen. Washington to raise sixteen 
additional battalions of infantry, and to ap- 
point the officers. On the 11th of January, 
1777. he issued commissions to Lieut. -Col. 
Hartley and Maj. John Patton, of Miles' 
Rifle Regiment, to raise two regiments. Hart- 
ley's regiment was in the First Pennsylvania 
Brigade', Gen. Wayne's Division, Hartley 
conimanding the brigade in the battles of 
Brandywine and Germantown. The regiment 
did heavy fighting at Brandywine from its 
loss of officers and men. 

In this regiment was Robert McCulloiigh, 
who was discharged in 1781, and resided in 
Yale County in 1817, and Michael Enrich, of 
York; feet frozen at Wyoming.f 

Col. Thomas Hartley's Regiment was or- 
dered to Sunbury in Jaly, 17/8, on the West 
Branch, and remained in service there until 
incorporated with the New Eleventh. On 
the 8th of October, 1778, the Colonel wrote 
to Congress an account of his operations in 
defense of the frontier extending from Wy- 
oming to Allegheny. He asked for a Con- 
necticut regiment to garrison Wyoming, and 
said, "My little regiment, with two classes of 
Lancaster and Berk's County militia, will be 
scarcely sufficient to preserve the posts from 
Nescopake Falls to Muncy, and from thence 
to the head of Penn's Valley. Thomas Hart- 
ley, Colonel Commandent on the Northern 
Frontiers of Pennsylvania." t An unanimous 
vote of thanks to him was passed by the Su- 
preme Executive Council on the 10th of De- 
cember, 1778, "for the brav e and prudent 

»Custis' EecoUectioDs, p. 30-1-306. 

Ylhe following is from Glossbrenner's History: Michael 
Eurich (father of Michael Eurich, director of the poor-house 
in 18-11-'''') enlisted in 1777 as a soldier in Col. Hartley's Regi- 
ment for the term of three years, or until the end of the Revo- 
lutionary war While he was on command at Wyoming, in the 
ivinter of 17S0, his feet, through the inclemency of weather 
were nearly frozen off, in consequence of which he was unable 
^"L"i„„„i„ ti,P <P,'yice of his country. As Mr. Eurich be- 
ue unable to provide for himself and his 
i never received any donation land, the 
of Pennsylvania, on the 29th of March, 1804, granted 
.„ „,o „^..- the donation land to which he would have been 
entitled, had he served to the end of the Revolutionary ■n;ar In 
remembrance, and as a reward for his services, the J.egi! 

came by this 
family, and 

'wife the widow Catharine Eurich, 
umediately, and an annuity of $40 for life. 
IV Archives, 8. 

the i 



conduct in covering the northwestern frontiers 
oE this State, and repelling the savages and 
other enemies; and that he be requested to 
inform the officers and men, who have been 
under his command, that this Council is highly 
sensible of the difficulties and hardships of 
the duty which they have performed, and the 
courage and zeal which they have shown dur- 
ing the last campaign."* 


On the 16th of December, 1778, Congress 
resolved that Col. Hartley's regiment, with 
some independent companies of Pennsyl- 
vania, be incorporated into a regiment, the 
Eleventh of the Pennsylvania Line, to form 
a complete battalion. This was styled the 
New Eleventh. Col. Hartlej' resigned on the 
13th of February, 1779, after the regiment 
was taken into line. 


In this regiment were the following men: 
Joel Gray, resided in York County, 1818, 
aged seventy-five years; Martin Blumenshine, 
York County; William Brown, from Ireland, 
resided in York in 1805; Kobert Casebolt, 
April 7, 1777, York County; John Kichcreek, 
Dover Township; John Snyder, died August 
11, 1827, in York County, aged seventy-six; 
Dedlove Shaddow, died August 11, 1827, in 
York County, aged sixty- nine; was also in 
Hazen's Regiment, Col. Hazen's Eegiment 
was called "Congress' Own," because it was 
not attached to the quota of any of the States. 
It served during the war. Maj. James E. 
Eeid in it was from York County, promoted 
from Captain. 


Independent Company of Artillery, Capt, 
Isaac Coren; James Bahn, July, 1777, ser- 
vant of William VVaugh, Sr,, of Hamilton 
Township, York County, now Adams; resided 
there in 1814 Patrick Dixon, York County. 
Corps of Artillery Artificers, raised by 
direction of Gen. Washington in the summer 
of 1777; llaj. Charles Lukens, of York. 
Col. Benjamin Flower's Eegiment; Capt. 
Thomas Wylie's Company of Artillery and 
Artificers. Andrew Patterson appointed gun- 
ner, April 26, 1779; wounded in the wrist, 
discharged after three years' service; resided 
in York County in 1807. Invalid Eegiment 
— John Eichcreek, from German Eegiment. 
Second Regiment of Artillery — Col. John 
Lamb, March 15, 1778. John Bennington, 
Mattross, York County; John Johnson, Bom- 
bardier, Fawn Township; John Kelly, Bom- 

bardier, Fawn Township; Michael Kyal, Ser- 
geant, Fawn Township; Samuel Laughlin, 
Slatross, Fawn Township; Alexander Martin, 
Matross, Fawn Township; James Eyburn, 
Matross, Fawn Township; George Stewart, 
Matross, Fawn Township. Capt. James Lee's 
Company. Robert Ditcher, resided in York, 
1818, aged fifty- seven. 


Col. Thos. Proctor; William Bergenhoff, 
resided jn York County, 1816; Frederick 
Leader, in York County, 1834, aged seventy- 
four; John Lochert,Du£fy's Company,1776-79, 
resided in York County, 1818, aged sixty- 


Gottlieb Morris, Surgeon, was promoted from 
Surgeon's Mate, resided in York County in 
1808; Leonard Bamagartel, resided in York 
County in 1835; John Glehmer, resided at 
York in 1828; Conrad Pudding, died in York 
County in 1828, aged seventy-four; Philip 
Shaffer, resided in YorkCouuty in 1828; Lewis 
Shelly, died in York County in 1825; Conrad 
Stengle, died at York, Pa., ante 1826. Von Ot- 
tendorf's Dragoon Corps — Armand's Legion. 
Owen Cooley, York, March 25, 1777; John 
Eirach, York, March 9, 1777; Adam Brand- 
hefer, York, February 26, 1777; John Michael 
Koch, January 25, 1777, died in York County, 


Frederick Boyer, 1778 to 1783, resided in 
York County, 1835, aged eighty-seven. Mar- 
tin Miller, resided in York County 1835, aged 
seventy-one. Edward Smith, died June 26, 
1832, in York County, aged seventy-six. 

Pulaski's Legion was recruited chiefly in 
Pennsylvania and Maryland. By a resolu- 
tion of Congress, while in session in York, 
March 28, 1778, Count Casimir Pulaski was 
authorized to raise and organize a corps of 
sixty- eight light-horse, and two hundred foot. 
In 1779, the Count made York the rendezvous 
of his legion, before his march to South 
Carolina. In the assault upon the British 
before Savannah, October 3, 1779, Pulaski 
fell mortally wounded; he was carried on 
board the U. S. Brig, Wasp, where he died. 
His legion was merged into other corps after 
his death. 

During the stay of the legion in York, 
there were complaints about the behavior of 
the men, and the Board of -War directed en- 
quiry to be made in regard to it. It appeared 
that they had been recklessly foraging to the 
alarm of the people. 

A letter from Col. Thomas Hartlev to Pre- 


sident Keed, dated Yorktown, March 17, 
1779, says: " Upon my arrival here I found 
many inhabitants much dissatisfied with the 
determination of Council concerning the 
York election. They thought it hai-d that a 
majority of the electors should be deprived 
of a Representative in Council for . ... 
years. Thsy knew they had been as patriotic 
as any; that the York district had armed the 
first in Pennsylvania, and had furnished more 
men for the war, and lost a greater number 
of men in it, than any other district on the 
continent of the same number of inhabit- 
ants. At Fort Washington, only, they lost 
300 men, not fifty of which have ever re- 
turned (their distressed parents and widows 
daily evince the melancholy truth). Yet in 
a matter of such high concern as a Council- 
lor, they were without a Representative. As 
to the taking the oath before the 1st of June, 
they were well convinced that more persons 
had taken the test in the York district in due 
time than in any other county, and .that many 
who made the most noise had done the least 
in the contest. They talked of petitioning 
from the county; should that be the case, a 
large and respectable number would appear 
as signers. I have endeavored to reconcile 
matters. I have recommended unanimity and 
the fullest exertions of every individual to 
support and carry on our Government. If 
there are defects in our Constitution they 
will appear. They can be remedied by a ma- 
jority of the people on a proper occasion." 

On the 1st of August. 1<S0, Colonel Will- 
iam Scott who succeeded McAllister as Lieu 
tenant of the county, wrote to President 
Reed that he '-had paraded one company of 
volunteers, and ordered them to march this 
morning for Bedford ; but they are now to 
set off this evening for Philadelphia, under 
the command of Captain James Mackey, a 
gentleman who has served several years in 
our army and was recommended to me as one 
who behaved with bravery. His sub-men are 
Lieutenant David Conlson and Ensign 
Philip Galacher, both of which have done 
duty in the army some time past. The com- 
pany consists of fifty men, exclusive of offi- 
cers. The other company are not yet full, 
and as soon as they can be collected, we will 
send them also. 1 have this morning sent 
expresses to all the sub-lieutenants in this 
county, requiring them to call out the mili- 
tia, according to orders.* 

On the 18th of June, 1781, Brig. Gen. 
Irvin represented to the Council that a num- 
ber of spirited inhabitants west of the Susque- 
hanna signified their intentions of equipping 

*SI Col. Eec, 427. 

themselves to act as light horse and volun- 
teers. During the summer a company of 
light-horsemen was raised, half at Hanover, 
and the rest in Marsh Creek. The officers 
were William McPherson, Captain ; Robert 
Morrison, Lieutenant; James Gettys, Cornet. 


On the first of January, 1781, occurred the 
remarkable incident known as the revolt of 
the Pennsylvania Line. It was an armed 
mutiny, at Morristown, New Jersey, of about 
1,500 soldiers, under the lead of their ser- 
geants, with artillery, and hence it was for- 
midable. It was occasioned by arrears of 
pay, want of clothing, and of sufficient food, 
depreciation of the currency, and a demand 
for the discbarge of the three years' men. 
They threatened to march to Philadelphia 
and demand redress from Congress. Gen. 
Wayne, commandant, behaved with great 
coolness in the emergency. President Reed, 
with surprising readiness, yielded to their 
demands. In a letter to Gen. Washington, 
May 17, 1781, in relation to the affair, he 
said that before the mutiny the Pennsylva- 
nia Line was " deemed the fiower of the 
army," particularly the appointments. The 
march of the Line to the southward had been 
an object of great anxiety. During the in- 
subordination, the British sent emissaries 
among the soldiers to incite disaffection to 
the Continental cause, but the Line remained 
true, and they hung the British as spies. 
After this, the Line was reduced to six regi- 
ments of infantry, one of artillery, one of 
cavalry, and one of artificers. They came to 
York in May, and marched on the 26th of 
that month, under Gen. Wayne, through Lit- 
tlestown and Frederick, southward, with 800 
effective men. 

In February, 1781, orders were given for 
the rendezvousing of the Pennsylvania troops 
under Gen. Wayne, at York, previous to join- 
ing the Southern army under Gen. Greene. 
The delay of the State Auditors, who were 
appointed to settle and pay the proportion of 
the depreciation due the troops, caused some 
little trouble, but by the 7th of June this 
force, amounting to only 1,100 formed a 
junction with Lafayette. 

From the journal of Captain Joseph Mc- 
Clellan, May 26, 1781: Marched from York 
at 9, A. M., under the command of Gen. 
Wayne, and encamped eleven miles on the 
road to Fredericktown, (with about 800 effec- 
tive men.) 

May 27th. The general beat at daylight, 
and the troops took up the line of march at 


sunrise, and halted near Peter Little's town, 
it being fourteen miles. 

From there they continued the march 
through Taneytown to the Monocacy, and 
"passed through Fredericktown about 8, 
where was a number of British oflieers, pris- 
oners, who took a view of us as we passed 
through the town." 

" On June 10th they formed a part of the 
Marquis de Lafayette's troops.about 11 o'clock, 
and arrived about the 12th of September in 
the neighborhood of Yorktown." 

The regiments of the Pennsylvania Line 
were reduced to six, January 1, 1781, and re- 
enlisted. On the 5th of April, 1781, orders 
were issued for a detachment of the six regi- 
ments to hold themselves in readiness to 
march to York, Pa., immediately. The pro- 
portion of officers and men each regiment 
was to furnish, will be found in Gen. St. 
Clair's order (Penn'a Arch. O. S. Vol. IX, 
page 60). It was to amount to 960 men 
besides officers. Lieut. -Col. Robinson, of 
the First ; Col. Walter Stewart, of the Sec- 
ond ; Lieut.-Col. Harmar, of the Third ; Col. 
Richard Butler of the Fifth, and Col. Hump- 
ton of the Sixth. 

When Wayne was about leaving York, 
May 26, 1781, there was some insubordina- 
tion, which he promptly quelled by shooting 
down the offenders.* 


Headquarters, PntLADELPHiA, April 5, 1781. 

A detachment of the Pennsylvania Line to hold 
themselves in readiness to march to and assemble 
at Yorktown immediately. 

First and Second Regiments are to form 
One Battalion, 8 comp. of 40 R. & Pile each 320 men. 
Third & Fifth Do. One Battalion 320 men. 

Fourth & Si.xth Do. One Battalion 320 men. 

By Order Majr.-Gen. St. Clair. 

Joseph H.\rmar, Lt.-Col. 

General Wayne wrote to President Reed : 
Yorktown, 26th May, 1781. 

Dear Sir: I steal a moment whilst the troops 
are marching thro' the town to acknowledge your 
favor of the 21st Instant and to thank you for the 
inclosed intelligence. We have a rumor this 
moment from Baltimore that Genl. Philips and 
Lord Cornwallis have formed a junction in Virginia, 
which is very probable, as they were but Eighty 
miles apart yesterday two weeks. I am happy to 
Inform you that harmony and Discipline again per- 
vade the Line — to which a prompt and exemplary 
punishment was a painful tho' necessary prelude. 
I must beg leave to refer you to Genl. Irvine for 
particulars who can precure a Return of the Detach- 
ment from the Board of War if necessary. 

Permit me to wish you all happiness, & believe 
me yours most sincerely, 

Anthony Wayne. 

In Major Denny's Journal,* is the follow- 
ing : 

Carli.sle, May 1st, 1781. 

The Pennsylvania Line, after the revolt and dis- 
charge of the men, last winter, were reduced lo six 
regiments ; the officers ordered to different towns 
in the state to recruit. An appointment of Ensign 
in the 7th had been obtained for me in August lak; 
the 7th and 4th were incorporated, and. under com- 
mand of Lieut.-Col. Comt. William Butler, rendez- 
voused at this place— companies now about half full. 
The ejlective men were formed into four companies, 
and marched to Little York ; I was arranged to one 
of the marching companies, Samuel Montgomery, 
Captain, and George Bluer, Lieutenant. All the 
recruits, fit for service, from the different stations, 
were brought to York, formed into two regiments 
of eight companies each, destined for the State of 
Virginia. A few days spent in equipping, etc., and 
for the trial of soldiers charged with mutinj-, Gen- 
eral Anthony Wayne, the commanding officer, influ- 
enced no doubt by the experience of the revolt 
last winter, expresses a determination to punish 
with the utmost rigor, every case of mutiny or dis- 
obedience. A general court martial continued sit- 
ting several days ; twenty odd prisoners brought 
before them ; seven were sentenced to die. the 
regimentsparaded in the evening earlier than usual ; 
orders passed to the officers along the line to put to 
death instantly any man who stirred from his rank. 
In front of the parade, the ground rose and de- 
scended again, and at the distance of about 300 
yards over this rising ground, the prisoners were 
escorted by a Captain's guard ; heard the fire of one 
platoon, and immediately a smaller one, when the 
regiments wheeled by companies, and marched 
round by the place of execution. This was an 
awful exhibition. The seven objects were seen by 
the troops just as they had sunk or fell under the 
fire. The sight must have made an impression on 

Provisions for transporting baggage, etc.. and 
other necessary preparations, commenced our 
march for Virginia ; the weather pleasant and the 
roads tolerably good. Passed through Frederick 
Town (Maryland), where were some British prison- 
ers quartered, they turned out to see us. Next 
day reached the Potomac ; here we were detaineil 
for want of craft — boats few and in bad condition. 
The artillery passed over first (a battalion of artil- 
lery accompanied the brigade). The second flat-boat 
hadleft the shore about forty yards, when the whole 
sunk. Several women were on board, but as hun- 
dreds of men were on the bank, relief soon reached 
them ; none were lost— got all over. Proceeded a 
few miles and encamped. Struck our tents every 
morning before day. About 8 or 9 o'clock, as we 
found water, a short halt was made ; the water-call 
beat, parties, six or eight from each company, con- 
ducted by a non-commissioned officer, with can- 
teens fetched water. Seldom allowed to eat until 
12 o'clock, when the arms were stacked, knapsacks 
taken off and water sent for by parties as before. 
Officers of a company generally messed together, 
sometimes more ; one of their servants carried 
cooked provisions for the daj-, no cooking until 
nisht. Not acquainted with the country on our 
route, but understood that we w. re marching much 
about — very circuitous— keeping off the Blue Rid,>:e 
close on our right. Tliis to avoid the enemy and 
secure our junction with the Marquis Lafayette. 

In -'The Yorktown Campaign," is the fol- 
lowino- : "The delay in the arrival of Wayne 

.Joined the First rennsylv 

I Kegi] 



and his corps was to be referred mainly to 
these common and vexing causes which had 
embarrased American operations from the 
beginning of the war — lack of supplies, quar- 
ter-master's stores especially, and unsat- 
istied pay-rolls. This officer had been ordered 
southwai-d in February, but could not leave 
until May. His force, composed of the 
greater part of the Pennsylvania line, as 
reorganized since its mutiny in January, con- 
sisted of three regiments — in all a thousand 
men — commanded by the brave and experi- 
enced Colonels, Richard Butler, Walter 
Stewart, and Richard Hampton. Nine offi- 
cers and ninety men. with six field pieces, 
from Proctor' s Fourth Continental Artillery, 
completed the detachment. Nor, when all 
was in readiness, were the men to leave in 
the best of humor. They had recently been 
paid off in the current notes without their 
depreciated value added, and dissatisfaction 
at once ran high. Certain leaders went so 
far as to manifest the old dangerous spirit 
of insubordination, which called for and 
received prompt and effective treatment. A 
drum-head court- marshal was held in camp, 
and seven of their number tried and executed. 
This disturbance quelled, the troops left 
York, Pennsylvania, in the morning of May 
"28, 1781, and on the 3t)th were at Frederick, 
Maryland. There, in reply to urgent letters 
to push on to Virginia, Wayne wrote as fol- 
lows to Lafayett: "I well know the necessity 
of an immediate junction, and beg leave to 
assure you that our anxiety for that event is 
equal to your wishes ; may it be speedy and 
propitious. I wish our numbers were some 
thing more ; however, we must endeavor to 
stem this torrent ; and if we have it not in our 
power to command success, I trust, my dear 
Marquis, that we shall produce a conviction to 
the world that we deserve it.'' 


In 1781, an act of Congress directed that 
the British convention of prisoners in Mary- 
land and Virginia be removed to Yorktown, 
Pennsylvania, from fear of rescue by Corn- 
wallis, and the York county militia were 
orderd out to guard them. It appears by a 
letter from President Reed to William Scott, 
lieutenant of this county, June 28, 1781, that 
these prisoners were ordered to be placed in 
huts near York.* Four and a half miles east 
of town, in Windsor Township, about twenty 
acres of woodland were cleared and cultivated 
by them, surrounded by a picket fence fifteen 

«Col, James Wood wrote from Lancaster, on the 30th of June, 
f.Sl, that he intended to "hut" the prisoners near York ; and 
subsequently a spot four and a half miles east of the town was 

! feet high. The huts were mostly of stone. 
Some of the timber of the fence and stones of 
the huts yet remain. While there a plague 
of some kind broke out among them, and a 
large number of them died. Their graves are 
still visible, marked with stones. Until 
within some thirty years past, a scaffold, con- 
sisting of two trees cut off, with a cross piece, 
was standing there. The story told, is that 
one night a party, supposed to be marauders, 
came to the house of William Morgan, (one of 
the family of that name said to have been the 
only English one that settled in Kreutz Creek 
valley,) and called for something to eat. 
Morgan perceiving that the}^ were Hes- 
sians, shut the door upon them ; whereupon 
they fired through the door, wounding him, 
and then left. A neighbor rode to camp and 
gave information of the occurrence to the offi- 
cer in charge. The roll being called it was 
readily found ovit who were missing ; and 
on the return of the party they were court-mar- 
tialed and hung. 

England did not carry on the war for the 
subjugation of the American Colonies alto 
gether with her own soldiers, but employeti 
mercenaries, known to us as Hessians. The 
profession of a soldier has always been held 
honorable, and is none the less so because 
he receives pay. He is under obligation to 
give his life, if need be, to the government 
that employs him, and is authorized by the 
law of nations to take life in open war. It 
is not the pay of the individual soldier that 
makes him a mercenary; it is the hire of his 
services by his sovereign to another poten- 
tate. The price of such hire in the case of 
the Hessians who were engaged to fight our 
people was enormous. The Landgrave of 
Hesse- Cassel kept up a splendid court on the 
price he received from the British Govern- 
ment, some §15,000,000, for the hire of 20,- 
I 000 soldiers and upward. 
I From time to time during the war large 
I numbers of prisoners, principally Hessians, 
I were brought to York, under the escort of the 
j militia. In individual instances, by per- 
I mission of the Council of Safety or the Board 
I of War, prisoners were discharged on parole 
t and allowed to take up 'a residence from 
choice; and some Hessians settled in York 
■ County. 

By the convention made at the surrender 
of Burgoyne to Gates, several thousand pris- 
oners fell into the hands of the Americans, 
called the "convention prisoners." The 
militia of the several counties, Philadelphia, 
Bucks, Chester, Lancaster and York, were 
ordered to escort them through the limits of 
each county, the York County militia being 


ordered to meet them at Wright's Ferry. 
But by subsequent arrangemonts these pris- 
ODers passed, under escort of Continental 
troops, through York and Hanover to Fred- 
erick, Md. "Wherever the Hessian prisoners 
passed, the people thronged to see these ter- 
rible beings, and they were hooted as hire- 
lings to the trade of blood. Some of them 
were men of education and intelligence, who 
published accounts of their experience in the 
American war. They tell in particular of 
the scoldings they received from the women 
for coming to rob them of their liberty. Gen. 
Washington had to cause notices to be put 
up through the country that they "were in- 
nocent of tlie war and had joined in it not 
of free will, but through compulsion.''* 

In Lieut. Anberry'sf " Travels in Amer- 
ica" is the following: 

Fredeeicktown, in Maryland, ) 
December 25, 1778. \ 

My Dear Friend : 

After we left Lancaster, we crossed the Susque- 
bannah, which, though a large, broad and beautiful 
river, is extremely dangerous on account of the 
rapidity of the current and innumerable small 
rocks that just make their appearance above the 
surface; in crossing it we were not without our 
fears, for a scow belonging to the Second Brigade, 
in whicli Lord Torphinchin and a number of officers 
and soldiers of the Twenty-first Regiment was near 
being lost by striking on one of these rooks. This 
river falls into the Chesapeake, and forms the head 
of that vast water, which, though one of the largest 
and most beautiful rivers in America, is the least 
useful, as it is not navigable above twelve or fifteen 
miles at the farthest, and above that scarcely so for 
canoes; the^utility of this river would be great if 
the navigation, even for canoes, was practicable, as 
the source of the last branch of this river in the 
Mohawli country, and from thence to the mouth in 
the Chesapeake, is near 700 miles. 

After we crossed the Susquehanna we arrived at 
Yorktown, which was some time the seat of Con- 
gress. This is reckoned the second inland town in 
America. It is not so large as Lancaster, but much 
pleasanter, being situated on Codorus Creek, a j 
pretty stream which falls into the Susquehannah. | 
This town contains between 3,000 and 3,000 
inhabitants, chiefly Irish, intermixed with a few { 
Germans. Here was formerly more trade than in 
Lancaster, and notwithstanding the troubles, it has 
still more appearance of it. As we came into the 
town at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and marched the 
next morning, you may easily imagine I had but 
little time to malie any very particular observations; 
but in walliing about I saw the court house, and a 
few churclies, which are very neat brick buildings, 
and I remarked the houses were much better built, j 
and with more regularity than in Lancaster; of the j 
two, though, York is considerably less than the [ 
other. I should give it the preference for a place I 
of residence. As I observed in a former letter, it 
was with a view and hope that the men would 
desert that the Congress marched us at this inclem- 
ent season; numbers have answered their wishes, 
especially the Germans, who, seeing in what a com- 
fortable manner their countrymen live, left us in 

*Irving's Life of Washington. 
tLieut. Anberry was taken prisoner 
Burgoifne's army at Saratoga. 

great numbers as we marclied through New York 
the Jerseys and Pennsylvania. Among the number 
of deserters is my servant, who, as we left Lancas- 
ter, ran from me with my horse, portmanteau, and 
everything he could take with him. 

By letter of July 8, 1781, the Lieutenant 
writes: "As we imagined, orders are arrived 
for the removal of the army to Yorktown and 
Lancaster, at which places the officers are to 
be separated from the soldiers," and in a 
subsequent letter describes the separation as 

tlie surrender of 

In Lamb's "Journal of the American War"f 
is the following: 

But my joy was of short duration. Scarcely was 
1 settled (at Frederick. Md.) in my hut (in some de- 
gree of ease and comfort, in comparison to my 
former sufferings) when I was ordered to be moved 
under a guard to Winchester, where the regiment 
to which I belonged was confined. The officers and 
men were all glad to see me; tbev had heard of the 
hardships which I had endured in attempting my 
escape, and they condoled with me; part of the 
British troops remained here until January, 1783, 
when Congress ordered us to be marched to Little 
York, in Pennsylvania. I received information 
that, as soon as I fell into the ranks to march off, I 
should be taken and confined in Winchester jail, as 
the Americans were apprehensive that wheii I got 
to New York, I should again attempt my escape to 
that place. I was advised by ray officers to conceal 
myself until the troops had marched. I took the 
hint and hid myself in the hospital among the sick; 
here I remained until the American guards had been 
two days on their march with the British prisoners. 
I then prepared to follow them, but at a cautious 
distance. The troops arrived at Little York, and 
were confined in a prison which I have already de- 
scribed in page 208,^ only a little more limited. 
About two hundred yards from this pen a small vil- 
lage had been built by the remains of Gen. Bui-- 
goyne's Army, who were allowed very great priv- 
ileges with respect to their liberty in the country. 
When some of my former comrades of the Ninth 
Regiment were informed that I was a prisoner in 
Lord Cornwallis's Army, and that I was shortly ex- 
pected at Little York, they immediately applied to 
the commanding officer of the Americans for a pass 
in my name, claiming me as one of their regiment. 
This was immediately granted, and some of them . 
kindly and attentively placed themselves on the 
watch for my arrival, lest I should be confined with 
the rest of Lord Cornwallis's Army. When I en- 
tered Little York I was most agreeably surprised at 
meeting my former companions, and more so when 
a pass was put into my hands, giving me the privi- 
lege of ten miles of the country round while I be- 
haved well and orderly. I was then conducted to a 
hut, which my poor, loving comrades had built for 

*Iiiterior Travels through America, p. 502. 

fP. B97. Lamb was a sergeant in the Royal Welsh Fusileers. 
He was taken prisoner at the surrender of Cornwallis at York- 

{The description of the pen, described on page 20.S, is as fol- 
lows: "A great number of trees were ordered to lie cut down in 
the woods; these were sharpened at each end, and drove firmly 
into the earth, very close together, enclosing a space of about 
two or three acres. American sentinels wgre placed on the out- 
side of this fence, at convenient distances, in order lo prevent 
our getting out. At one angle a gate was erected, and on the 
outside thereof stood the guard-house; two sentinels were con- 
stantly posted at this gate, and no one could get out, unless he 
had a pass from the officer of the guard, but this is a privilege 
in which very few were indulged. Boards and nails were given 
to the British in order to makethem temporary huts, to secure 
them from the rain and heat of the sun." 


me in their village before my arrival. Here I 
remained some time, visiting mv former companions ' 
from hut to hut: but I ^vas astonished at the spirit 
of industry which prevailed among them. Men, , 
women, and even children, were emplo}'ed making 
lace, buckles, spoons, and exercising other mechan- 
ical trades, which they had learned during their 
captivity. They had very great liberty from the 
Americans, and were allowed to go round the coun- 
try and sell their goods; while the soldiers of Lord 
Cornwallis's Army were closely confined in their 
pen. I perceived that they had lost that animation 
which ought to possess the breast of the soldier. 1 
strove, by every argument, to rouse them from their 
lethargy. I oifered to head any number of them, 
and make a noble effort to escape into New York, 
and join our comrades in arms, but all my efforts 
proved ineffectual. As for my own part, I was de- [ 
termined to make the attempt^ I well knew from 
experience that a few companions would be highly ! 
necessary. Accordingly I sent word of my in- 1 
tention to seven men of the 23d Regiment, who 
were confined in the pen, and that I was willing to ! 
bring them with me. I believe in all the British I 
Army that these men (three sergeants and four- I 
privates) could not have been excelled for courage 
and intrepedity. They rejoiced at the idea, and by | 
the aid of some of Burgoyne's Army they were en- 
abled, under cover of a dark night, to scale their | 
fence and assemble in my hut. I sent word of my i 
intention to my commanding officer, Capt. Saum- j 
arez of the 23"d, and likewise the names of the | 
men whom I proposed to bring with me. As my [ 
money was almost expended, I begged of him to ad- | 
vance me as much as convenient. He immediately ; 
sent me a supply. 

It was on the 1st of March, 1782, that I set off j 
with my party." 

On the 21st of November, 1782, a petition 
from John Fishel. of this county, was re- 
ferred to the Secretary of War, stating that 
said John Fishel was inveigled into the 
British service in 1771; that he was captured 
with Gen. Burgoyne, and had retui'tied to his 
native place; that he had married and had 
now several children; he therefore prayed to 
be restored to his rights as a citizen. He 
produced certificates of good behavior, took 
the oath of allegiance, and was again in- 
vested with the rights and privileges of an 
American citizen. 

Armand's Legion of French troops, was 
quartered at York, from January to Novem- 
ber, 1783. The following petition, dated 
October of that year, explains itself: 

That a number of Troops (commonly called 
Armand's Legion)have been quartered among Your 
Petitioners about ten months ago; and that many 
of said Troops are very mischivious and trouble- 
some to Your Petitioners, but they contrive it so 
Crafty that it is a hard matter to discover the Fact, 
and have them brought to Justice, and which they 
conceive would be equally dangerous. And that 
Your Petitioners have been very Subtilly deceived 
at first, being only required to keep them for a few 
Days, but have been here ever since and no likeli- 
hood of being yet removed. 

And that many of Yom- Petitioners might have 
had the Benefit of Letting some Apartments of 
their Dwellings, was it not that some of said Troops 
were Quartered therein. 

And that Your Petitioners presume to be highly 

injured in their Property and deprived of their 
Liberty, (which they conceive to be equally entitled 
to enjoy the same, as other faithful Citizens of this 
Common-Wealth,) if the said Troops are not im- 
mediately removed from this Place. 

And that Your Petitioners would be willing to 
bear the Burthen with patience, were it General 
thi'oughout this Common-Wealth. 

Your Petitioners therefore most earnestly solicit 
Your Excellenc3' and the Honorable Council, to 
lend an Ear to their excessive Burthensome Griev- 
ances, and Order that the said Troops may be 
Quartered in Barracks, which Your Petitioners pre- 
sume would be more convenient and agreeable to 
the Troops, and less Injurious to Individuals, and 
would Relieve Your Petitioners of a very heavy and 
disagreeable Burthen, in which they most humbly 
Pray Redress. 

And Your Petitioners as in duty bound. 6zc. 
will pray. 

But all the citizens of York borough 
were not unfriendly to the men of Armand's 
Legion, as the following will show: 

York To^vn, Nov. 18th, 1783. 

To Brigadier General Armand Marquis De Lai 

Hearing that your legion is about to be dis- 
banded, and that you will soon return to your native 
country, we, the inhabitants of York, in Pennsyl- 
vania, express to you the high sense we entertain of 
the strict dicipline, good conduct and deportment | 
of the officers and soldiers of your corps, whilst ' 
stationed amongst us for ten months past. 

We return to you our hearty thanks, as well for 
the service rendered to America in the field, as for 
the attention you have paid to the property and 
civil rights of the people. Be pleased to commu- 
nicate our sentiments to Major Shaffner, and all 
your worthy officers, and assure them we shall ever 
hold them in the greatest esteem. 

We pray that you may have an agreeable pas- 
sage across the ocean, and that you may receive 
from your illustrious actions, performed in support 
of liberty and the honor of the allied arms, and are 
with great regard your most &c. James Smith, 
TUomas Hartley, Archibald M'Clean, and others. 

Gen. Armand made the following reply to these 
kind words : 

York, Nov. 19th, 1788. 
Gentlemen — 

I received your polite address of the 18th, and 
from its impression on my feelings, and of the offi- 
cers and soldiers of the legion, I am truly happy in 
giving you our united and most hearty thanks. 

If the legion has observed that goodoonducl, 
which merits the applause you give it, I conceive 
that, in so doing, they have only discharged their 
duty, and obeyed punctually the orders and inten- 
tion of His Excellency, Gen. Washington, whose 
exemplary virtues, talents and honor, must have 
raised ambition to some merit in those, who, like 
the corps I had the honor to command, placed all 
their confidence in him. 

Permit me to say, gentlemen, that soldiers can- 
not be guilty of misconduct, where the inhabitants 
are kind to them, also are attatched to the cause of 
their country, and so respectable as those of York. 
I think it my duty to thank you for the good be- 
havior of the legion whilst amongst you, for it was. 
encouraged and supported by your conduct towards 

I shall only add, that although the greater part. 
of us will shortly return home, the conclusion of 
the war rendering our longer stay unneccessary, wo- 
shall be happy again to join the army of America,. 


if in future our services should be deemed of im- 

I liave the honor to be with, <fcc., 

Armand, JLvbquis De La Eouerie. 


The following is a list of Pensioners of the 
Revolutionary war, from Glossbrenner's His- 
tory : 

Congress on the 18th of March, 1818, 
passed " an act to provide for certain persons 
engaged in the land and naval service of the 
United States in the Revolutionary war. " 
We will here mention those of the inhabitants 
of York County, who became United States' 
Pensioners under this act and its supplement, 
and who were alive at the passage of the 

John Schneider, served in Col. Hartley's 
regiment, Capt. Grier's company, from 11th 
November, 1775, until the end of one year 
and three months. He afterward served in 
the regiment commanded by Col. Haren, in 
Capt. Turner's company, from the early part 
of the year 1777, until the end of the war. 
In 1818, aged sixty-seven. 

Christian Pepret, served in Col. Butler's 
regiment, in Capt. Bush's company from the 
year 1779 until the close of the war. In 
1818, aged sixty- seven. 

John Jacob Bauer, served in the First 
Pennsylvania regiment commanded by Col. 
Chambers, in Capt. James Wilson's company, 
from September, 1774, until the close of the 
war. In 1818, aged seventy-three. 

John Deis, served in Capt. David Grier's 
company, in the regiment commanded by 
Col. Hartley, from March, 1776, until the 
end of one year. In 1818, aged sixty-two. 

George Lingenfelder, served in Capt. 
Michael McGuire' s company, in Col. Brooks' 
regiment, of Maryland, from June, 1780, 
until the close of the war. At the battle of 
Brandywine he was severely wounded. In 
1818, aged fifty-nine. 

David Ramsey, served in the First Rifle 
Regiment, under Col. Edward Hand, the 
company under Capt. Henry Miller, from 1st 
of July, 1775, until July, 1776. Being then 
discharged, he joined Col. Manniim's regi- 
ment, and was in service until taken prisoner 
at the battle of Brandywine. Besides this 
battle he was present and took part in those 
of Bunker Hill, Long Island, and at Flat 
Bush, at one of which he was wounded in 
the head. In 1818, aged sixty-nine. 

Humphrey Andrews, enlisted in Chester 
County, Pennsylvania, on 26th January, 
1776, for the term of one year, in the com- 
pany then commanded by Capt. James 

Taylor, in the Fourth Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment, commanded by Col. Anthony Wayne. 
From Chester County he marched by the 
way of New York, Albany, Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point, to Montreal, at which place 
they met the troops under Gen. Thompson 
who were returning from the battle at the 
Three Rivers. He thence returned, with 
his fellow soldiers, to Crown Point, where 
he remained until the 24th of January, 1777, 
stationed between the two armies of Burgoyne 
and Howe. Marching to old Chester, in 
Pennsylvania, he was discharged on the 25th 
of Feljruary, 1777. Andrews was engaged 
in a skirmish with the British in November, 

1776. In 1818, aged sixty-three. 

Jacob Mayer, enlisted in York County, 
served in Col. Wagner's regiment, in the 
company commanded by Capt. James Taylor, 
from February 1776, to the end of one year, 
when he was discharged at C Lester. In 
1828, aged sixty-seven. 

Robert Ditcher, enlisted in the spring of 

1777, in Capt. James Lee's company of ar- 
tillery then in Philadelphia, attached to the 
regiment commanded by Col. Laub. He 
was present and took part in the battles of 
White Plains, Staten Island, Monmouth, 
Mud Island and Germantown, and was 
several times wounded. In 1818, aged tifty- 

John Taylor, enlisted in February, 1^78, 
at Mount Holly, in New Jersey, in the com- 
pany of Capt. John Cummings, and in the 
Second Regiment of the New Jersey line 
attached to the brigade commanded by Gen. 
Maxwell ; and he continued in service until 
October, 1783, when he was discharged near 
Morristown in that State. He was at the 
battle of Monmouth, and at the capture of 
Cornwallis at Yorktown ; he likewise served 
as a volunteer at the storming of Stony Point, 
by Gen. Wayne, at which he was slightly 
wounded. In 1818, aged seventy-one. 

Dedlove Shadow, served from the spring 
of 1776 until the close of the war, in Con- 
gress Regiment commanded by Col. Moses 
Hazen, in the company commanned by Capt. 
Duncan. In 1818, aged sixty-two. 

James Hogg, served from 26th Jaimary, 
1779, in the First Regiment of the Maryland 
line, commanded at first by Col. SmaJlwood, 
and afterward by Col. Stone. His company 
was at first that of Capt. Nathaniel Ramsay, 
and afterward that of Capt. Hazen. In 1818, 
aged sixty-three. 

Michael Schultze, served in Ccl. Hartley's 
regiment and in Capt. Grier's company fi'om 
January, 1776, for the term of one year. In 
1818, aged sixty-one. 


Mathias Kraut, served in the Tenth Eegi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania line, commanded 
by Capt. Stout, from the year 177(j until 
the close of the war. In iSlS, aged fifty- 

Thomas Randolph, served in the Seventh 
Eegiment of the Virginia line commanded 
by Col. McLellan, in the company command- 
ed by Capt. Peasey, from the year 1775 antil 
]778. In ISIS, aged seventy-one. "The 
Soldiers' Friend" thus describes this old. old 
pensioner in 1818: Thomas Randolph — better 
known here as old Tommy Randall, the 
standing bugbear of children and likely to 
rival the most celebrated " Boog-a-boos " of 
any past age. We sincerely hope his sooty 
note of ' sweep O — sweep O ' will soon be 
exchanged for more cheerful ones. Indeed 
he has scarcely a note of any kind left, as he 
is now a tenant of the poor house, having 
been some time ago gathered to that pro- 
miscuous congregation of fatherless, mother- 
less, sisterless, brotherless, houseless and 
friendless beings, each of whom is little less 
than civiliter mortuus. 

Samuel Ramble, served in the First Regi- 
ment of the Virginia line, under Col. Camp- 
bell, in the company commanded by Capt. 
Moss, dui-ing the three last years of the war. 
In 1818, aged sixty. 

Frederick Boyer, served in the detachment 
under Col. Almon from 1777 until 1779, 
when he enlisted in a corps of cavalry under 
Capt. Selincki, and under the command of 
Gen. Pulaski ; he served in the corps until 
nearly the whole of it was destroyed. In 
ISIS, aged sixty-seven. 

Henry Doll, served in the First Regiment 
of the Pennsylvania line under Col. Stewart, 
and in the company under Capt. Shade, for 
about one year. In 18 IS, aged seventy - 

•Tohn Lockert, served in Col. Proctor's 
Regiment of Ai-tillery in the Pennsylvania 
line, in the company of Cajat. Duffie from 
June, 1777, until June, 1779. In 1818, aged 

Thomas Bui'ke, served in the Tenth Regi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania line commanded 
by Lieut. Col. Hazen, from June, 1778, until 
1781. In 1818, aged fifty-eight. 

Jacob Kramer, served in the regiment com- 
manded by Capt. Hausecker, and afterward 
by Col. Weltman, in the company commanded 
by Capt. Paulsell and afterward by Capt. 
Boyer. The term of his service was from 
19th July, 1776, until 19th July, 1779. In 
1818, aged sixty-two. 

Joseph Wren, served in the Seventh Eegi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania line, in the com- 

pany of Capt. Wilson, from January, 1777, 
until the close of the war. In' 1818, aged 
eighty. Joseph Wren made his original 
application for a pension through Samuel 
Bacon, formerly an attorney of York. Mr. 
Bacon thus writes concerning the old soldier 
in 1818: 

" Joseph Wren. — This old man's body and 

j spirit seem to be equally light. He can 
travel his thirty miles a day with ease. His 
appearance reminds you of the Egyptian 
Mummies so celebrated for their fresh and 
lifelike appearance after the lapse of cen- 
turies. During the deluge (not Noah's 
flood, nor yet Ducalion's, as you might have 
supposed from his ancient date, but the 
deluge which buried a third part of our town 
in ruins, on the ever memorable 9th of Aug- 
ust, 1817,) old Wren, like the lively little 
bird of his own name, perched himself in a 

i snug corner of the garret of a two-story 

' house, and went to sleep. The house rose ou 
the bosom of the deep, plunged all but the 
garret into the waves, and was dashed from 
surge to surge till it lodged against a tree. 

' Five persons were drowned; side by side they 
lay in a room of the second story of the house. 
Joseph slept on. 

" At length when the God of nature held out 
the olive branch of hope to the terror-struck 
tenants of the roofs of the tottering houses, 
and the flood subsided so that ' the dry land 
appeared '- — when the mighty ocean that had 
been as it were created in a moment and 
precipitated upon us, gathered itself into the 
mild and unassuming Codorus again, Joseph's 
abode of death, when youth and health, and 
female excellence and manly virtue, had been 
buried in the waves, was visited, — and still he 
slept. When he awakened he rubbed his 
eyes, not certain they were his own, or 
whether he was Joseph Wren any more; for 
he knew not where he was, unless it might be 
in some place on the other side of the grave. 
Thus, indeed, has Joseph Wren had hair- 
breadth escapes, in the forest wild and city 
full, and is spared to be made glad by some- 
thing very unlike the ingratitude of repub- 

j Conrad Pudding served in Armand's 
legion, in Capt. Sheriff's company from the 
spring of 1781, until the fall of 1783, when 
the army was disbanded. In 1818, aged 

I Michael Warner served in Capt. Jacob 
Bower's company of the Pennsylvania line 

' from October, 1781, until October, 1783. In 
1818, aged fifty-nine. 

John Devinney served in the Fourth Regi- 
ment commanded by Col. Anthony Wayne, in 


Capt. Thomas Robinson's company from the 
fall of 1775 nntil the close of one year, at 
which time he entered in the Fifth Rep;iment, 
in Capt. Bartholemew's company in which he 
continued to serve until the close of the war. 
In 1818, aged sixty-two. 

William Brown enlisted at Philadelphia in 
the autumn of 1777 for the term of three 
years, in the company commanded by Capt. 
John Doyle and the First Regiment of the 
Pennsylvania line commanded by Col. Hand. 
He was at the battle of Brandywine, at the 
taking of the Hessians at Trenton, and at the 
battles of Princeton, Monmouth, Stony Point 
and Paoli, at the last of which he received 
several wounds. Having continued to serve 
six years, he was discharged at Lancaster. 
In 1818, aged seventy -three. 

John Beaty served in the Sixth Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment commanded by Col. Irwin, in 
the corapany of Abraham Smith from Febru- 
ary, 1776, until February, 1777. In 1818, 
aged sixty-three. 

John Ohmet served in the Tenth Regiment 
of the Pennsylvania line, commanded by 
Col. Richard Hampton, in the company of 
Capt. Hicks, from May, 1777, until the close 
of the war. In 1818, aged sixty. 

•Jacob McLean served in Col. Hausecker's 
regiment called the "German Regiment," 
in the company of Capt. Benjamin Weiser, 
from July, 1776, until the year 1779. In 
1818, aged sixty. 

Frederick Huebner, served in Gen. Ar- 
mand's legion, in the company of Capt. 
Barron for the term of about three years. 
In 1818, aged sixty-four. 

Adam Schuhman, served in the Fifth Penn- 
sylvania Regiment commanded by Col. 
Richard Butler in Capt. Walker's company 
commanded by Lieut. Feldam, from the 
spring of 1776 iintil the close of the war. 
In 1818, aged sixty-six. 

Joel Gray, served in Col. Hartley's regi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania line, in the 
company of Capt. Bush, from October, 17(8, 
until the 1st of April, 1781. In 1818, aged 
seventy-tive. Poor Joel was a client of Mr. 
Bacon, who thus writes of him in 1818: j 
"Joel Gray — He may indeed be addressed j 
in the style of the old ballad, and they may | 
make the same response. 

O why do you shiver and shake Gaffer Gray? 
And why does your nose look so blue? 
" I am grown very old, 

And the weather 'tis cold, 
And my doublet is not very new." 

This old man, in 1818, says: " I have one 
chest worth about a dollar. I have no trade 
or any business whatsoever. I have no 

children or friends to give me any kind of 
assistance. My pension and the poor-house 
are all I have to depend upon." 

Michael Weirich, served in the Sixth Regi- 
ment of the Maryland line under Col. Will- 
iams and Col. Stewart, and in the company 
of Capt. Rebelle, during the last five years 
of the war. In 1818, aged sixty-four. 

Zenos Macomber, served in Col. Carter's 
regiment from May, 1775, until January, 
1776, when he enlisted in Col. Bond's regi- 
ment of the Massachusetts line. Baving 
served in this regiment about two months, he 
was removed and placed in Gen. Washing- 
ton's foot guard. Here he continued until 
January, 1777, when he enlisted in Gen. 
Washington's horse guard in which he served 
three years. In 1818, aged sixty-one. 

Anthony Lehman, served in the Fifth Regi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania line under Col. 
McGaw, in the. company of Capt. Deckart, 
from February, 1775, till January, 1777. 
In 1818, aged sixty-five. 

•Samuel Spicer, served in the Tenth Regi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania line, under Col. 
Hampton, in Capt. Weaver's company, for 
about one year before the close of the war. 
In 1818, aged eighty-one. 

Christopher Nerr, served in the Second 
Regiment of the Pennsylvania line, com- 
manded by Col. Stewart, under Capt. Patter- 
son, from April, 1777, until January, 1/80. 
In 1818, aged sixty-five. 

William Smith," served in the Second Regi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania line, under Capt. 
Watson from February, 1776, until the 
expiration of one year. Being then in Can- 
ada, he returned home and enlisted in the 
Fourth Regiment of the Pennsylvania line, 
commanded by Col. William Butler, in Capt. 
Bird's company. In 1818, aged sixty nipe. 

Martin Muller, served in Count Pulaski's 
legion, in Capt. Seleski's company, for the 
term of eighteen months. In 1818, aged 
sixty- nine. 

Ltidwig Waltmau. served in the Sixth Regi- 
ment of the Pennsylvania line, commanded 
by Col. Butler, in the company of Capt. 
Bush, from the fall of 17 n for the term of 
three years and a half. In 1818, aged sixty. 

William Kline, served in Col. Wayne's 
regiment, in Capt. Frazers company, from 
December, 1775, until March, In.. In 
1818, aged sixty-three. 




IN 179(1, the General Assembly took action 
in regard to the defense of the frontier, 
the Indians having continued to harass and 
disbress the inhabitants. A conference was 
had by Gen. "Washington on the 10th of Jan- 
uary, 1791, with the chiefs of the Seneca 
Nation, Cornplanter, Half Town and Great 
Tree, without much result. The troops un- 
der Gov. St. Clair were defeated, and there 
was gi'eat alarm. The quotas of the several 
brigades of Pennsylvania, toward forming a 
detachment of 1(1,768 militia, officers in- 
eluded, agreeablv to the requisition of the 
President of the United States, May 19, 1794, 
were to be in readiness to march according 
to the following divisions: Second Division, 
First Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Miller, County of 
York, S"22 men, County of Lancaster 750 men.* 


The excise laws had been enacted for the 
purpose of providing revenue, and laid a tax 
on spirituous liquors manufactured in the 
province, before the Revolution, and during 
the war it was necessary, on account of large 
quantities of gi'ain consumed, and of the 
depreciation of the cui-rency. Resistance be- 
gan in the western counties with the enthu- 
siasm of the opposition to the British tax on 
tea. The morality of making and drinking 
whisky was not then questioned. Although 
the Constitution of the United States made 
all taxes uniform, yet the tax on one article 
would be oppressive in particular sections of 
the countiy. In 1791, a law of Congress 
laid ?in excise of 4 pence per gallon on all 
distilled spirits. Among those who opposed 
the law were such men as Albert Gallatin 
and Judge Brackenridge. Public meetings 
were held in opposition to it and a conven- 
tion of delegates met at Pittsburgh. Col- 
lectors of excise were tarred and feathered, 
and also those who undertook to serve process 
against the rioters, who were called " Tom, 
the Tinker's men," from the mending the 
broken stills. The President of the United 
States issued a proclamation enjoining per- 
sons to submit to the law. The excitement 
caused bloodshed. The State and national 
authorities conferred, and committees of dis- 
tinguished citizens were sent to the West to 
investigate and negotiate. A call for troops 

*IV Aicliives, K. S, 764. 

Under the requisition of the President of 
the United States, 5,200 militia were called 
from Pennsylvania. The fourth division, 
Lancaster and York, Second Brigade; Yorke 
quota-22 cavalry, 551) officers, musicians and 
privates. The whole detachment of militia 
were to constitute one division, to be formed 
into three brigades, to be in readiness to 
march at a moment's warning. The third 
brigade, York, Gen. James Chambers, 500 
men. Cavalry Corps, Russel's, York. 1 
colonel, 2 majors, 1 ensign, 4 sergeants, 4 
corporals, 1 paymaster, 1 surgeon, 25 jHi- 

York county, furnished, on this occasion, 
a regiment of well appointed militia, and 
two companies of volunteers. The regiment 
was commanded by Col. Daniel May. One 
company of volunteers was commanded by 
Capt. Andi-ew Johnston. Of this company 
Charles Barnitz was first lieutenant, and 
John Greer, ensign. Of the other, (which 
was a rifle company,) James Cross was cap- 

Col. Alexander Russell to Gen. Harmar: 
Yorktown, September 6, 1794. "Five hundred 
to 10( •( I stand of arms and accoutrements care- 
fully put into hands of select volunteer com- 
panies would give new vigor to the troops 
and cheerful compliance with a call.''f Sep- 
tember 11, 1794. — Orders of Gen. Josiah 
Harmar, adjutant-general of the militia of 
Pennsylvania, on requisition of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, for assembling the 
quota of militia, drafted. The quota of 
York County to assemble at Yorktown, there 
to be furnished with arms, equipments and 
camp equipage, and to proceed direct to Car- 
lisle. Each company complete will be al- 
lowed one covered wagon with four horses, 
which is to carry their tents and camp kettles, 
but to be encumbered as little as possible 
with baggage, and every man is to carry his 
own pack.^ 

Secretary of War Hamilton, wrote to Gov. 
Mifflin, September 18, 1794, " that a detach- 
ment of the troops of the United States, under 
the command of Lieut. Daniel Bissell, is to 
march from this city as an escort to a train 
of artillery and military stores, intended for 
the Maryland and Virginia Militia called out 
against the Western insurgents. This detach- 
ment will march through Lancaster and 
Yorktown and from thence to Williamsport, 
in Maryland. I have to request that your 
excellency would be pleased to give instruc- 
tions to the commanding officer of the militia 
at York, to furnish a reinforcement from his 



militia to the said escort, if Lieut. Bissell 
should think it necessary, for the protection 
of his important charge." This was com- 
municated by Gov. Thomas Mifflin to Alex- 
ander Russell, Esq. , brigade inspector of the 
county of York, the same day. Gov. Mifflin 
wrote to Gen. Edward Hand, on the 27th of 
September, that he had " just, received a 
letter from the brigade inspector of York 
CouDty, informing him that he was in want 
of rifles, and requesting that an order might 
be given for putting into his possession from 
fifty to one hundred of those which you have 
contracted for in York "* 

On the 29th of September, 1794, Secretary 
Dallas wrote to Dr. Wales, of York, from 
Yorktown: "The governor has I'eceived a 
very honorable recommendation, for issuing 
a commission in your favor, as surgeon to 
the Marsh Creek troop of Horse, on the 
Western expedition, and he directs me to in- 
form you that the recommendation shall be 
complied with upon our arrival at Carlisle, "f 
A conference was held by the governor with 
the brigade officers of York County, at York, 
on the 29th of September. 

On the 10th of October, President Wash- 
ington was at Carlisle, having passed en 
route through the upper part of York County. 
He left there on the 11th for Chambersburg, 
and went as far as Bedford, where he re- 
mained two or three days. But the people 
of tlie West had yielded and consented to 
obey the law, and orders were issued for the 
return of the troops on the 17th of Novem- 
ber. X 

THE WAR OF 1812-14. 

The prosperity of the United States, after 
the achievement of their independence, was 
interrupted by the war between England and 
France, during the career of Napoleon. 
Those nations mutually declared each other's 
ports to be in a state of blockade, which 
closed them against American commerce. 
The British government claimed the "right 
of search" — to take from American vessels 
the sailors they claimed to be of English 
birth and impress them into their service. 
The American people demanded " free trade 
and sailors' rights," and the outrages perpe- 
trated were so great that they insisted upon 
a surrender of the British claim of search. 
The Government of the United States refused 
to negotiate on the subject, an embargo was 
laid upon all ships in American ports, and 
war was declared by Congress against Great 
Britain in June, 1812. 

«IV Archives, N. S., 321. 

James Madison, the President of the 
United States, issued a proclamation calling 
on the militia of the several States. In 
May, 1812, a draft of 14,000 men, as the 
quota of Pennsylvania of 100,000 militia, 
had been ordered by an act of Congress, and 
Gov. Snyder had issued his general orders 
for their organization, and volunteers from 
all parts of the State had tendered their ser- 
vices to the Government by the time war was 
declared. This war with Great Britain re- 
sulted in great glory to the American arms 
on sea and land, as in the celebrated naval 
battles of the Constitution and Guerriere 
and of Lake Erie,* on the water, and of 
Fort George, Lundy's Lane, North Point and 
New Orleans, on land. 

The war was opposed by the Federalists, but 
York County was Republican, and it required 
but the near approach of the enemy to rouse 
their patriotism. This did not occur until 
the summer of 1814, when the enemy inva- 
ded the country by the way of the Chesa- 
peake Bay and the Potomac River. The 
City of Washington was captured by Gen. 
Ross, on the 25th of August, 1814, and the 
capitol was burned, the President' s house and 
other public buildings, and then an expedi- 
tion was undertaken against Baltimore, 
which that ill-fated general boasted he would 
make " his winter quarters, and that with his 
command he could march where he pleased 
in Maryland." When word of these outrages, 
and of the threatened danger to a neighbor- 
ing city came here, companies were speedily 
formed and ready to march to its defense. 

On the 18th of August, 1814, Gen. Win- 
der, commanding the Tenth Military District 
of Maryland, wrote from Washington City 
to Gov. Snyder, that, " In consequence of the 
arrival of large reinforcements to the enemy 
at the mouth of the Potomac, I am author- 
ized and directed by the President to require 
from you, immediately, the whole number of 
the militia of Pennsylvania designed for 
this district, out of the requisition of the 
4th of July last, to wit : 5,000 men. . . _. 
The danger to the capital of our country is 
extreme, and I am authorized by the Presi- 
dent, without regard to the designated quotas 
of the late requisition, to call such militia 
aid as may be necessary. In the present 
state of things, therefore, and the imminent 
danger which threatens my district, I must 

Elliott commanded the auited States Frigate Niagara, in that 
brilliant engagement, and for his gallant conduct was voted a 
KOld medal by Congress. It was from the Lawrence to the Niag- 
ara that the celebrated transfer of the flag, inscribed '-Don t^give 
up the ship," by Com. Oliver Hazard Perry, in the heat of the 
engagement, took place. Com. Elliott subsequently commanded 
thefarfamed frigate, Constitution. 



beg you to call out and send to me, from the 
counties nearest my district, either as volun- 
tefsrs, or in any other manner, all the force 
yon can detach." In consequence of this, 
the Governor issued the following general 
order : 


Harrisburg, August 26. 1814. 

To John M. Hyneman, Adjutant- General: — You 
are commanded, in conformity to a requisition from 
the constituted authorities of the Union, to have pre- 
pared for marching, and to have marched to York- 
town, in the county of York, the place of rendez- 
vous, .5,000 men. Pennsylvania militia, from the 
Second Brigade, Third Division, and from the 
Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Divisions, which detach- 
ment is to consist of volunteers who have, or who 
may tender their services of flank companies, in- 
fantry and riflemen, who are to march in compan- 
ies, and of drafted militia designated for service 
under general orders of the 22d of July, last past. 
which shall be organized into one division and two 
brigades (if not as herewise directed), on the .5th 
day of September next, agreeably to law, and con- 
formably to the regulations prescribed for the Uni- 
ted States Army. 

For the command of which division, I designate 
Maj.-Gen. Watson and Brig.-Gens. John Forster 
and JohnAddams. The major-general and the offi- 
cers and men under liim are to obev the commands, 
and execute the orders of Gen. William Winder, 
Commandant for the United States, within the 
Tenth Militia District. 

The troops may be marched from York, either in 
division after organization, or in small bodies be- 
fore organization', if it further the service, and Gen. 
Winder shall so direct, and to such place as by him 
shall be designated. The term of service to "be six 
months, unless sooner discharged by the authority 
of the United States. 

Simon Snyder, 

Oovernor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

On the same day orders were sent to 
Archibald S. Jordan,* Brigade Inspector of 
York County, to " direct such volunteers and 
flank comjianies, as soon as practicable, to 
march on toward Baltimore, or to such other 
point as your information may enable you to 
judge most proper at this crisis, without any 
regard to the time fixed for the general ren- 
dezvous, and direct the commanding officer 
of each company or detachment to report 
himself to Gen. Winder, or any other officer 
commanding under the United States." And 
on the 27th, on behalf of the adjutant gen- 
eral, it was communicated to the same, with 
regard to making arrangemeats to provide 
provisions for the men as they shall arrive at 
the place of rendezvotxs. All the camp equi- 
page belonging to the State was at Philadel- 
phia, and had been ordered to York.f 

Among the general officers of the war of 
1812-14, in the roll of Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, are the names of Christian Hetrick, 
Brig.-Gen York, 1812, and Archibald S. Jor- 
dan, York, brigade inspector, 1812. 


■oni Hopewell T 
ives, 2d. S., 714. 

Volunteers at Baltimore, 1814. — Head 
quarters at York, September 16, 1814. The 
detachment of Pennsylvania militia, ordered 
to rendezvous at York were organized into 
four regiments and one battalion, forming 
two brigades, under command of Maj.-Gen. 
Nathaniel Watson. First Brigade, Brig-Gen. 
John Foster.« Second Brigade, Brig-Gen. 
John Addams. 

The companies at York, in September, 
1814, of the First and Second Brigades of 
Pennsylvania militia, were from Leijanon, 
Bucks, Dauphin, Schuylkill, Lancaster, 
Berks, Chester and York Counties., and 
companies of riflemen, from Lancaster and 
other counties. These were in service from 
September 1. 1814. to March 1, 1815. 

On the 6th of September. 1814. Gov. 
Snyder, issued an order to the keeper of 
military stores at Carlisle, to deliver to the 
order of Gen. Nathaniel Watson such number 
of muskets and equipments as he may require 
to supply the militia under his command at 
York, who have been called into the service 
of the United States. And also such a num- 
ber of tents and camp equipage as he may 
require for the accommodation of the men.* 
War Department, Sfpti-mbcr 1M 1*11. 

Maj.L.Marsteller, Qoakteum \--ti i: i :i m.kal. 

8ir: — All tlie arms which are ni I'lvd, i :, kiown 
will be immediately transported lowmd niliimore, 
reporting their progress to the comiiiaiidinu general 
at that place, that his direction may be givcii in re- 
lation to their final destination; reporting.also. that 
the arms are for the use of the Pennsylvania troops, 
marching from York to Baltimore. Should there 
be less than 5,000 stand of arms at Freder- 
icktown, the balance, to make up that number, 
must have the same direction from Harper's Ferry. 
The commanding general of ordinance has been 
directed to send 10,000 stand of arms from 
that place to Carlisle, the above order will embrace 
a part of that number. The residue of the 
10,000 you will have immediately transported, 
one half to Fredericktown and one half to York, in 
Pennsylvania. You will report to me your proceed- 
ings under this order as soon as practicable. I am 

Your obedient servant, 

James Mon ROEf 

The following in relation to "The York Vol- 
unteers" who had marched in the meantime, 
and participated in the battle of North Point, 
fought September 12. 1814, is from Gloss- 
brennar' s history of York County. 

The "York Volunteers" were nearly one 
hundred strong, and were composed princi- 
pally of young men, ""the flower of the 
county," and were commanded by Capt. 
(afterward colonel) Michael H. Spangler, of 
the borough of York. This gallant company 
marched from York on the 29th of August, 
1814, without any provision other than that 

*XArchives, 2a.'*., p 7.34. 



contributed by the citizens of the borough. 
Immediately upon their arrival at the city, 
they tendered their services to the general in 
command, and in consequence of their respec- 
table appearance and discipline, were solicited 
to attach themselves to the Fifth Regiment, 
a fine body of Baltimore troojas, under the 
command of ' Col. Sterett. They were 
marched with their regiment to oppose the 
enemy at North Point, and. until overpow- 
ered by numbers, fought with the bravery of 
veterans. Notwithstanding the formidable 
host opposed to them, they resolutely main- 
tained their ground, until a retreat, thrice 
ordered, became absolutely necessary to pre- 
vent their being surrounded and cut off. 

Two of their number were taken prisoners 
and severely wounded, one very severely. 
After the battle, and until the enemy retired, 
their duty was of the most severe and arduous 
kind, and they acquitted themselves in a man- 
ner fully satisfactory to their commanders 
and highly honorable to themselves. In tes- 
timony of the gallant bearing of the "Vol- 
unteers" at Baltimore, we subjoin the dis- 
charge of Gen. Smith, a private letter of 
Maj. Heath, and an extract from the regi- 
mental orders of the brave Col. Sterett of 
September 20, 1814. 


September 20, 1814. 
Capt. Spangler and his company of volunteers 
from York, Penn., having honorably performed the 
tour of duty, for which they had bfiered their ser- 
vices, are hereby permitted to return to their homes. 
In taking leave of this gallant corps, the major- 
general commanding has great pleasure in bear- 
ing testimony to the" undaunted courage they dis- 
played in the affair on the 13th inst., and in tender- 
ing tliem his thanks for the essential aid they con- 
tributed toward the defense of the city. 

S. Smith, Maj. -Gen. Commanding. 

B.\LTiM0KE, September 30, 1814. 
To Capt. Spangler: 

Dear Sir— Hearing that you are about to dspart 
from our city with your brave corps, I can not do 
justice to niy own feelings without expressing the 
obligations I am under, to you and them for the 
promptness with which you uniformly executed m}' 
orders, your readiness at all times to perform your 
duty, and the cool and manly conduct manifested 
by the officers and men under your command during 
the action with the enemy oil the 13th Inst. May 
you all return in health to the bosoms of your fam- 
ilies, and long enjoy happiness uninterrupted. 

I am. Sir, with sentiments of sincere respect. 
Your friend and humble servant. 
R. K. Heath, First Major, Fifth Regiment. 

Regimental Orders— Fifth Regiment. 

B.VLTi.MOKE, September 20, 1814. 
Capt. Spangler's company of York Volunteers 
having permission to return to their re.5pective 
homes, the lieutenant-colonel can not permit them 
to depart without thanking them for their soldier- 
like and orderly conduct. The few days they were 

attached to the Fifth Regiment was a momentous 
period of trial— they not only had to face the dan- 
gers of battle, but to bear the inclemencies of 
weather, and suffer all the inconveniences of fa- 
tigue, watching and hunger, to which the soldier is 
liable in the hour of alarm — these were met and 
borne by them with manly fortitude, which does 
them honor and entitles them to the gratitude of 
Baltimore, and particularly to the friendship and 
esteem of the officers and men of the Fifth Regi- 
ment, which are thus publicly and cheerfully ac- 
corded to them." 

Two companies marched out of Hanover 
for Baltimore, in September, and were at- 

! tached to a Maryland regiment participating 

I in the battle of North Point — of one Freder- 
ick Metzgar was captain; .John Immell, first 
lieutenant; of the other, John Bair, captain, 
and Henry Wirt, first lieutenant. These 
companies contained from fifty to sixty men. 
The following is a list of the officers and 
men composing the company of "York Vol- 
unteers," when that company marched from 
York on the invasion of Baltimore — August 
29, 1814: 

^ Michael H. Spangler, captain; Jacob Bar- 
iiitz, first lieutenant; John M'Cardy, second 

! lieutenant; George F. Doll, ensign. Musi- 
cians: John A. Leitner, Daniel Small, G. P. 

I Non-commissioned officers: John Hay, 
Adam King, Joseph Schall, David AV'ilson, 
Charles Kurtz, Michael Hahn, John Kuntz, 
Daniel Updegraff. 

Privates: Peter Lanius, Henry Sleeger, 
James Gibson, G. W. Spangler, Hugh In- 
gram, John Brickel, Thomas Miller, Jacob 

I Lehman, Jacob AViesenthal, Jacob Frey, 
George Dunn, John M' Clean, George Holter, 
Michael Miller, John Devine, John M'Anul- 
ty, John Linn, Anthony T, Burns, Jacob Gart- 
ner, Peter O'Conner, Charles Stroman, Enoch 
Thompson, Henry Wolf, David Hoffart, Rich- 
ard Coody, Jame.f Dugan, Andrew Kauffman, 
Charles Stuck, Hugh Stewart, Jacob Lolt- 
man, Jacob Sheiier, Peter Siers, Jacob Rei- 
singer, William Burns, Jacob Glessner.Eman- 
uerRaab, Jacob Eupp, Grafton Duvall. Sam- 
uel Hays, George Beard, Christian Eshbach, 
Joseph Kerr, John Taylor, John Byron, Dan- 
iel Coyle, Jacob Herbst, Peter Grimes, Hugh 
M'Cosker, Abraham Keller, Henry Mundorf, 
G. M. Leitner, Walter Bull, William Ness, 
Aaron Holt, Daniel Heckert, James S. Connel- 
lee, David Trimble, I. W. Altemus, Thomas 
Thompson, Chester Smith, E. W. Murphy, 
Robert Pierson, Daniel Baumgardner, Fred- 
erick Witz, Frederick Kircher, Jacob Noell, 
George Ilgenfritz, Joseph Woodyear, Joseph 
M'Conniken, John Fisher, John Gieay, Jacob 
Levan, Jacob Stocar, Peter Cooker, Hugh 
M'Alear, Sr,, Hugh M'Alear, Jr., David 


Eauifman, William Watson, Dennis Kear- 

On the 2Sth of November, Gen. Wat- 
son, who had commanded the troops rendez- 
voused at York, received the order of Qen. 
Wintield Scott for the payment and discharge 
of his division. He issued his orders that 
the First and Second Brigades of Pennsyl- 
vania militia, under Gens. Foster and 
Addams, should, when mustered and paid, 
proceed forthwith to York and be discharged. 
He thanked them for their uniform good 
conduct. "The men had borne the severity of 
the wet and inclement season in their tents 
with patience and forbearance."! 


Texas had declared independence in 1836, 
and was acknowledged an independent repub- 
lic by the United States. That independence 
had been achieved by American settlers, so 
that it came asking for admission at the first 
congress in the new administration, and was 
made one of the States of the Union in 1S45. 
The year following found the government 
embroiled in a war with Mexico. Volunteers 
were asked for and all parts of the country 
quickly responded. 

York county furnished her proportion of 
brave men to carry the flag of the United 
States to the halls of the Montezumas. Sev- 
eral volunteers left the borongh of York for 
the Mexican war, who were attached tu the 
First Pennsylvanian Regiment under Col. 
Francis M. AVynkoop, Lieut. -Col. Samuel 
Black, in Company C. , Capt, Will iam A. Small. 
There were nine of them and they partici- 
pated in many bloody but victorious battles, 
under the great chieftain. Gen. Winfield 
Scott, from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico, 
through the ba\tles of Cerro Gordo, Churu- 
busco. National Bridge, Molino del Eey, 
Chapultepec, Contreras, Huantla, where the 
renowned Capt. Samuel Walker was killed, 
and at the siege of Puebla, where William 
Enrich, one of their number, was killed and 
Jacob Danner died. Peter Ahl, Esq., was 
the last survivor of this band of brave men. 
Col. Thomas A. Ziegle was one. The others 
were Albertns Welsh, Daniel Craver, Will- 
iam Patterson, Robert Patterson and Samuel 

«Capt. Michael H. Spangler died on Sunday, the 7th of Sep- 
tember, 1334, and was attended to his grave on the following 
Tuesday by a vast concourse of mourning relatives and friends, 
by the officers of the Ninety-fourth Eegiment, Pennsylvania 
Militia, by the survivors of the " York Volunteers," and by the 
following volunteer companies of the borough : the Washington 
Artillerists, commanded by Capt. Jacob Upp, Jr.; the Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, commanded by Capt. John Evans ; the Citi- 
zen Guards, commanded by Capt. Samuel Hay ; the National 
Greys, commanded by Capt, Alexander H. Barnitz ; the York 
Rangers, commanded by Capt. Samuel E. Clement. 

tXH Archives, 2d S., p. 785-6. 

Stair. Weirich Pentz was in the 4th Ohio, 
Colonel Brough and David Hays were in one 
of the Ohio Regiments. 

Edward Haviland was a member of the 
Philadelphia Grays, Captain Scott, attached 
to the First Pennsylvania volunteers. Col. 
Albert C. Ramsay, a resident lawyer of some 
distinction, commanded a regiment, in which 
were some men from York County; it was the 
Eleventh Regiment of the line. George John- 
son, a soldier from York in that regiment 
was killed at the battle of Molino del Rey. 
Theodore D. Cochran was a captain of volti- 
geurs attached to the same regiment. 

There were officers of the regular army 
from York in the Mexican war. Maj, Gran- 
ville O. Haller was captain of tlie Fourth 
infantry. William B. Franklin, a graduate 
of West Point, of 1843, was first lieutenant 
of topographical engineers. H. G. Gibson, 
a graduate of 1847, was second lieutenant of 
the Third artillery. The officers of the navy 
from York who served in that war, were 
George P. Welsh, Samuel R. Franklin and 
William Gibson. The Mexican war ended 
in 1S4S. It added to the Union immense 
tracts of territory and rich States, the golden 
land of California and the silver mines of 
Nevada, and opened for us that great transit 
across the continent to the Pacilic, with still 
more momentous political results to the gov- 
ernment and nation. 


THE news of the firing upon Fort Sumter, 
which occun-ed on the 12th of Ajsril, 
1861, followed by the proclamation of Presi- 
dent Lincoln on the 15th, calling for 75.000 
troops, aroused the patriotism of our people. 
Gov. Curtin made a requisition upon the 
organized companies of Pennsylvania, and 
the citizen soldiers of York, consisting of 
the Worth Infantry, Captain Thomas A. 
Ziegle, and the York (Penn.) RiHes, Capt. 
George Hay, responded unanimously to the 
call, and obeyed with alacrity the order of 
the governor. 

On the evening of Thursday, the ISth, in 
pursuance of a general call, the people of 
York assembled m great numbers in the coiu-t 
house, for the purpose of expressing their 
sense of the condition of the national gov- 

«This narrative of the events of the late war is from the edi- 
tor's " Historical Sketch," prepared in 1876, and published by 0. 
Stuck & Son. 


ernment, and to offer aid to those called into 
the service. John Evans, Esq., was called to 
the chair, and other prominent citizens were 
made ofBcers of the meeting. Patriotic reso- 
lutions were adopted, and measures taken to 
provide means for the support of the families 
of volunteers. The borough authorities 
appropriated $1,000 for this purpose, the 
commissioners were recommended to make 
an appropriation of $5,000, and committees 
were appointed to collect money by voluntary 
subscription from our citizens, and over 
12.000 were contributed. The union feeling 
in York was intensely strong. Flags were 
suspended from the principal buildings, 
l^laces of business and private residences, 
and poles were erected from which the stars 
and stripes floated proudly to the breeze. 
The ancient borough of York was not behind 
any of her neighbors in patriotism and zeal. 
Events thickened and aroused intense 
feeling. The Sixth Massachusetts Regi- 
ment while passing through Baltimore, on 
the I9th, was attacked by a mob, and the 
passage of some of the cars obstructed. The 
soldiers who were obliged to form for the 
purpose of marching through the city, being 
assaulted with increased violence, fired upon 
the crowd. Two of the Massachusetts sol- 
diers were killed and seven persons in the 
crowd, some rioters and some who were look- 
ing on. On that night a portion of the track 
of the Northern Central Railway was torn 
up between Cockeysville and Baltimore, and 
a number of the bridges on the road were set 
on fire and burned down for the purpose of 
impeding the passage of troops from the 

The military companies from this place 
received orders on Saturday evening, the 
"iOth, to hold themselves in readiness to 
march, and at 11 o'clock at night they left 
in a special train, going toward Baltimore, 
and were stationed in squads at the several 
bridges along the route of the road, and some 
at Cockeysville. Ten or twelve trains with 
troops passed through York on Sunday, from 
early in the morning until late at night, pro- 
ceeding as far as Ashland and Cockeysville, 
concentrating some 3,000 men at those points. 
But on Monday these several regiments 
returned to York, and encamped on the fair 

A.t the meeting of the court on Monday, 
the 22d, the president judge, Hon. Robert J. 
Fisher, in charging the grand jury, referred 
to the distracted state of the country, and 
urged upon them the necessity of providing 
for the comfort and support of those who had 
so promptly obeyed their country's call. He 

stated that the citizens of York had sub- 
scribed several thousand dollars, and that the 
borough authorities had appropriated .^1,000, 
and recommended the grand jury to request 
the commissioners to make a liberal appro- 
priation for the same purpose out of the 
county funds, and said that he had no doubt 
the appropriation would be legalized by the 
Legislature. Several members of the bar 
also addressed the grand jury. The scene 
was a very impressive one. The grand jury 
the next day recommended that the commis- 
sioners appropriate $10,000, which was 
promptly done. Hanover and Wrightsville 
made liberal appropriations, making about 
$15,000 in all. The Legislature subsequently 
ratified these proceedings. 

The troops which had passed through York 
to Cockeysville on Saturday and Sunday, were 
the First, Second and Third Regiments 
of Pennsylvania Volunteers, for the three 
months' service, composed of organized com- 
panies from nearly all the cities and princi- 
pal towns in the State, the military compa- 
nies of Easton, Allentown, Reading, Harris- 
burg, Lancaster, Chambersburg, Gettsyburg, 
Columbia, Bloomtield, West Chester, Belle- 
fonte, Hollidaysburg, Altoona, Johnstown, 
East Liberty, and other places — some unat- 
tached — together with our own military com- 
panies who were as early as any of them in 
the field. They came from comfortable homes 
and were unaccustomed to exposiwe and hard- 
ship. The commissary arrangements were 
not sufficient for so large a body of men sud- 
denly thrown together, and they depended to 
some extent on voluntary supiJJies from our 
own people. 

The hospitality of the citizens_^of York, on 
this occasion, extended to these new recruits, 
has frequently been mentioned by them in 
complimentary terms. The encampment here 
was for the purpose of instruction, and was 
called Camp Scott, in honor of the veteran 
commander-in-chief of the Qnited States 
Army. The town assumed a Warlike appear- 
ance. Other troops came on the 26th of 
April, the Twelfth and Thirteenth Regiments 
from Pittsburgh arrived, and by the 7th of 
May there were 5,500 men in camp here. In 
addition to these was Capt. Campbell's bat- 
tery of twelve pieces of artillery. The Sec- 
ond Regiment, Col. Stumbaugh, of Cham- 
bersburg, had been organized on the 21st of 
April. The York Rilles, George Hay, cap 
tain, John W. Schall", first lieutenant, and 
Jacob Emmitt. Jr., second lieutenant, were 
attached to it here as company K. 

The material of which the Sixteenth Regi 
meat was formed, was also encamped on the 


fair grounds. Five compaDies were from 
Schuylkill county, one from Mechanicsburg, 
Capt. Dorsheimer's, the first company in the 
State that enlisted for three years, and four 
companies from York County. These were 
Company A (Worth Infantry), captain, John 
Hays ; first lieutentant, Solomon Myers ; 
second lieutenant, John M. Deitch. Com- 
pany 1' (Marion Kifles of Hanover), captain, 
Horatio Gates Myers ; first lieutenant, Joseph 
Kenaut ; second lieutenant, Jacob "W. Ben- 
der. Company G (Hanover Infantry), cap- 
tain, Cyrus Diller ; first lieutenant, Henry 
Momingstar ; second lieutenant, Joseph S. 
Jenkins. Company H (York Voltiguers), 
captain, Theodore D. Cochran ; first lieuten- 
ant, Michael Gallagher ; second lieutenant, 
Andrew D. Yocum. The regiment was or- 
ganized at Camp Curtin on the 3d of May, 
by the selection of Thomas A. Ziegle as col- 
onel. A. H. Glatz was made quartermaster, 
and Charles Garretson, assistant quartermas- 

The regiments here were all ordered to 
Chambersburg and left about the 1st of June, 
with every demonstration of encouragement, 
amid cheers and waving of handkerchiefs — 
the Rifles leaving with their regiment ; but 
the Sixteenth remained for a few days. 
This regiment had already acquired great 
proficiency of drill under the care of its 
accomplished commander. On Satmday, the 
8th of June, it marched into town to take its 
departure for the seat of yvar. In the morn- 
ing a flag was presented to the regiment by 
the ladies of York. A perfect storm of flow- 
ers fell upon the soldiers as they marched 
through the streets, every one had a bouquet 
in his musket. 

The Sixteenth was in the brigade of Col. 
Miles, U. S. A., First Division, and the Sec- 
ond legiment was in a brigade of the Second 
Division of the army of Gen. Patterson in 
the campaign of the valley of the Shenandoah. 
They moved from Chambersburg to Hagers- 
town and Williamsport. At the latter place 
Albertus Welsh died on the 27th of June, 
the first soldier from York who died in the 
war. He was a member of the Worth 
Infantry, and as already mentioned was one 
of the nine veterans from here in the war 
with Mexico. The Potomac was crossed on 
the 2d of July by fording it, and an ad- 
vance made to Martinsburg, ai-riving about 
the middle of July at Bunker Hill, driving in_ 
Johnston's advance guard. The regiment 
then made a forced march toward Harper's 
Ferry, the enemy's pickets retreating before 
them, and encamped at Charlestown, on the 
17th of June. They were constantly threat- 

ened with attack, but no action took place. 
AVhen their term of service expired the Sec- 
ond and Sixteenth Regiments returned to 
Harrisburg and were mustered out. The 
Worth Infantry and York Rifles arrived home 
on the 27th of July, where they were wel- 
comed by the ringing of bells, tiring of can- 
non, speeches and a banquet. The Volti- 
geurs arrived home on the 2d of August, 
their commander, T. D. Cochran, was subse- 
quently appointed a captain in the regular 
army. Capt. H. G. Myers, of the Marion 
Rifles, had been left ill at Hagerstown, where 
he died on the Sth of August. Thomas 
Brannon, a member of his company, died at 
the same place, on the 17th of July. 

Thus ended the camiDaign of the three 
mouths" men. Though our soldiers were not 
engaged in battle, and we were glad to see 
them home safe and sound, events showed 
that they might have been. The demonstra- 
tions of Johnston in the neighborhood of 
Haiper's Ferry were only feints, as was 
proved by his opportune arrival on the battle 
field of Bull Run, on Sunday, the 21st of 
July. Instead of the army of Gen. Patterson 
engaging him and preventing him from rein- 
forcing Beauregard, he was permitted to 
retire with all the appearance of a retreat. 
The great embarrassment under which Gen. 
Patterson labored, and perhaps an altogether 
sufficient excuse for him, is found in the fact 
of the expiration of the term of enlistment of 
so many of his men just at the time of that 
battle, which after all, some have considered 
a Providential reverse. 

There had already been a call on the part 
of the Government for men to serve for three 
years unless sooner discharged. The Thir- 
tieth Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers 
otherwise known as the First Regiment of 
the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, organized 
en June 9, 1861, at Camp Wayne, Ches- 
ter County, was represented by Company 
D, recruited in Lancaster and York Counties. 
The Forty-first regiment, the Twelfth Re- 
serves, was first raised for the three months' 
service. Samuel N. Bailey, of York County, 
was made lieutenant-colonel. Company G., 
Capt. Charles W. Diven, afterward major, 
was recruited in York County. To enumer- 
ate the battles of this renowned corps would 
be to relate the greater part of the history of 
the war. It is suificient to say that York 
County had men in the Pennsylvania Re- 

The Forty-third Regiment, known as the 
First Pennsylvania Artillery, was formed 
under the call for volunteers of April 13, 
1861. One company was recruited in York 



by Alfred E. Lewis, who at the organization 
of the regiment was made senior major. I 
The colonel was Charles T. Campbell, who, 
it will be remembered, was here with a bat- i 
tery during the encampment of troops on the 
fair grounds. He had enlisted twenty or 
more men here who were attached to battery 
A, commanded by Capt. Easton, which per- j 
formed gallant service at Drainesville, and 
Gaines" Mill, where Capt. Easton was killed. | 
The other company recruited here became 
Battery E, Capt. Thomas G. Orwig, and 
served in the Peninsular Campaign, under 
McClellan, and in the army of the James, 
rendering valuable service at Drury's Bluff I 
and Fort Harrison, and at the siege of Peters- j 
burg and Richmond. It was the first battery 
that entered the capital, reaching there 
before the enemy' s Hag was pulled down, and 
hastening the retreat of his rear guard, who 
had intended to tire the city. 

Two companies of infantry for three years' 
service were recruited in York County early in 
1861 — one in York by H. Clay Mclntyre, and 
the other in Hanover by Cyrus Diller, immedi- 
ately after his return from the three months' ' 
service. These companies were attached to 
the Seventy-sixth Regiment, which was raised 
under a special order of ihe secretary of war, 
and was known as the Keystone Zouaves, 
John M. Power, of Cambria County, colonel. 
Charles Garettson, of York, was made quar- i 
termaster, who, while serving with it, was 
appointed a captain in the regular army. 
The captains of Company D were successively 
Cyrus Diller (afterward major), William S. j 
Diller and Charles L. Bittenger; of Com- ; 
pany I, H. Clay Mclntyre, Jacob J. Young, 
Frank J. Magee and Harrison Stair. 

On the 18th of November, 1861, the reg- ; 
iment received its colors from the hands of 
Gov. Curtin, and proceeded to Fortress Mon- 
roe, sailed from there to Hilton Head; as- 
sisted in taking Fort Pulaski at the mouth j 
of the Savannah River; participated in the 
attack on Charleston under Gen. Wright, and 
engaged the enemy with heavy loss in an 
expedition to sever communication between ; 
Charleston and Savannah. On the 6th of 
July, 186y, it moved to Morris Island, and 
on the 10th it took part in the memorable 
assault on Fort Wagner, which it charged in 
gallant style. They received the order to 
charge as the flash of the artillery fire was 
seen, knfelt and permitted the discharge of ' 
the guns to pass over them, then started for- ; 
ward with a yell. The ranks were thinned i 
at every discharge. The moat was reached I 
and crossed, and many fell on the parapet 
beyond; 130 men and five officers were left ! 

behind. A second assault took place on the 
18th of July, with a similar result. Frank 
J. Magee acted as aid to Gen. Strong in the 
engagement. Company I went in with thir- 
ty six men and but twelve escaped. Twelve 
regiments were afterward ordered to take the 
fort by storm, but were repulsed with great 
loss. Fort Wagner was a heavy sand fort, 
bomb proof, covering several acres. It was 
ultimately demolished after a fierce cannon- 
ading of fifty days' duration, when it was 
discovered that it had been abandoned by the 

In May, 1864, the Tenth Corps, to which 
the Seventy-sixth was attached, was ordered 
to Virginia. The regiment took part in the 
battle at Drury's Bluft", where Capt. J. J. 
Young, of Company I, was killed, also in the 
sanguinary engagements at Cold Harbor, 
Deep Bottom, and numerous other localities 
on lines before Petersburg and Richmond. 
Capt. Magee served as aid-de-camp on staff 
of Gen. Terry, commanding corps; also was 
for a time with Gen. Ames. The Seventy- 
sixth, under command of Gen. Penny - 
packer, assisted in the capture of Fort Fisher, 
in January, 1865. It was disbanded at Har- 
risburg, July 23, 1865, after one of the long- 
est terms of service iu the war. 

After the departure of the regiments quar- 
tered here, a company was organi/ied by 
Capt. James A. Stahle, called the Ellsworth 
Zouaves, after the brave but ill-fated ofiicer 
of that name. This company became Com- 
pany A, of the Eighty-seventh Regiment. 
Capt. George Hay immediately after the re- 
turn of the Rifles on the 19th of August, 
1861, received a commission as colonel. The 
project originally was the raising of a regi- 
ment for the purpose of guarding the North- 
ern Central Railway, in relief of other reg- 
iments recruited for the war. By the 12th 
of September there were five companies mus- 
tered in. John W. Sehall was made lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and Charles H. Buehler, major. 
Eight of the companies were from York 
County and two from Adams. The officers 
commanding this regiment successively were 
colonels, George Hay, John W. Sehall and 
James Tearney; lieutenant-colonel, James A. 
Stahle; major. Noah G. Ruhl; adjutant, Ja- 
cob Emmitt, Jr. Company A, captains, John 
Fahs, James Tearney, George J. Chalfant. 
Company B, captains, Jacob Detweiler, Lewis 
Maish, Zeph. E. Hersh. Companv C, An- 
drew J. Fulton, Murray S. Cross, Findlay S. 
Thomas. Company D, James H. Blasser, 
Edgar M. Ruhl. Company E, Solomon 
Mj'ers, Charles J. Fox. Company F. William 
J. Martin, James Adair. Company G, V. C. 


S. Eckert. H. Morningstar. Company I, 
Thaddeus S. Pfeiffer, William H. Lanius. 
Company H, Ross L. Harman, Weils A. Far- 
rah. Company K, John Albright. 

The first duty assigned them was the guard- 
ing of the railroad, relieving the Twentieth 
Indiana. On the 28th of May, 1862, the 
reo-iment was moved to Baltimore, and thence 
to West Virginia, and was kept actively em- 
ployed and moving from point to point, un- 
der great fatigue and exposure, until it went 
into winter quarters with Gen. Milroy's Divi- 
sion at Winchester, about the 1st of January, 
1863. Here they performed picket diity dur- 
ing the winter under very severe exposiire. 

In May, 1863, by the resignation of Col. 
Hay, John W. Schall became Colonel. James 
A. Stable, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Xoah Ct. 
Ruhl, Major. Maj. Buehler was made 
Colonel of the One Hundred and Sixty-sixth. 

If the army of Gen. Patterson in 1S61 
oucht to have engaged the enemy, it may be 
said that the command of Gen. Milroy, in 
1863, ought not to have hazarded an engage- 
ment. He was over sanguine of holding his 
position, and by the consent of Gen. Schenck, 
disobeyed an order to retreat. The advance 
of Gen. Lee's forces for the invasion of the 
North, flushed with success, could not be 
checked by his comparatively small force, 

June 12, 1863, the first of a series of 
battles was fought by the Eighty-seventh, 
at Middletown, ten miles distant from 
Winchester, with the advance guard of 
Ewell's army, and on the 13th and 14th they 
behaved with great gallantry in the battle of 
Winchester. On the 14th a brilliant charge 
was made by it at Carter's woods, in which 
Col. Schall had a horse shot under him. 
Capt. Farrah and Lieut. Slothower, of Com- 
pany H, were killed. The regiment joined 
the Army of the Potomac in July, 1863, and 
was attached to the Third Corps, Gen. French, 
and was in the battles of Mauasses Gap, 
Bealton Station, Kelley's Ford. Brandy Sta- 
tion, Locust Grove, and Mine Run. 

Afterward assigned to the Sixth Corps, 
Gen. Hancock, it was in the battles of the 
Wilderness, and at Cold Harbor where Col. 
Schall was wounded and Capt. Pfeiffer was 
killed, and the regiment sustained a loss in 
killed and wounded of nearly a third of its 

On the 6th of July, the battle of Monocacy 
was fought against superior numbers, the loss 
of the regiment being greater than in any 
other battle. Among those who lost their 
lives at this battle were Adjt. Martin and 
Lieuts. Haak, Dietrich, Spangler and Walte- 
meyer. In September the regiment was with 

the army of Sheridan at the battle of Ope- 
quon, where the enemy were defeated, and 
on the 22d at Fisher's Hill, where he was 
again routed. The next day the term of serv- 
ice expired, and the remnant of the regi- 
ment returned home, arriving at York on the 
27th of September, 1864, where a reception 
was awaiting them — their arrival announced 
by the ringing of bells. The old flag which 
they bore through all their battles was carried 
in the procession torn in shreds. Few regi- 
ments saw more active service and work or 
suffered more. 

The veterans who had re-enlisted, and the 
new recruits who remained at the seat of war, 
were consolidated into a battalion of five 
companies, under command of Capt. Edgar 
M. Ruhl, who was killed while gallantly 
leading them in the battle of Cedar Creek, 
October 19, 1864. The regiment being re- 
cruited to its full strength, Capt. Tearney- 
was commissioned colonel, and it participated 
in the charge upon the works before Peters- 
burg, where Lieuts. Keasey and Nichol were 
killed. It was mustered out on the 29th of 
June, 1865. 

After his return from the three months' 
service, Col. Thomas A, Ziegle received au- 
thority to recruit a regiment. One of the 
most experienced and accomplished volun- 
teer officers in the service, he assisted in 
the organization of troops at Harrisburg, 
and March 5, 1862, was given the com- 
mand of the One Hundred and Seventh. 
Company A, Capt. Jacob Dorsheimer, had 
volunteers from York County — Oliver P. 
Stair, first lieutenant, George C. Stair, 
second lieutenant. On Sunday, the 9th 
of March, the regiment passed 'through 
York, for the seat of war, moved to Wash- 
ington, and on the 2d of April crossed the 
Potomac, and was assigned to Duryea's 
brigade, Ord's division, of McDowell's 
corps. After the defeat of Fremont and 
Banks by Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, 
the regiment reached Front Royal by forced 
march, on the 1st of June, where Jackson had 
retreated. The regiment encamped at differ- 
ent places, and while near Warrenton, on the 
morning of the 16th of Jiily. Col. Ziegle 
died. The whole regiment were devotedly 
attached to him, and he was regarded as one 
of the most efficient officers in the brigade. 
He had been identified with the military of 
York for so many years, that his career was 
regarded with expectations of unusual suc- 
cess. He has already been mentioned as one 
of the volunteers in the Mexican war from 
York, where he had displayed remarkable 
coolness and bravery, and became captain of 


his company. Immediately after that war he 
raised the military company known as the 
Worth Infantry, whose discipline and drill 
were not excelled by any corps in the Union. 
The Worth Infantry was the equal in their 
peculiar drill of the gallant Ellsworth's com- 
pany of Zouaves. His readiness and that of 
his company on the breaking out of the war 
for the Union, their services, the organization 
of the Sixteenth Regiment and its service 
have already been mentioned. His remains 
were brought home and were interred with 
impressive obsequies in Prospect Hill Ceme- 
tery, on July 20, 1862. 

The One Hundred and Seventh Regiment 
became part of the army under Gen. Pope, 
and was first under fire at Cedar Mountain 
on the 9th of August, 1862, and was in the 
second battle of Bull Run, and at Chantilly, 
South Mountain and Antietam. In October, 
1862, it took position in Gen. Franklin's 
grand division, and was at Fredericksburg 
and Chancellorsville. It was in the First 
Corps, Gen. Reynolds, at Gettysburg, en- 
gaged the first day on Seminary Ridge, and 
on the third to the right of Cemetery Hill. 
In February, 1864, nearly the entire regi- 
ment re-enlisted, and after the veteran fur- 
lough, was with Grant in his movement across 
the James, heavily engaged, and before Pe- 
tersburg. At Weldon Station Lieut. George 
C. Stair was captured, and with other officers 
made his escape through the enemy's lines. 
Oliver P. Stair was promoted to captain and 
made brevet major. James Crimmons was 
wounded at Antietam, taken prisoner at Get- 
tysburg and Weldon Station, and was made 
first lieutenant in July, 1865. The regi- 
ment was mustered out on the 13th of July, 

In the summer of 1862 a company was 
raised in York by Col. Levi Maish, and about 
the same time companies by Capts. Hamilton 
Glessner and Lewis Small, and a company in 
Hanover by Capt. Joseph S. Jenkins, which 
were mustered into the service at Harrisburg 
about the middle of August. These, with five 
companies from Cumberland County, and 
some recruits from other counties, were 
formed into the One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Regiment, Henry J. Zinn. of Cumberland, 
colonel; and Levi Maish, of York. lieutenant- 
colonel; and John Lee, of Cumberland, ma- 
jor. Company B, Capt. Glessner; lieuten- 
ants, William H. Tomes, Henry Reisinger; 
Company C, Capt. Jenkins; lieutenants, Benj. 
F. Myers, William Bossier; Company I, Capt. 
Small; lieutenants, D. Wilson Grove, Frank- 
lin G. Torbet, Jere Oliver; Company K, Capts. 
Maish, David Z. Seipe; lieutenants, James 

Lece. John J. Frick. The regiment proceed- 
ed at once to Washington, and was moved 
across the Potomac. After the retreat of Pope 
it was assigned in September to French's 
division of Sumner's corps, and on the 16th, 
but one month after its formation, was in 
front of the enemy at Antietam, in the center. 

The One Hundred and Thirtieth were post- 
ed on the 17th upon the crest of a hill, with 
a field of corn in front, and the enemy lay at 
the further edge behind a stone wall. Com- 
pany K was 100 yards from where the enemy 
lay in the rifle pits. The regiment held this 
exposed position for hours. " The shot and 
shell flew like heavy hail, and the men be- 
came deaf from the roar of musketry and 
cannon." Gen. French said: "'The conduct 
of the new regiments must take a prominent 
place in the history of this great battle. 
There never was such material in any army." 
The officers from York County wounded, 
were Col. Maish, Capt. afterward Maj. Jen- 
kins, and Lieuts. Seipe and Tomes. Maj. Jen- 
kins afterward was attached to the One Hun- 
dred and Eighty-fourth regiment, and was 
killed in November, 1864, in front of Peters- 

At daylight on the 11th of December, the 
regiment moved to within sight of the spires 
of Fredericksburg, at night assisted in lay- 
ing a pontoon bridge opposite the upper end 
of the city, and on the following morning 
crossed with the division and bivouacked in 
the streets of the city, part of which was 
still burning, and at night occupied the ruins 
of a large brick building on Caroline Street. 
The great battle began on the morning of 
the 13th by the firing of the artillery on both 
sides, and when the infantry was put in mo- 
tion, the division of Gen. French was in ad- 
vance, which was exposed to a terrific cross- 
fire of shot and shell, but pressed on with 
broken and thinned ranks until it was com- 
pelled to fall back. Among the killed were 
Col. Zinn. commanding the regiment, and 
Lieut. Torbet, of this county. 

Levi Maish was promoted to colonel on the 
3d of February, 1863. When the command 
of the army devolved upon Gen. Hooker, the 
regiment was moved to Chancellorsville, and 
it was engaged in the furious battle of the 
3d of May, 1863, when Col. Maish was again 

On the 12th of May the regiment was re- 
lieved from further dut3\ The special order 
of Maj. -Gen. French, relieving the One 
Hundred and Thirtieth and One Hundred and 
Thirty-second, said: "The General command- 
ing the division takes pleasure in promulgat- 
ing, in orders, their gallantry, soldier-liko 



bearing and efficiency, during their entire 
term of service." And after referring to the 
great battles in which they had been engaged, 
said: " Soldiers, you return to your native 
State which has received lustre from your 
achievements, and by your devotion to your 
country's cause. This army, and the divi- 
sion to which you are attached, although they 
lose you, will always retain and cherish the 
credit which yoiu' military bearing on all oc- 
casions reflected on them." On the announce- 
ment of their return a town meeting was held 
for their reception, and on Saturday, the 23d 
of May, 1863, they received a handsome and 
hearty welcome. The bells were rung, busi- 
ness suspended, a procession formed under a 
military and civic escort to the United States 
Hospital, where a collation was served by the 
Ladies' Aid Society, and speeches of welcome 
were made and responded to by the Colonel 
in praise of the the bravery of his men in 
their great battles. 

In all great wars, as was remarked in not- 
ing the events of the Revolution, the first 
volunteers are not sufficient to the con- 
duct of a prolonged war, and especially in 
the recent war, carried on upon such an im- 
mense scale, a draft was necessar}-. On 
two occasions there was a draft in York, 
on October 16, 1802, and in August, 
1803. There were other calls, and partial 
drafts, but, generally, on the announcement 
of the quota for any district it was filled 
either by volunteers or by means of subscrip- 
tions for the purpose. Many took their 
chances of the draft and went in person when 
drawn. It is the experience of army officers 
that men raised by this means are as steady 
and efficient as any other troops. 

The One Hundred and Sixty -sixth Regiment 
was formed, in large part, by men raised under 
the draft of 1862. It was organized on the 
29th of November in that year, on the fair 
grounds, named Camp Franklin, after Maj.- 
Gen. William B. Franklin, with the fol- 
lowing field officers: Andrew J. Fulton, late 
captain of Company C, of the Eighty-seventh, 
colonel; George W. Reisinger, lieutenant- 
colonel, and Joseph A. Renaut, Major. The 
troops comprising this regiment were exclu- 
sively from York County, and proved them- 
selves to be good soldiers. On the 8th of 
November, the regiment proceeded to Wash- 
ington, and from thence to Newport, and 
nnder Gen. Peck, to Suffolk, which place 
was besieged by Gen. Longsti-eet for more 
than three weeks, who failed to reduce it. 
While there, companies of the One Hundred 
and Sixty-sixth were engaged in heavy 
skirmishes with the enemy, and s 

considerable loss in killed, wounded and 
prisoners. Companies D and I had a severe 
conflict on the 14th of May, near Carnsville. 
After further service in the destruction of 
railroads leading North, during which they 
were exposed to the fire of the enemy, especi- 
ally at Hanover Junction, while engaged in 
destroying the Richmond & Fredericks- 
burg Railroad. At the expiration of their 
term of service, on July 28, 1803, they 
were mustered out. The regiment left with 
over 800 men and about 050 returned — 
9 were killed, about 25 died, and others 
were left sick at Fortress Moni-oe. 

In the meantime, events at home gave our 
people work to do; and in all cases when 
called upon to furnish provisions or give aid 
to the sick and wounded, they were ready 
with abundance, and with sanitary help. 
The Second Regiment of the Ira Harris 
cavalry (Sixth New York) took up winter 
quarters here about Christmas, 1861. In 
the course of the winter barracks were erected 
on the commons for their accommodation. 
This regiment ha J occasion to express their 
appreciation of the hospitable attention they 
received from our citizens. Gen. Havelock, 
a distinguished British officer, a volunteer on 
the staff of Gen. McClellan, as Inspector- 
General of Cavalry, visited York, in March 
1802, for the purpose of superintending the 
transportation of the New York regiment, 
which soon after left us. The barracks 
erected for them were converted into a mili- 
tary hospital, in the course of the summer, 
in which many hundreds of soldiers were 
placed. The ladies of the borough formed a 
society for the relief of sick and wounded 
soldiers, Mrs. C. A. Morris, president, which 
was perfect in organization and effectiveness, 
and the attention, sympathy and aid afforded 
by it have been gratefully remembered. 

Great apprehensions were excited by the 
retreat of the army under Gen. Pope, in Sep- 
tember, 1862, and still further increased by 
the crossing of the Potomac by the rebels in 
large force, and the occupation of the city of 
Frederick. In consequence of the reported 
advance of the enemy toward the Pennsyl- 
vania line, a meeting of the citizens of the 
borough was called, on September 8, 1862, 
and it was resolved to form companies in 
the respective wards, and voluntary organ- 
izations were thereupon immediately formed, 
in the First, Second, TMrd, Fo urf h and Ffth 
Wards, two in the Fourth, and an independ- 
ent company being the seventh, called the 
Keystone Guards, and a cavalry company 
called the Videttes. The captains of these 
companies secured 700 stand of arms 


and necessary accoutrements. Places of 
business were closed at 6 o'clock, to give 
an opportunity for drilling, and to acquire 
proficiency in case the companies were needed. 
They were all mustered into the serivce 
on September 12, 186'2, and were not 
discharged until the 24th. The Keystone 
Guards were fully armed and equipped ready 
to march when the order to move was counter- 
manded. The reception of the news of the 
battle of Antietam, and the retreat of Lee 
across the Potomac, quieted the country. 

"lii June, 1863, our people were again 
thrown into a state of excitement from an 
apprehended rebel invasion. Two military 
departments were erected and Gen. Couch 
was given command of the eastern depart- 
ment, and orders issued for the formation of 
the army corps of the Susquehanna,^ but the 
enemy moved with more rapidity than was 
expected. Dr. Palmer, surgeon in charge of 
the United States Hospital, received orders 
to remove the patients and stores to a place 
of greater security, the rolling stock of the 
Northern Central Eailway was removed north- 
ward, and citizens were warned to take care 
of their valuables, especially their horses. A 
large meeting was held on the 15th of June, 
and a Committee of Safety formed. Maj. 
Granville O. Haller, Seventh United States 
Infantry, who was in York at this time, was 
placed in command of military preparations 
here by order of Gen. Couch. Gen. William 
B. Franklin, U. S. A., was also present in 
, York. These officers met in consultation 
with the Safety Committee. Large bounties 
were offered by the borough and county 
authorities. A company under Capt. Seip 
was organized and sent to Hai-risburg, and a 
company of horsemen acted as scouts. But be- 
fore any further organizations could be effect- 
ed, the rapid movements of the enemy brought 
him to our doors. They came nearer and 
nearer, heralded by flying families, and 
horses and cattle, removed by the orders of 
Gen. Couch, to the east of the Susquehanna. 
On the 2Gth of June, Gettysburg was occu- 
pied by a large force. Ijate at night the 
Philadelphia City Troop arrived with jaded 
horses, and reported that they had been chased 
several miles this side of Gettysburg. Maj. 
Haller arrived at midnight, having narrowly 
made his escape from that place. The enemy 
were reported the next day, Saturday, at 
Abbottstown. The troops here, consisting of 
the Patapseo Guards, about 60 men, and 200 
convalescents of the hospital and some 
citizens, the City Troop, a cavalry company 
from Gettysburg, in all about 350 men 
(companies of citizens were not ordered out) 

were at first moved westward, but it was 

deemed that such resistance as they might 

make would likely result in disaster to the 

I town, and they were moved toward Wrights- 

j ville. 

I On the 28, June, 1863, the rebel army 
j entered York. They marched into town about 
i 10 o'clock, on Sunday morning, entering the 
I west end of Market Street ; the church bells 
had commenced ringing and the citizens 
crowded the streets. jLadies on their way to 
church stopped on thb porches and sidewalks. 
The whole population soon thronged the 
streets, and men, women and children looked 
with curious eyes, mingled with undefined 
apprehensions, upon the motley procession 
of cavalry, infantry and artillery marching 
up Market Street, the soldiers looking 
curiously from side to side, astonished not 
less at their observers than their observers 
were at them. The people were in holiday 
or Sunday costume, the ladies in all their 
fashionable finery, and the men looking well 
dressed and comfortable, in strange contrast 
with the ragged and worn appearance of the 
invading army.f These first troops that 
entered the town were Gen. Gordon's brigade 
of 2,500 men, who marched up Market Street 
and on toward Wrights-yille. The Union 
flag was floating in the center square and 
was taken down and carried off by them. 

Two regiments of infantry, with ten pieces 
of artillery, followed, and with them, Maj.- 
Gen. Early, commander of the division. 
This last brigade took possession of the hos- 
! pital grounds, the commons. Gen. Early 
established his headquarters in the court 
; house. York was the only place of anj' con- 
I siderable size and wealth they had in their 
I grasp. They saw the rich valley, and the 
[ evidences of prosperity a'll around us, and 
made their demands accordingly. Although 
the men were restrained from violence and 
citizens were treated with respect, the iron 
hand of an enemy was felt. A requisition 
was made for provisions and articles of cloth- 
I ing and .§100,000 in money. Our prominent 
: business men, by their efforts, partially tilled 
the requisition, raising some $28,000. 
Threats were made of burning the railroad 
buildings and car shops, and prudence dictat- 
ed compliance as far as possible. 

Four- brigades were in York and vicinity, 
; commanded by Gens. Gordon, Hayes. Smith 
; and Hoke. The brigade of Gen. Gordon 
marched to Wrightsville, reaching there about 
6 o'clock, in the evening. The few Union 
troops there retreated across the bridge, after 
the exchange of a few shots with the enemy. 
The bridge was fii-ed about midway, and soon 


the whole was enveloped in flames. The in- 
vading troops left hastily on the morning of 
Tuesday, the 30th of June, between 4 and 5 

There were some incidents connected with 
the rebel invasion of the borough of York, 
which gave rise to much excitement and mis- 
representation at the time and afterward, and 
as a part of the res gestae, as the lawyers say, 
cannot pass unnoticed. Sufficient. time has 
elapsed since the war, to view the proceed- 
ings calmly. A visit was made to the camp 
of the enemy, on the evening preceding 
his entry into town, by the request of the 
Committee of Safety, in order to assure the 
alarmed citizens of the safety of persons and 
property, an assurance which accounts for the 
calm manner in which the presence and 
control of a hostile foe, was viewed by 
our people the nest day; and the flag, in 
Centre Square, was left flying to show that 
the town was not surrendered. It was 
soon after replaced by another flag, presented 
by AV. Latimer Small, Esq., to the borough. 

The following is a copy of the requisition 
made upon the borough of York by Gen. 
Early, during his occupancy of the town, 
also a list of the articles and amount of 
money he received: 


One hundred and si.xt.v-five barrels of flour, or 
twentyei^lit thousand pounds baked bread. 

Thirty-five hundred pounds of sugar. 

Sixteen hundred and fifty pounds of coffee. 

Three hundred gallons molasses. 

Twelve hundred pounds salt. 

Thirty-two thousand pounds fresh beef, or 
twenty-one thousand pounds bacon or pork. 

The above articles to be delivered at the Market 
House on Main Street, at 4 o'clock P. M. 

Wm. W. Thornton, 
Capt. & A. C. S. 


Two thousand pairs shoes or boots. 

One thousand pairs socks. 

One thousand felt hats. 

One hundred thousand dollars in money. 

0. E. Snodgrass, 
Major & Chief Q. M. Early's Division. 
June 28. f863. 

Approved, and the authorities of the town of 
York will furnish the above articles and the money 
required, for which certificates will be given. 

J. A. Early, 
Major-General Commanding. 

A meeting of prominent business men was 
called, and a committee appointed to fill the 
above requisition. After every effort was 
made with unexampled labor on their part, a 
sum of money and the following articles were 
furnished, with which Gen. Earley expressed 
satisfaction, viz.: 

Twenty-two thousand pounds of beef, 3,500 
pounds sugar, 1,200 pounds salt, 2,000 pairs 
boots anfl shoes, 1,000 hats, 1,000 pairs socks, 
105 barrels flour, and 300 gallons molasses, 
3,500 pounds sugar, 1,650 pounds coffee, and 
828,610 in money. 

The Confederate army evacuated York early 
on Tuesday morning, and our people were cut 
oil" with communication with the outside 
world and news from the ai-my until Tuesday 
evening, July 2, when a scouting party of 
twenty of Kilpatrick's calvary, from Hanover, 
came galloping into town. The feelings of 
our people were worked up into a fever of 
excitement, and the scouts were received with 
great joy. A collation was at once spread 
for them in the market house in Centre 
S(|uare, and as the hungry men were about to 
partake of it, the sentinel on duty a short 
distance down Market Street gave the alarm, 
that a body of horsemen were approaching 
from the west. The officer in command, gave 
the order "to horse" and quicker than it can 
be written, every man vaulted into the sad- 
dle, and with drawn sabre and carbine in 
readiness, were in line, eager to make a dash 
down the street, upon the reported advance 
of the enemy. The officer poised his field 
glass, but instead of an enemy, discovered a 
peaceable farmer coming into Bottstown, with 
a load of hay, drawn by six horses. J'he 
soldiers laughingly dismounted, and did full 
justice to the viands spread for them by the 
patriotic people of York. After ascertaining 
that the army under Earley, had left this sec- 
tion of the country the cavalry left for Han- 
over, to join Kilpatrick and take a hand in 
the bloody fight at Gettysburg. 

The Committee of Safety of the borough 
of York, organized in June, 1803, for the- 
defense of the borough of York,. for the in- 
formation of the public, published the fol- 
lowing statement : 

On Monday evening, the f.ith of June, 1863. at 
the call of the chief burgess, a large meeting was. 
held in the court house, which resulted in the ap- 
pointment of the following Safety Committee : 

First "Ward— Frederick Stallman, William H. 
Albright, Gates J. Weiser. 

Second Ward — David E. Small, John Gibson, E. 
H. Weiser. 

Third Ward— Thomas White, Jacob D. Schall, 
W. Latimer Small. 

Fourth Ward— Col. D. A. Stillinger, Gen. George 
Hay, George A. Barnitz. 

Fifth Ward— Fred. Baugher, Lewis Carl. Joseph 

The Safety Committee met at 9 o'clock on Tues- 
day morning, and issued a call in obedience to the 
governor's proclamation, for the formation of mili- 
tary companies to be sent to Harrisburg for the 
defense of the State. 

A company of men for six months was organized 
in the borough, under Capt. Seip, and sent to Har- 



aisburg, who are now in the service of the United 

The.y also used every effort with the comraission- 
■ers of the county to secure to every volunteer a 
bounty of |25, in which they did' not succeed. 
They, however, through a town meeting called by 
them, on the evening of the 17th of June, obtained 
from the town council of the borough of York a 
sum sufJicient to pa}' the recfuired bounty, which 
was accordingly done. 

The committee further recommended the citizens 
of the borough and county to form a company of 
horsemen, to act as scouts. This latter company 
was immediately organized, and were very service- 
able to the committee in furnishing them with in- 

Despatches were, from time to time, received 
from Maj. G. O. Haller, Seventh United States In- 
fantry, at Gettysburg, of the movements of the 
enemy. Maj. Haller had been appointed aid to 
Oen. Couch, and placed in charge of the defenses 
here, and he frequently consulted and advised with 
the committee as to the means to be used for the 
protection of the borough. The committee met 
twice a day, and all information received by them, 
by telegrams or otherwise, was immediately given 
to the public. 

On the 23d of June, 1863, an order of Gen. Couch 
was published, by hand-bills, to the people of the 
county, '.' directing that all horses, except those' for 
cavalry or scouting purposes, and all cattle, be sent 
north or east of Harrisburg," thus giving ample 
notice to all persons to place in security property 
most liable to capture by the enemy. 

On the 24th of June, reliable information from 
Gettysburg was received through Maj. Haller that 
the enemy were on the South Mountain with a large 
force, consisting of infantry, cavalry and artillery. 
The committee, at that time, not apprehending 
anything more than cavalry raids in this vicinity, 
issued a'call to the citizens of the borough to form 
companies of minute men for home defense. To 
effect this, places of business, at the request of the 
Safety Committee and of the chief Burgess, were 
closed at 6 o'clock P. M. The next day, Friday, 
June 26, the places of business were closed at 12 
o'clock, noon, and those desirous of joining mili- 
tary organizations for the defense of the borough, 
were requested to meet at the court house, at 2 
o'clock P. M. A large gathering of citizens re- 
sponded to the call, and the company rolls were 

During the meeting, a dispatch from Maj. Haller 
was received, informing the committee that the 
enemy were moving upon Gettysburg with infantry, 
cavalry and artillery, and urging the citizens of 
York to organize and arm themselves, that perhaps 
York County could be saved. A meeting of citi- 
zens assembled at 7:30 o'clock in the evening, at 
which addi'esses were delivered and the rolls again 
opened. One company, numbering seventy men, 
under Capt. John Hays, was organized. 

At a late hour on Friday night information was 
received of the occupation of Gettysburg and of the 
retreat of our forces from that town. Places of 
business were closed on Saturday during the entire 
day. Notice of the rebels being at Abbottstown was 
received about 3 o'clock in 'the afternoon. The 
forces here were ordered out by Maj. Haller, con- 
sisting of the convalescents of the United States 
Hospital, the hospital guard a few men of the 
Eighty-seventh Pennsylvannia Volunteers, the Phil- 
adelphia City Troop,a volunteer company of cavalry 
from Gettysburg and vicinity, and some citizens of 
York, in all about 3.50 men. This force, about 6 
o'clock, was ordered to fall back to Wrightsville, 
leaving the borough of York without a soldier to 
■defend it. 

At the request of the chief burgess, the Safety 
Committee was convened at half-past seven o'clock. 
The following committee immediatelj' adopted the 
following resolution: 

Resoloed, That the American flag be raised in 
the Centre Square. 

The chief burgess informed the committee that 
Mr. Arthur Farquhar, a citizen of the borough had 
reported to him an interview with Brig.-Gen. Gor- 
don, of the rebel army, a few miles from town, and 
that he was authorized to inform the borough 
authorities that in case no resistance was made to 
the occupation of the town, private property and 
unarmed citizens should be respected; whereupon 
the committee adopted the following resolution: 

Resolved, That finding our town defenceless, 
we request the Chief Burgess to surrender the town 
peacefully and to obtain for us the assurance that 
the persons of citizens and private property will be 
respected, the Chief Burgess to be accompanied by 
such of the committee as may think proper to join 

The following named gentlemen were appointed 
a special committee to accompany the Chief Bur- 
gess: Gen. George Hay, President of the Committee 
of Safety; W. Latimer Small and Thomas White, 
Esq. These gentlemen with the Chief Burgess and 
Mr. Farquhar left town about eight o'clock Saturday 
evening, and returned about one o'clock the follow- 
ing morning. They reported an interview with 
Brig. Gen. Gordon in which they informed him that 
they had endeavored to raise all the force they 
could to resist his entering the town, but having 
failed to do so, all that they asked if he did enter, 
was that the persons and property of citizens should 
be safe, that the rebel General gave them every 
assurance of the protection they asked in case the 
town should be occupied bj' his forces, and further 
that there was nothing said bj' either party about 
a surrender of the town. At ten o'clock on Sunday 
morning, the 28th of June, the rebels in large force 
entered and occupied the town. The flag flying in 
Centre Square was ordered to be taken down by the 
enemy and was carried away by him. 

The Committee of Safety having discharged the 
duties imposed upon them to the best of their 
judgment respectfully submit the above report of 
their action to their fellow citizens. 

Geoege Hat. 
John Gibson, 
■ Fredekick Stallm.\x, 
Wm. H. Albright, 
Gates J. Weiser, 
David E. Small, 
E. H. Weiser, 
Thomas WnitE. 
Jacob D. Sc^ll, 
W. Latimer Small, 
D. A. Stillinger, 
George A. Barnitz, 
Frederick Baufher, 
Lewis Carl, 
Joseph Smyser. 


At Hanover, the first battle of the war in 
Pensylvania, was fought on Tuesday, June 
30, 1863, an artillery and cavalry light 
which lasted the greater part of the day. 
The cannonading was distinctly heard in 
York. The third division of the cavalry 
corps, of the Army of the Potomac, under 
Gen. Kilpatrick, one of the brigades of which 
was commanded by Gen. Cnster, reached Lit- 
tlestown on the 29th, and Hanover on the 



30tli, in pursuit of Gen. Stuart, who was 
known to be moving tlirough Pennsylvania. 
The Eighteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry was of 
the rear guard of Kilpatrick's column, and 
while halting in the streets of Hanover, was 
suddenly attacked by the head of Stuart's 
column. The Eighteenth was at first driven 
through the town, but rallying with the Fifth 
New York, drove the enemy back, when his 
artillery opened fire. The roar of guns 
brought Kilpatrick to the rescae. He formed 
his line of battle on the hills south of Han- 
over, and the enemy held the heights to the 
north, the Eighteenth Pennsylvania occupy- 
ing the town and barricading the streets. 
The fight, with artillery firing and skirmish- 
ing, continued until dark, when the enemy 
retired. A large body of them came as far 
as Dover, and about 230 prisoners were 
paroled there. Thirteen Union men were 
killed and foiu'teen wounded, four rebels 
killed and nine wounded, Stuart was pre- 
vented by this engagement from joining Lee 
until after the battle of Gettysburg, and his 
absence was greatly deplored by the Confed- 
erate leader. 

Among the most renowned and efifective 
branches of the service were the cavalry reg- 
iments. The Eleventh Cavalry (One Hun- 
dred and Eighth PennsylvaniaVolunteers) was 
organized at the commencement of the war. 
It received recruits here who were attached 
to Company I, Capt. AYilliam I. Keisinger 
and Daniel H. Shriver, lieutenant. This reg- 
iment was employed in continuous and ardu- 
ous cavalry service for four years, with the 
Army of the Potomac and with Sheridan. In 
one of its raids Lieut. Shriver was killed, at 
Flat Creek Bridge, on Febraary 14, 1864 

During the months of June and July, 1863, 
the Twenty-first Cavalry, (One Hundred and 
Eighty-second PennsylvaniaVolunteers) was 
recruited, under a call for cavalry for six 
months' service, during which it was on 
scouting duty in the Shenandoah Valley. 
Company A, Capt. Hugh W. McCall, Lieuts. 
S. Nelson Kilgore and Samuel N. Manifold, 
was raised principally in the lower end of 
York County. In January, 1864, it was re- 
organized for three years' service. This reg- 
iment was engaged at Cold Harbor, on the 
1st, 2nd and 3d of June, and in the as- 
sault on Petersburg, on the 18th. Again, at ' 
Jerusalem Plank Road, Weldon Railroad, at 
Poplar Spring Chiych, where it was compli- \ 
mented for its gallantry by Gen. Griffin, and 
at Hatcher's Run. Afterward it was in other '• 
engagements, and, in the final assault upon 
the defences of Petersbui'g, had the honor of 1 
making the first charge in the campaign, 

near Dinwiddle Com-t House, and had other 
fighting up to the surrender near Appomat- 
tox Court House. It was mustered out on 
July 8, 1865. 

Just previous to the invasion of Pennsyl- 
vania, in June, 1863, a company was formed 
in York, which was united with a body of 
troops, known as the First Battalion, and 
placed on guard and provost duty. In March, 
1864. it became Company B, of the One 
Hundred and Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, then organized for three years' 
service: David Z. Seipe, captain, afterward 
major; Samuel I. Adams, first-lieutenant, af- 
terward captain; Matthew H. McCall, first- 
lieutenant and quartermaster of the regiment; 
Jonathan J. Jessop, "William W. Torbert, 
Samuel C. Ilgenfritz, second lieutenants. In 
May, 1864, the regiment was ordered to the 
front to join the Army of the Potomac and 
assigned to the Fifth corps, arriving in time 
to participate in the battle of Cold Harbor. 
It suffered severely at Petersburg, on the 18th 
of June; Maj. Merrick, commanding the reg- 
iment, and Lieut. Jessop, each lost a leg, 
while leading their men to the charge. For 
its gallant conduct the regiment received the 
commendation of Gen. Chamberlain, com- 
manding the corps. It was again engaged at 
"Weldon Railroad, on the 18th of August. 
In September, it was moved from the front 
and placed on duty at Philadelphia, where 
it acted as escort to the remains of President 
Lincoln on the occasion of the funeral obse- 
quies in that city. 

Beside the company of Capt. Seipe, just 
mentioned, companies were formed in York 
County, who were mustered in for the emer- 
gency service, from June to August. 1863, 
but the great victory of Gettysburg, relieved 
our people from all apprehended danger. 

The Firsst and Eleventh Corps of the Army 
of the Potomac, on "Wednesday, July 1, 
1863, came up with the enemy, in large 
force, under Gens. Hill and Longstreet, near 
Gettysburg, and a short and severe engage- 
ment ensued in and around that town. Gen. 
Reynolds was killed at the commencement of 
the fight, while riding at the head of his 
troops. On Thursday another engagement 
began, — the rest of the army, under Gen. 
Meade, having come up, and the army of the 
Confederates, under Gen. Lee. The firing 
was heard here distinctly, a,nd in the evening, 
from six to eight o'clock, it was terrific. On 
Friday the battle continued, resulting in the 
defeat and retreat of Lee. This great battle 
fui-nished an opportunity to our ^Jeople to for- 
ward supplies and assistance to the wounded 
and sufifering soldiers, on and in the nei^h- 



borhood of the field of battle. It scarce 
needed a public meeting, which was called 
for the purpose, to cause our citizens to bring 
in abundance of provisions to the market and 
court houses. In less than two hours and a 
half thirty wagons, loaded down with the 
necessaries of life, bread, cakes, hams and 
delicacies, accompanied by male and female 
nurses, were on their way to the battle- 
field. Provisions continued to arrive and 
were at once forwarded to the scene of 
action. j 

In the early part of 1864 sanitary fairs I 
throughout the country were held, and the 
ladies of the Soldiers' Aid Society, of York, 
in February of that year, inaugurated a I 
series of entertainments in conueetioQ with 
their fair, consisting of concerts, tableaux | 
and other exhibitions, by which large | 
amounts of money were raised for the sani- 
tary fund. Quiet reigued at home, and our 
people were free from all apprehension of 
danger, until they were suddenly disturbed 
by another advance of the enemy across the 

After terrible battles and frightful slaugh- 
ter, Gen. Grant, about July 1, 1864, sat 
down before Petersburg to commence the 
siege of the enemy's works, and the slow, but 
sure advance to Richmond. But while he 
was there with his great army, the country 
was startled by another invasion of Maryland, 
by Ewell's Army, and siege laid to Washing- 
ton, the enemy's cannon shaking the very 
Capitol. After the battle of Monocacy. the 
Confederate cavalry overran all eastern Mary- 
land. Harry Gilmore made his famous raid, 
destroying the railroads, and particularly 
cutting otf communication between Phila- 
delphia and Baltimore. A memorable inci- 
dent of this raid was the capture and escape 
of >Iaj. -Gen. Franklin. On the 11th day 
of July, when on the train from Baltimore to 
Philadelphia, he was taken prisoner, but 
while at Reisterstown, in charge of a guard, 
he made his escape. Feigning sleep, the i 
guards fell asleep really, when he quietly 
walked off. After hiding two days in the 
woods, he met a farmer who befriended him, 
and with whom he took refuge until it was 
time to make his way further. 

There was witnessed, in the month of July, 
1864, again, the distressing sight of refugees 
fleeing through our streets in charge of I 
horses and cattle. The proximity of the 
enemy occasioned great alarm. There was a 
call by the governor for 24,000 men to serve 
for one hundred days. Five companies were 
formed in York for home protection, and pub- 
lic meetings were called to provide bounties 

for volunteers. The stores were closed, and 
business generally suspended. 

On the 30th day of July the awful news 
was received of the burning of the town of 
Chambersburg. Three hundred and fifty 
houses were burned and all the public build- 
ings. A public meeting for the relief of the 
sufferers was called, and several thousand 
dollars were raised for that purpose in York. 
The enemy retiring relieved us from further 

Of the hundred days men, the One Hun- 
dred and Ninety- fourth Regiment had men 
from York County. It was put on duty in 
and near Baltimore, on the lines of the rail- 
roads, on provost duty, and as guard to 

Early in 1864 a draft was ordered for 
500,000 men, unless forthcoming by volun- 
teers, and for some districts a draft was made 
on the 6th of June. On the 18th of July 
there was a call for 500,000 volunteers. This 
call, after the already exhausting drafts, 
roused a class of citizens, who determined to 
volunteer themselves, and fill the quotas, 
organized companies, and became attached 
to regiments, which, although put into ser- 
vice late in the war, acquired the distinction 
of veterans. 

The Two Hundredth Regiment was com- 
manded by Col. Charles W. Diven. formerly 
major of the Twelfth Reserves. It was or- 
ganized on September 3, 1864. The com- 
panies, formed in York, attached to this 
regiment, were. Company A, Adam Reisinger, 
John Wimer, captains; William F. Reisinger, 
Edward Smith, Jere Oliver, lieutenants. 
Company D, William H. Duhling. captain; 
Martin L. Duhling and William H. Drayer, 
lieutenants. Company H, Jacob Wiest, cap- 
tain; James M'Comas and William H. Smyser, 
lieutenants. Company K, Hamilton A. Gless- 
uer, captain; George I. Spangler. Augustus 
C. Steig and Zachariah S. Shaw, lieutenants. 

At the time of the formation of the com- 
panies just mentioned, a company was raised 
in York by Capt. Lewis Small; lieutenants, 
Richard C. Ivory and William L. Keagle. 
This company was attached, at Harrisburg, 
to the Two Hundred and Seventh Regiment 
as Company E. 

Two other companies from York County 
were also then formed, one by Capt. Henry 
W. Spangler; lieutenants Thomas J. Hend- 
ricks, William Douglas, and William B. 
Morrow; the other by Capt. John Klugh; 
lieutenants, George W. Heighes and Henry 
L. Arnold, and were attached to the Two 
Hundred and Ninth Regiment as Companies 
B. and I. 


These three regiments, organized about the 
same time, were immediately ordered to the 
front, and placed in the Army of the James, 
and were employed in active duty until the 
24th of November, when they were trans- 
ferred to the Army of the Potomac, and 
placed iu the division of Gen. Hartranft, 
Ninth corps. They performed fatigue duty 
and were thoroughly drilled during the win- 
ter, and were engaged in several raids at 
Bermuda Hundred, Jerusalem Plank Road 
and Hatcher's Run, and at the opening of the 
spring campaign they were engaged in one of 
the most brilliant achievements of the war. 
Fort Steadman was, by a surprise, captured 
by the enemy. Hartranft had six Pennsyl- 
vania regiments, including these three, and 
determined to lead his command at once to 
the assault — Col, Diven, commanding the 
First Brigade. About daylight, on Saturday 
morning, the 25th of March, after three sev- 
eral assaults, under verj' heavy tire, the fort 
was retaken. The Two Hundredth led the 
assault, supported by the Two Hundred 
and Ninth. The Two Hundredth received 
particular mention in Gen. Uartranft's re- 
port : ' • It was put to the severest test, and 
behaved with great lirmness and steadiness." 
And he congratulated all the men and ofhcers 
of his command ' ' for their gallant and heoric 
conduct." that they had " won a name and 
reputation of which veterans ought to feel 

April 2, the division was again formed for 
assault in front of Fort Sedgewiek, in the 
capture of which the men and officers behaved 
with great gallantry and coolness. Sergt. 
Michael Harman, of Company E, Two Hun- 
dred and Seventh, was killed in this assault. 
The color sergeant of the regiment, George 
J. Horning, fell pierced with seven balls, 
when Sergt. Charles J. Ilgenfritz sprang for- 
ward and raised the colors, and the men 
rushed over the works and the colors were 
planted on the fort. The regiments advanced 
to the city of Petersburg, which was by this 
time abandoned, and continued in pursuit of 
the enemy until the surrender of Lee, and in 
May they were mustered out. 

A company was raised in York by Capt. 
Emanuel Herman, in the early part of 1865, 
Emanuel Rutter, first lieutenant, and Charles 
W. P. Collins, second lieutenant. This com- 
pany was attached, with seven other com- , 
panies, to the One Hundi-ed and Third Vet- 
eran Regiment, which had been reduced to 
eighty one men. It was on duty in North 
Carolina, until June 25, 1865, when it was 

mustered out at Newbern. 

Soldiers from York and York County, vol- 

unteered in other Pennsylvania regiments, 
besides those mentioned, and also in regi- 
ments of other States, and where, in some 
cases, they had become residents. Henry J, 
Test, who had been a member of the Worth 
Infantry, in the three months' service, vol- 
unteered in the Seventy-ninth Pennsylvania 
Volunteers (Col. Hambright's regiment, of 
Lancaster County), became a lieutenant in 
Company B, and was killed at the battle of 
Perryville, Ky., on October 8, 1862. The 
Seventh Iowa Regiment was commanded by 
Col. Jacob Lauman, afterward brigadier- 
general, who was with Gen. Grant in the 
West, at Belmont, Pittsburgh Landing and 
Fort Donelson, At this last named place, 
Capt. Jonathan S. Slaymaker, of the Second 
Iowa, fell while leading his company in the 
assault. Corp. David Hays, of the Thirteenth 
Indiana, a soldier of the Mexican war, dis- 
tinguished himself in a desperate hand to 
hand encounter with the rebels in Western 
Virginia. Many others might be mentioned 
whose names cannot be recalled. 

Thus from the ordinary life of the citi- 
zen, from the fa)'m, the workshop, the count- 
ing room and the office, our men left their 
business and homes, at the call of their 
country, and formed a j^art of that great 
body of volunteers, which constituted, with 
the regular army as a nucleus, the military 
power of the nation, and furnished their 
full share toward the preservation of the 
American Union. The army officers are 
chiefly graduates of the military academy. 
These in many instances, during the war, 
retaining their rank in the line, became 
general officers of volunteers. The West 
Point gi-aduates from York attained conspicu- 
ous positions in the service, William B. 
Franklin was major-general by brevet, and 
major-general of volunteers; Horatio Gates 
Gibson, major, Third Artillery, was colonel 
of Second Ohio Heavy Artillery and brevet 
brigadier-general of volunteers. On the 
staff, Edmund Shriver was Inspector- Gen- 
eral of the Army of the United States and 
brevet major general; Michael P, Small, 
colonel, commissary department, and brevet 
brigadier-general. Of those appointed from 
civil life were Maj. Granville O. Haller, 
Seventh Infantry: Capt. Walter S. Franklin, 
Twelfth Infantry, brevet major and on the 
staff with the rank of lieutenant colonel; 
Capt. Theodore U. Cochran, of the Thirteenth 
Infantiy; Capt. Charles Garrettson, of the 
Seventeenth Infantry; Lieut. George W, H. 
Stouch, Third Infantry, and Lieut. Jacob L. 
Stouch, Twelfth Infantry, 

The brilliant achievements of the navy 


reflected luster upon the national escutcheon, 
and to that branch of the service is due one 
half of the conquest of the Rebellion. Grad- 
uates of the naval academy, from this place, 
Commanders Clarke H. Wells, Samuel E. 
Franklin and "William Gibson, participated 
in the great naval engagements of the war, 
and experienced on the iron olads, in block- 
ade, bombardment, and battle, in Charleston 
Harbor and on the James and Mississippi 
and elsewhere, much perilous and arduous 
service; and volunteers from the borough 
and count}' of York, were to be found among 
the gallant crews and officers of Union ves- 

The city of Richmond was deserted on 
Sunday, April 2, 1865, by the confederate 
government and by the army that for a 
year had so fiercely defended it. The 
first Union troops who entered it found it 
abandoned and in flames. The fall of Rich- 
mond was celebrated in York, on the Sth of 
April, by a procession — business was sus- 
pended and at night there was an illumina- 
tion. On the Uth of April, Gen. Lee sur- 
rendered the confederate army of Northern 
Virginia to Gen. Grant, and on the ■26th of 
April Gen. Johnston surrendered the Con- 
federate States Army in North Carolina, t o 
Gen. Sherman. Peace was soon after pro- 
claimed, and " the cr uel war was over." 

But while these concluding events of the 
greatest of civil wars were enacting, the start- 
ling intelligence of the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln plunged the nation into the deep- 
est mourning. On the 21st of April, almost 
every resident of York repaired to the railroad, 
to pay the last sad tribute of respect to the mem- 
ory of the lamented chief magistrate. The mil- 
itary and citizens in procession were jjlaced in 
line, and the funeral, cortege, amid the toll- 
ing of bells and firing of minute guns, 
passed through lines of citizens who stood 
with uncovered heads. A floral tribute was 
laid upon his coffin by the ladies of York. 
It consisted of a beautiful wi-eath of rare 
flowers encircling the national shield. The 
field was made of blue violets, with myrtle 
representing the stars, the bars were made 
alternately of white and red verbena. Thus 
passed the last sad pageant of a most pain- 
ful but eventful period in the history of 
our nation. 



Privates— James Crimins, \Xm. Markley. 


Officers. — Captain — George Hay; First 
Lieutenant— John W. Schall; Second Lieu- 
tenant — Jacob Emmett, Jr. ; First Ser- 
geant — John Albright; Second Sergeant — 
Philip Peifler; Third Sergeant— Oliver P. 
Stair; Fourth Sergeant— -Emanuel Smith; 
First Corporal — Edward F. Smith; Second 
Corporal— Charles W. Stubbins; Third Cor- 
poral — "William C. Getz; Fourth Corporal — 
Albert A. "Welsh; Musicians — Samuel Simons, 
Zaehariah Zimmerman. 

Privates. — John Bush, Ferdinand Buck- 
ingham, George N. Barnitz, Adam Bein, 
Charles Busey, William Clapper, Daniel 
Cooks, John Dennes, John A. Epply, George 
W. Feistell, David Fox, Emanuel Foust, 
Ambrose Foust, Matthew Foose, George 
Greysley, Andrew J. Gotwald. Frederick 
j Ginter, Lewis Hoffman, Solomon R. Haugh, 
Joseph W. Houghes, Peter Hubert, Charles 
F. Hauck, Charles Harkins. Joseph Harman, 
Joseph A. Heidler, John Kise, Robert W. 
Keech, Daniel Landis. Augustus Laucks. 
Jacob Lehr, Franklin Morgan. John M'lll- 
vaine (M. D.), Peter K. Myers, Henry Marks, 
Jeremiah Oliver, David Reese, Samuel Ruth, 
William Ranson, George Rudisell. William 
A. Reisinger, Jacob Smith, Robert Smith. 
Daniel Spangler. Charles F. Stroman. 
William H. Smyser, Martin Selack. Charles 
A. Shetler, Jacob Smyser, Henry Smallbrook, 
Isaac C. Simmon, George C. Stroman. 
William Seyfert. Henry Seipe. John N. Tay- 
lor, William H. Tomes, Charles Wolf, Alex- 
ander C. Ward. John F. Williams. Harrison 
C. Weist, John Willy, Henry Young, Daniel 
Zellers, Joseph Zeudlick, Franklin Zerger. 

, sixteenth regiment, company a three 

months' service. 

Field and Staff Officers.— Colonel— Thom- 
as A. Ziegle; Lieutenant-Colonel — George J. 
Higgins; Major — Frank T. Bennett: Adju- 
tant — "William Brown; Quartermaster — A. 
H. Glatz; Surgeon — William W. M'Guigen: 
Assistant Surgeon — James K. Rogers. 

Companij Officers. — Captain — John 
Hays; First Lieutenant — Solomon Meyer.?; 
Second Lieutenant — John M. Deitch; 
First Sergeant — Jacob Stough ; Second Ser- 
geant — Elias Spangler; Third Sergeant — 
William F. Frank; First Corporal— Jacob 
I. Young; Second Corporal — W'illiam H. 
Albright; Third Corporal — Lewis Small; 
Fourth Corporal— Zaehariah Knaub; Musi- 
cians — George H. Brierman, Henry Zorger. 

Privates. — William Baum, John W. Baum, 
Charles M. Brannon, Frederick Banstean, 



Frederick Breidling, Henry Birnstock, Will- 
iam H. H. Graver, Murray I- Cross, Samuel 
S. Crull, William E. Crill, Leonard Doll, 
Edwin C. Duncan, David Everhart, Joseph 
H. Ensign, George S. Frey, John Frick, 
Charles J. Fox, Albert Ford, Samuel Funk, 
Charles E. Gardner, George W. Glessner, H. 
E. F. Grubb, Oscai- K. Harris, John Haslup, 
Henry Hemple, John Hoelle, Joseph Ilgen- 
fritz, David F. Ilgenfritz, Edward Kraber, 
John Klinedinst, Benjamin I. King, Gabriel 
Marks, Christian Miller, George Moore, 
William F. Moorehead, Peter Nickel, George 
Rabine, Frederick Eeinhart, William Eeis- 
inger, George H. Eopp, Charles F. Eopp, 
Alexander H. Rapert, Samuel Eudy, Harri- 
son Stair, George C. Stair. Samuel H. Spang- 
ler, George I. Spangler, William A. Spangler, 
Charles A. Straek, Charles H. Stahlman, 
William Swartz, David Sirp, John Smeltzer, 
John Shirey, John Strickler, Alex A. Strick- 
ler, Philip 'M. Shive, Lewis M. Smith, Ed- 
ward L. Schroeder, Heniy I. Test, Lewis 
Thomas, Dan'l L. Welsh, Franklin I Welsh, 
Christian Yenser. 


Officers. — Captain — Horatio Gates Myers; 
First Lieutenant — Joseph Eenaut; Second 
Lieutenant, JacobW. Bender; Sergeants — Al- 
fred McKinney, William Troup, George 
Kochler, Henry Houser; Corporals — Adam 
Klink, Abraham Becher, Henry Trone, An- 
drew Miller; Musicians — Silas Gengling, 
Lewis Eenaut. 

Privates. — William Allwood, Jerome Ad- 
ams, Thomas Brown, Henry P. Bittenger, 
William Bair, Israel Boblitz, Henry Carr, 
Henry F. Constine, Jeremiah Carbaugh, 
Lewis ClJne, George Colbeg, Jacob Doll, 
Martin Deihl. Henry A. Eckenrode. Charles 
Fiscus, John Gross. Franklin Gipe, James 
Grimes, William Guinlittle, Hamilton S 
Grim, Joseph Grim, Nicholas Hahm, Georg( 
Jones, William Klank, Daniel Keesey, An 
thony Klunk, William Low, John Low, Dan 
iel Lookabaugh, Adam McKinney, John Mc 
Elroy, William McFarland, Michael Mul 
grew, Jerome McWilliams, John Martin 
Jacob D. Neiderer, Pius Neiderer, Alexander 
Parr, Eolandas Eoland, Adam Eobling, 
Adam Eeiling, William Rhinedollar, Edward 
Slagle, William Staman, John Soule, Eeuben 
Stonesifer, Calvin Simpson, Peter Schuck, 
James Stewart, Daniel Weaver, William 
White, George Warner, John Wheeler, Jack- 
son Wintrode, Daniel Witmyer. 


Officers. — Captain — Cyrus Diller; First 

Lieutenant — Henry Morningstar; Second 
Lieutenant — Joseph S. Jenkins; First Ser- 
geant — Michael Harmon; Second Sergeant 
— Isaac Wagner; Third Sergeant — John 
Shanesy; Foui'th Sergeant — Joel Henry; 
First Corporal — Adam Morningstar: Second 
Corporal — William Shuman; Third Corpo- 
ral — George E. Yingliug; Fourth Corporal — 
Joseph A. Slagle; Musicians — Simon J. Dil- 
ler, Thomas L. Wirt. 

Privates. — Theodore^ Bair, William A. 
Beard, Walter F. Beard, Peter Butt. Martin 
Buehler, William Bupp, Frederick M. Boyer, 
William Collins, Michael Chrum, John Di- 
vine, Samuel Dillen, John A. Eline, John S. 
Forest, Henry Fleming, Leo Gleason. Sebas- 
tian Grimm, Henry Hubley, Michael Her- 
man, John Kouck, John H. Krook. Daniel 
Kneidler, Levi King, Adam King, George 
Livingston, Jacob Low, George Luttenberger, 
George Long, Charles Mowery, Charles My- 
ers, Joseph M'Kinsey, Matthias Manu, Henry 
C. Metzor, William Newman. John Petry, 
Eufus Parr, Peter Eeaver, George Eitzel, 
John Eunk, John Spence, David ShuU, Will- 
iam Sickel, George Sickel, Henry Stine. An- 
drew G. Shull, Daniel F. Stair, Jacob H. 
Shriver, Franklin Steininger, Henry Schrall, 
John Simpson, Thomas Sayers, Franklin 
Sharp, Edward H. Snyder, Conrad Snyder, 
Gustavus Trone, Abraham Test, George W. 
Walker, Michael Wise, Samuel Witter, John 
Wagner, Andrew Wolf, George W. Welsh, 
Christian Wagner. 


Officers. — Captain — Theodore D. Cochran; 
First Lieutenant — Michael Gallagher, Jr. ; 
Second Lieutenant — Andrew D. Yocum, 
First Sergeant— John A. Ettinger; Second 
Sergeant, Jacob Sheets; Third Sergeant — 
William E. Patterson; Fourth Sergeant — 
Charles D. Henry; First Corporal — Henry 
Buckingham; Second Corporal — Jacob Buck- 
murster; Third Corporal — Andrew J. Fulton; 
Fourth Corporal — John W. Carey; Musicians 
— Isaac Eudisil, Andrew Z. Frey. 

Privates — Samuel B. Bair, James F. Bar- 
nitz, John Barnmiller, Jesse Beck. John 
Beers, Oram G. Blake, Thomas Z. Bevise, 
Matthias Bloom, Jacob Cooks, Emanuel C. 
Coleman, George Deitz, Johannas Deckling, 
Samuel Evans, John Engles, William Giroy, 
John Hagan (first). John Hagan (second), 
Henry Heubner, Jerome Heidler. Jacob 
Hauck, Paul Herman, William Ilgenfritz, 
Jonathan Kersey, John H. Keesey, Daniel G. 
Keesey, Oliver Keesey, John Kendig, Fred- 
erick Klinefelter, Frantz Kettles, Frank Ket- 
tling, George Knodle, Harrison Keesey, 


Benjamin Leber, Henry Leibenighfc, Jacob 
Marver. Henry C. Miller, John Miller. Abra- 
ham Myers, Sigmond Myers, Joseph Motter, 
James C. M'Gnire, William H. M'Cauly, 
John Michael, Thomas J. Montgomery, Sam- 
uel F. Neoin, Edward Ness, Edward Owens, 
William Owens, Morris Parvell, John Rapp, 
Henry H. Riley, Martin Richard, Eli Ream, 
Jeremiah T. Reary, John Stough, Charles 
Snyder, Samuel Saylor, Franklin Stallman, 
John Schellenberger, William Schriver, 
Nathaniel Thompson, Henry Weidner, Pat- 
rick Whaling, Peter K. Yost. 


SEEVE corps), company D — THREE 

years' SERVICE. 

Officers. — Capt. George H. Hess, Capt. 
Wm. G. Wasson. First Lt. Calvin Kendig, 
1st, Lt. Wm. H. Trapnel; 2d Lt. David War- 
fel, 2nd Lt. Amos W. Sourbeer. First Sgt. 
Samuel Pickel, Sgt. Charles K. Wasson, 
Sgt. Abraham J. Taylor, Sgt. Geo. M. D. 
Lemmon, Sgt. Elias Funk, Sgt. John R. 
Courtney. Corp. Lindley M'Clune, Corp. 
Franklin Sourbeer, Corp. Jacob Shaub, 
Corp. John Gilbert, Corp. William Bruce, 
Corp. Jacob Finney, Corp. John F. Dablor, 
Corp. Henry Pickel, Cori^, William Lafferty. 
William Klineyoung. musician, Jacob Diffen- 
derfer, musician. 

Privates. — William Allison. James Boyle, 
Miller Brady, John Beichall, John Bechtold, 
AVilliam J. Bowers, William Brown, Abra- 
ham Brubecker, Barzilles Briggles, James 
Barbew, Amos Bushorn, Mark Beatty, Jacob 
Byers, E. M. Clark, James Cresswell, Samuel 
Campbell, Frederick Davis, Joseph Deitrick, 
Charles Dern; Joseph Flick, Aaron Fralick, 
John Ferguson, Charles R. Grosh, T. L. 
Graham, Samuel P. Grofl', Samuel Gordon, 
Gottlieb Garner, Valentine Hoffman, Hiram 
Hughes, John Hill, Amos Hoak, John B. 
Heble, Amos Harmer, David Heiney, Sam- 
uel Herr, Aldus Hawthorne, Jacob Hiller, 
Chas. Homberger, George Heiny, David 
Hamilton, Amos Haverstick, Jacob Harnish, 
Christian Henninger, Israel Jacobs, Amos 
Johnson, Jacob Johnson, John W. Kise, 
Francis Kelborne, Joseph Knight, Lemon 
Kline. Charles B. King, Daniel Kaaffman, 
Jesse M. Kughn, Uriah H. Love. George Lan- 
ning, George Miller, Isaac Mussev, John 
Maynard, John M'Farland, Samuel M'Far- 
land, William M'Coy, Peter M'Bride, Mich- 
ael M'Cabe, William Norris, Samuel Ohrnite, 
William Peek, Freeman Powers. John 
Rhoads, John Reed, Samuel Robinson, 
John Sourbeer, Henry Shoff, Franklin 
Smith, Robert Scott, Charles D. Trippie, 

William Tweed, John W. Urban, Benjamin 
F. Urban, Frederick Vierling, Samuel White, 
Robert Wertz, William Wright, William J. 
Webb, Hiram Will, Zachariah Wilhelm, 
Urie Wilson, William Williamson. 


Offi.cers. — Captain — Charles W. Diven. 
First Lieutenants — William W. Arnold, 
George Huber, James K. Miller. Second 
Lieutenant — Nathan Carman; First Ser- 
geant — Geo. W. Ebaugh; Sergeants — Hen- 
ry Gise, John Conway, Isaac D. Ciilmerry 
George C. Bush, James L. M'Clure; Cor- 
porals — Jeremiah Waltmeyer, Henry Balsi, 
George Writer, Ambrose Ensminger, Jacob 
Shannon, JohnD. Campbell, Charles Halmer, 
Augustus L. Hursh, Hiram Kendig, Eli Har- 
nish, Daniel D. Bailey, Christian S. Wag- 
ner. Musician— Jacob Eppley, John Embeck, 
Daniel Repman. 

Privates. — George Albert, Levi Akin 
Paris W. Albert, Washington Alexander,, 
William Bettinger, Michael Berger, John 
Bishop, Frederick Bongey, Samuel Bren- 
eman, Hugo L. Bush, George B. Brown. 
Solomon BarHn, Wintield S. DuflSeld, John 
A. Duffield, Amos Day, Wilson Everal, Will- 
iam Eaton. William R. Eaton, David Ehrman, 
Wilson C. Fox, John B. Fry, Arthur E. Ful- 
ton, Jas. Felteuberger, William B. Fox, John 
Grantz, William Gibbs, Arnum Gegler, Lewis 
Grove, Henry Gable, Moses Gardner, Henry 
Gegler, Nicholas B. Heim, Solomon C. Hamp- 
son, George Hardy, Michael Haley, Cornelius 
Hoover, Henry Harman, Jacob Hanalius, 
James Isenberg, Frederick Ingles, Andrew 
Kinter, Jacob Kaylor, George Kenny, George 
W. Lowe, Christian C. Leib, Washington 
Laird, Ira E. Lowe, Tolbert Lowe, John A. 
Marks, Archibald M'Monagle, Edward Mack-